Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) – Observation, Modelling and Assessment in the Arctic-Boreal Domain

This session is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX;, a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building programme. It is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. This session aims to bring together researchers interested in (i) understanding environmental changes effecting in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments (system understanding); (ii) determining relevant environmental, climatic, and other processes in Arctic-boreal regions (process understanding); (iii) the further development of the long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based, air/seaborne research infrastructures together with satellite data (observation component); (iv) to develop new datasets and archives of the continuous, comprehensive data flows in a joint manner (data component); (v) to implement validated and harmonized data products in models of appropriate spatio-temporal scales and topical focus (modeling component); (vi) to evaluate impact on society though assessment, scenarios, services, innovations and new technologies (society component).
List of topics:
• Ground-based and satellite observations and datasets for atmospheric composition in Northern Eurasia and China
• Impacts on environment, ecosystems, human health due to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition and chemical transformations of air pollutants in Arctic-boreal regions
• New approaches and methods on measurements and modelling in Arctic conditions;
• Improvements in natural and anthropogenic emission inventories for Arctic-boreal regions
• Physical, chemical and biological processes in a northern context
• Aerosol formation-growth, aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, radiative forcing, feedbacks in Arctic, Siberia, China;
• Short lived pollutants and climate forcers, permafrost, forest fires effects
• Carbon dioxide and methane, ecosystem carbon cycle
• Socio-economical changes in Northern Eurasia and China regions.
PEEX session is co-organized with the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR), abstracts welcome on topics:
• Big Earth Data approaches on facilitating synergy between DBAR activities & PEEX multi-disciplinary regime
• Understanding and remote connection of last decades changes of environment over High Asia and Arctic regions, both land and ocean.

Public information:
This session is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX;, a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. The PEEX - EGU - 2021 session(s) are dedicated in honor of the memory of Prof. Sergej Zilitinkevich.
Co-organized by BG3/CL2/CR7/GI4
Convener: Markku Kulmala | Co-conveners: Alexander Baklanov, Hanna Lappalainen, Sergej Zilitinkevich (deceased) (deceased) (deceased)
vPICO presentations
| Thu, 29 Apr, 09:00–12:30 (CEST)
Public information:
This session is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX;, a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. The PEEX - EGU - 2021 session(s) are dedicated in honor of the memory of Prof. Sergej Zilitinkevich.

vPICO presentations: Thu, 29 Apr

PEEX Session Part I
Hanna Lappalainen, Tuukka Petaja, Timo Vihma, Jouni Raisanen, Aleksander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Ezau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Lepparanta, Dimitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala

Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Programme ( is an asset for PEEX to have high international visibility, to attract further research collaboration and to upscale its scientific impact in various arenas. The PEEX research focus is on the northern high latitudes environments and on the transport and transformation of air pollution in China (Kulmala et al. 2015, Lappalainen et al. 2014; 2015; 2016; 2018, Vihma et al. 2019, Alekseychik et al. 2019, Kasimov et al. 2018). In 2019 PEEX started comprehensive analysis on the first results over last five years attained from the PEEX geographical domain.  The aim of the analysis is to study the state-of-the-art research outcome versus the PEEX large-scale research questions addressed by the Science Plan (Lappalainen et al. 2015). Lappalainen et al. 2021 (submitted) introduces recent observations and results from the Russian Arctic, Northern Eurasian boreal forests (Siberia) and peatlands and on the mega cities in China. We frame our analysis against research themes introduced in the the PEEX Science Plan (2015). Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate-Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis. The fast-changing environment and ecosystem changes driven by climate change, socio-economic activities like the China Silk Road Initiative, and the global trends like urbanization further complicate such analyses. We recognize new topics with an increasing importance in the near future, such as enhancing biological sequestration capacity of greenhouse gases into forests and soils to mitigate the climate change and the socio-economic development to tackle air quality issues.



How to cite: Lappalainen, H., Petaja, T., Vihma, T., Raisanen, J., Baklanov, A., Chalov, S., Ezau, I., Ezhova, E., Lepparanta, M., Pozdnyakov, D., Pumpanen, J., Qiu, Y., Ding, A., Guo, H., Bondur, V., Kasimov, N., Zilitinkevich, S., Kerminen, V.-M., and Kulmala, M.: Overview: Recent advances on the understanding of the Northern Eurasian environments and of the urban air quality in China – Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program perspective, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10618,, 2021.

Eugene Mikhailov, Mira Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey Vlasenko, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga Ivanova, and Ulrich Pöschl

Pollen grains emitted from vegetation can release subpollen particles (SPP) that contribute to the fine fraction of atmospheric aerosols and may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN), or aeroallergens. Here, we investigate and characterize the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of birch, pine, and rapeseed SPP. A high humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HHTDMA) was used to measure particle restructuring and water uptake over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) from 2 % to 99.5 %, and a continuous flow CCN counter was used for size-resolved measurements of CCN activation at supersaturations (S) in the range of 0.2 % to 1.2 %. For both subsaturated and supersaturated conditions, effective hygroscopicity parameters к , were obtained by Köhler model calculations. Gravimetric and chemical analyses, electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering measurements were performed to characterize further properties of SPP from aqueous pollen extracts such as chemical composition (starch, proteins, DNA, and inorganic ions) and the hydrodynamic size distribution of water-insoluble material. All investigated SPP samples exhibited a sharp increase of water uptake and k above ~95 % RH, suggesting a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). The HHTDMA measurements at RH> 95% enable closure between the CCN activation at water vapor supersaturation and hygroscopic growth at subsaturated conditions, which is often not achieved when HTDMA measurements are performed at lower RH where the water uptake and effective hygroscopicity may be limited by the effects of LLPS. Such effects may be important not only for closure between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation but also for the chemical reactivity, allergenic potential, and related health effects of SPP.

This research has been supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 18-10 17-00076) and Max Planck Society.

How to cite: Mikhailov, E., Pöhlker, M., Reinmuth-Selzle, K., Vlasenko, S., Pöhlker, C., Ivanova, O., and Pöschl, U.: Water uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, CCN activation, and liquid-liquid phase separation, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7901,, 2021.

Olga Popovicheva, Vasilii Kobelev, Marina Chichaeva, Nikolai Kasimov, and Antony Hansen

Black carbon is a short - living climate forcer, it plays a significant role especially in the Arctic environment due to heating the atmosphere and changing the radiation balance while depositing on snow and ice. Analysis of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic atmosphere shows a contribution of anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels and natural wildfires to the Arctic atmosphere chemistry as well as of the main characteristics of Arctic aerosol pollution. Presently, assessments of the environment and climate change in the Siberian Arctic are strongly complicated by an existing lack of knowledge about emission sources, quantity, and composition of the aerosol pollution defining the impacts on an Arctic ecosystem.

Research aerosol station is firstly installed on island Bely located in Kara sea, Siberian Arctic. It takes place on the pathway of air mass from the Northern Siberia region of high anthropogenic and gas flaring activity to the Arctic. Presently, assessments of the environment and climate change in this region are strongly complicated by an existing lack of knowledge about emission sources, quantity and composition of the aerosol pollution defining the impacts on an Arctic ecosystem. Aethalometer and aerosol sampling system is continuously operated on the aerosol station in order to analyze black carbon and chemical characteristics including ionic and elemental composition. Annual BC trend obtained from august 2019 to September 2020 shows the typical Arctic aerosol tendency of a seasonal variability, disturbed by episodes of large-scale emission transportation.

Unprecedented high BC is observed in September 2020 at the research aerosol station on the island Bely. The BC concentrations early in September were exceeded 20 times the arctic background. They are found to be even higher than the highest arctic haze concentrations observed in December 2019.   Monthly averaged black carbon concentration in September 2020 exceeded 3 times that one in previous summer months. Such strong event is a result of large-scale air mass transportation from Eurasian continent in the period of strong wildfires in western Siberia, namely in Krasnoyarsk Kray and Yakutia, where around one million hectares of forest were burned out in August 2020. 

Basic researches of aerosol characteristics as a tracer of anthropogenic emissions are supported by Russian Fond for Basic Research, project №18-60084.


How to cite: Popovicheva, O., Kobelev, V., Chichaeva, M., Kasimov, N., and Hansen, A.: Сlimate-active aerosol components in the Siberian Arctic, by data from new-developed research aerosol station on island Bely , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6302,, 2021.

Mikhail Yu. Arshinov, Boris Belan, Denis Davydov, Artem Kozlov, and Alexandr Fofonov

The Arctic is warming much faster than other regions of the globe. In 2020, temperature anomalies in the Russian Arctic reached unprecedented high levels. The atmospheric composition in this key region still remains insufficiently studied that makes difficult predicting future climate change.

In September 2020, an extensive aircraft campaign was conducted to document the tropospheric composition over the Russian Arctic. The Optik Tu-134 research aircraft was equipped with instruments to carry out in-situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, as well as with a lidar for profiling of aerosol backscatter. The aircraft flew over a vast area from Arkhangelsk to Anadyr. Six measurement flights with changing altitudes from 0.2 to 9.0 m were conducted over the waters of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. The weather was unusually warm for this period of the year, surface air temperatures were above 0°C through the campaign.

Here, we present the results of in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentrations in a wide range of sizes. A modified diffusional particle sizer (DPS) consisted of the Novosibirsk-type eight-stage screen diffusion battery connected to the TSI condensation particle counter Model 3756 was used to determine the number size distribution of particles between 0.003 mm and 0.2 mm (20 size bins). Distribution of particles in the size range from 0.25 µm to 32 µm (31 size bins) was measured by means of the Grimm aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109.

The flights over Barents and Kara Seas were predominantly performed under clear sky or partly cloudy weather conditions. Number size distributions were wide representing particles of almost all aerosol fractions. When flying in the upper troposphere with a constant altitude over these seas, some cases of enhanced concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles comparable to ones in the lower troposphere were recorded, suggesting in situ new particle formation was likely to be taking place via gas-to-particle conversion aloft.

East of the Kara Sea, flights were conducted under mostly cloudy conditions resulting in a lower median aerosol number concentration and narrower size distributions.

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-05-50024).

How to cite: Arshinov, M. Yu., Belan, B., Davydov, D., Kozlov, A., and Fofonov, A.: Vertical distribution of aerosol particles over the Russian Arctic derived from in-situ aircraft measurements: the September 2020 campaign, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6909,, 2021.

Boris D. Belan, Pavel Antokhin, Olga Antokhina, Victoriya Arshinova, Mikhail Arshinov, Sergey Belan, Denis Davydov, Georgii Ivlev, Artem Kozlov, Alexandr Kozlov, Olesya Okhlopkova, Tatyana Rasskazchikova, Denis Savkin, Alexandr Safatov, Denis Simonenkov, Gennadii Tolmachev, and Alexandr Fofonov

In 2020, a unique experiment, which had ever been implemented either in the former USSR or in modern-day Russia, was carried out in the Russian Arctic by means of the Optik Tu-134 aircraft laboratory operated by IAO SB RAS. The airborne measurement campaign was conducted on September 4-17 over all seas and coastal regions of the Russian sector of the Arctic, including northern part of the Bering Sea.

During the flights, in situ measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and black carbon (BC) were performed. Air samples were taken to determine organic and inorganic compounds and biological material in aerosol particles. A remote sensing of the water turbidity in the upper sea layers was conducted by means of the LOZA-2 lidar that allowed a concentration of plankton to be derived there. Spectral characteristics of the water and underlying coastal surfaces were measured using a spectroradiometer.

The primary analysis of the obtained data showed that concentrations of CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and BC during the experiment were low that is typical for background regions. CO2 mixing ratios in the lowest part of the troposphere above seas were lower than aloft. As compared with coastal areas, concentration of methane over all the seas of the Arctic sector and the Bering Sea was higher.

We would like to acknowledge our colleagues from the following organizations for their assistance in organizing and conducting this campaign, and in particular, Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l'environnement and Laboratoire atmosphères, milieux, observations spatiales (France); Finnish Meteorological Institute and Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, University of Helsinki (Finland); Center for Global Environmental Research at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce (USA); Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry (Germany); and University of Reading (UK).

How to cite: Belan, B. D., Antokhin, P., Antokhina, O., Arshinova, V., Arshinov, M., Belan, S., Davydov, D., Ivlev, G., Kozlov, A., Kozlov, A., Okhlopkova, O., Rasskazchikova, T., Savkin, D., Safatov, A., Simonenkov, D., Tolmachev, G., and Fofonov, A.: Vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols over the Russian Arctic in September 2020, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6892,, 2021.

Tomi Karppinen, Anu-Maija Sundström, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, and Johanna Tamminen

Climate change is proceeding fastest in the Arctic region. While human-induced emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases are the main driving factor of global warming, short-lived climate forcers or pollutants emitted from the forest fires are also playing an important role, especially in the Arctic. Forest fire emissions also affect local air quality and photochemical processes in the atmosphere. For example, CO contributes to the formation of tropospheric ozone and affects the abundance of greenhouse gases such as methane and CO2.

During past years Arctic summers have been warmer and drier elevating the risk for extensive forest fire episodes. Satellite observations show, that during the past three summers (2018-2020) fire detections in Arctic, especially in Arctic Siberia have increased considerably, affecting also local emissions of CO. This work focuses on studying CO concentration and its variation at high latitudes and in the Arctic using satellite and ground-based observations. Satellite observations of CO from TROPOMI are analyzed for the 2018-2020 (NH) summer months. To assess the satellite retrieved columns the satellite measurements are compared to ground-based remote sensing measurements at Sodankylä. Also, ground-based in-situ measurements are used to see how the total column changes mirror the ground level concentrations. The fire characteristics are analyzed using observations from MODIS instruments onboard Aqua and Terra. Fire effects on seasonal cycle and interannual variability of CO concentrations at Arctic high latitudes are analyzed.

How to cite: Karppinen, T., Sundström, A.-M., Lindqvist, H., and Tamminen, J.: Satellite-based analysis of CO and Fires in the Arctic, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16490,, 2021.

Larisa Sogacheva, Anu-Maija Sundström, Timo H. Virtanen, Antti Arola, Tuukka Petäjä, Hanna K. Lappalainen, and Markku Kulmala

The Pan-Eurasian Experiment Program (PEEX) is an interdisciplinary scientific program bringing together ground-based in situ and remote sensing observations, satellite measurements and modeling tools aiming to improve the understanding of land-water-atmosphere interactions, feedback mechanisms and their effects on the ecosystem, climate and society in northern Eurasia, Russia and China. In a view of the large area covering thousands of kilometres, large gaps will remain where no or little ground-based observational information will be available. The gap can partly be filled by satellite remote sensing of relevant parameters as regards atmospheric composition.

Biomass burning is a violent source of atmospheric pollutants. Fires and corresponding emissions to the atmosphere dramatically change the atmospheric composition in case of long-lasting fire events, which might cover extended areas. In the burned areas, CO2 exchange, as well as emissions of different compounds are getting to higher levels, which might contribute to climate change by changing the radiative budget through the aerosol-cloud interaction and cloud formation. In the boreal forest, after CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors for individual species were formaldehyde, followed by methanol and NO2 (Simpson et al., ACP, 2011). The emitted long-life components, e.g., black carbon, might further be transported to the distant areas and measured at the surface far from the burned areas.

In the boreal forest region, fires are very common, very large and produce a lot of smoke. Boreal areas  have been burning regularly for thousands of years and is adapted to fires, which happen most often between May and October. In boreal ecosystems, future increases in air temperature may lengthen the fire season and increase the probability of fires, leading some to hypothesize a positive feedback between warming, fire activity, carbon loss, and future climate change (Kasischke et al., 2000). 

 During the last few decades, several burning episodes have been observed over PEEX area by satellites (as fire counts), specifically over Siberia and central Russia. The following information available from satellites will be utilized to reveal a connection between Fire activity and atmospheric composition for the period 2002-2020 over the PEEX area:

  • - Fire count, FRP and burned areas from MODIS
  • - Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), multi-instrument (GOME-2, OMI, TOMS) product
  • - CO from MOPPIT
  • - HCHO and NO2 from OMI

Monthly temperature and humidity fields from ERA5 re-analysis will be also utilized to reveal if a connection exist between climate variables and occurrence and intensity of the forest fires.

Kasischke, B. J. Stocks: Fire, Climate Change, and Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest. M. M. Cadwellet al.,Eds., Ecological Studies (Springer, New York, 2000)

Simpson, I. J., Akagi, S. K., Barletta, B., Blake, N. J., Choi, Y., Diskin, G. S., Fried, A., Fuelberg, H. E., Meinardi, S., Rowland, F. S., Vay, S. A., Weinheimer, A. J., Wennberg, P. O., Wiebring, P., Wisthaler, A., Yang, M., Yokelson, R. J., and Blake, D. R.: Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6445–6463,, 2011.


How to cite: Sogacheva, L., Sundström, A.-M., Virtanen, T. H., Arola, A., Petäjä, T., Lappalainen, H. K., and Kulmala, M.: Fire activity and its influence on Aerosol Optical Depth and Green-House Gases over PEEX area for the last two decades, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13124,, 2021.

Yury Timofeyev, Georgy Nerobelov, Anatolii Poberovskii, and Nikolai Filippov

Ground-based spectroscopic international measurement systems TCCON and NDACC are important for regular obtaining the data on atmospheric gas composition. A great part of such data is derived as the total content of the gases and as an averaged mixing ratio for the dry atmosphere as, for example, XCO2. On the other hand, the measurements of solar IR radiation spectra with high spectral resolution carry within them some amount of information on the vertical structure of the content of some gases. The method of estimation of CO2 content in the troposphere and stratosphere was described in a study [Timofeyev Yu.M., Nerobelov G.M., Poberovskii A.V., Filippov N.N. Evaluation of CO2 content in troposphere and stratosphere by ground-based IR method.  “Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics”. 2021, Nо.2]. In our work we present the analysis of the inaccuracies of the suggested approach using different spectral windows. Also, we demonstrate the comparison between CO2 tropospheric and stratospheric content obtained by the suggested approach using ground-based measurements of IR spectra with high resolution in Peterhof (2009-2019), by Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and by satellite measurements of XCO2 in the troposphere and stratosphere using ACE instrument.

How to cite: Timofeyev, Y., Nerobelov, G., Poberovskii, A., and Filippov, N.: Estimation of the tropospheric and stratospheric CO2 content by ground-based IR technique, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1477,, 2021.

Abiotic drivers of CO2 fluxes in the transition from the winter-to-spring in coniferous forest and bog in central Siberia
Sung-Bin Park
Alexey Panov, Anatoly Prokushkin, Jošt Lavrič, Karl Kübler, Mikhail Korets, Anastasiya Urban, Nikita Sidenko, Galina Zrazhevskaya, Mikhail Bondar, and Martin Heimann

Measurements of the atmospheric sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the pan-Arctic domain are extremely sparse that limits our knowledge of carbon cycling over this dramatically sensitive environment and making predictions about a fate of carbon conserved in currently frozen ground. Especially critical are the gaps in the arctic latitudes of Siberia, covered by the vast permafrost underlain tundra, where only few continuous atmospheric observation stations are currently operational.

We present the first two years of accurate continuous observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 dry mole fractions at the new atmospheric carbon observation station located near the Dikson settlement (73.33° N, 80.34° E) on the seashore of the western part of the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia. Data quality control of trace gas measurements is achieved by regular calibrations against WMO-traceable reference gases from pressurized dry air tanks filled at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (Jena, Germany). Associated meteorological variables permit evaluation of the climate variability of the local environment and provide a background for screening and interpreting the greenhouse gases (GHG) data records. Here we summarize the scientific rationale of the new site, give technical details of the instrumental setup, analyse the local environments and present CO2 and CH4 fluctuations in the arctic atmosphere. Along with the temporal variability of GHG’s, we provide an overview of the angular distribution of detected GHG signals in the region and their input to the atmospheric fluctuations on the measurement site. Observation records deal with the daytime mixed layer and may be considered as representative throughout the vast area (~500–1000 km), and cover the period from September 2018 to September 2020.

The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Krasnoyarsk Territory and Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Science, project number 20-45-242908, RFBR project 18-05-60203 and by the Max Planck Society (Germany)

How to cite: Panov, A., Prokushkin, A., Lavrič, J., Kübler, K., Korets, M., Urban, A., Sidenko, N., Zrazhevskaya, G., Bondar, M., and Heimann, M.: Accurate continuous observations of carbon dioxide and methane dry mole fractions in the arctic atmosphere near the Dikson settlement, Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9773,, 2021.

Mykhailo Savenets and Larysa Pysarenko

Wildfires remain among the most challenging problems in Ukraine. Each year numerous cases of open burning contribute to huge carbon emissions and turn into forest fires. Using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4), there were studied an average burned fraction in Ukraine, which equals of about 0.2-0.3. 90% of wildfires appeared on agricultural lands. The total contribution to carbon emissions is 0.2-1.0 g·m2·month-1 with the increasing trend of about 1-2 g·m2·month-1 per decade. There are three periods with the highest carbon emissions: April, July-August and September-October. While a summer maximum is corresponding to unfavorable temperature and moisture regimes, the main reason of wildfires in spring and autumn is the agricultural open burning. Based on the Sentinel-5P data, it was found that wildfires significantly change the seasonality of carbon monoxide (CO) variations. If maximal CO content is mainly observed in winter at the end of the heating season, in Ukraine the highest CO values continue to exist in April until the open burning stops and the resulting forest fires are extinguished. Wildfires caused the CO content increase to 4.0–5.0 mol·m-2 which is comparable to the most polluted Ukrainian industrial cities. As a result, air quality deterioration observed at the distances more than 200 km from the burned areas. Using the Enviro-HIRLAM simulations, there were estimated black carbon (BC) distribution, which showed elevated content within the lowest 3-km layer. BC content reaches 600 ppbm near the active fires, 150 ppbm at the distance up to 100 km and 30 ppbm at the distance of about 200-500 km.

How to cite: Savenets, M. and Pysarenko, L.: The impact of wildfires in Ukraine on carbon flux and air quality changes by carbon-containing compounds, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-329,, 2020.

Igor Esau and the SERUS team

Across the Arctic, human settlements are challenged by rapid climate change and a broad range of environmental transformations. Some of them, such as Barrow (Utqiagvik, Alaska), must relocate; others, such as Norilsk (Russia), must restructure and rebuild. This presentation reports on local climate anomalies in 118 circum-Arctic cities and towns. For several key towns, a nexus review of the environmental consequences of the local warm anomalies is detailed. Longyearbyen (Svalbard), Apatity and Nadym (Russia) are in focus. For instance, Longyearbyen – the European “gate” to the Arctic – experiences one of the stongest climate change. The surface air temperature here has increased by almost 10oC over the last 100 years with more than 100 consecutive months being warmer than normal. Snowfall increases threatening with hazardous slab snow avalanches. The last extreme heat wave (July, 2020) showed temperatures up to +21oC and massive flooding in the coal mine.  This study synthesizes observational evidence of the climate change in the town from a local perspective. We relate meteorological conditions with sustainability issues. The study looks at local climate diversity and its role for society and economy of the settlement.

How to cite: Esau, I. and the SERUS team: A local climate perspective from Arctic towns, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-681,, 2021.

Nikolay Kasimov, Olga Popovicheva, Dmitry Vlasov, Marina Chichaeva, and Anastasia Larionova

Reduction of urban emissions following the response to COVID-19 pandemic has provided the unique possibility for assessment of the aerosol pollution in the metropolitan area with the highest population density in Russia. According to observation data obtained from the aerosol research station of Meteorological Observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University, the strict control measures and social lockdowns initiated in spring 2020 in Moscow megacity have had a notable decreasing of PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and PM10-bound potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentrations. The average concentration of PM2.5 and BC has decreased by 42% and 75%, respectively, in comparison to the following period of economical restoration in summer 2020. A city traffic decrease led to a gentle dynamics of a BC diurnal trend due to a reduced energy load in the morning hours. Changes in the enterprises operating regime affected the redistribution of emissions intensities from working days to weekends. During the period of recovery of economic activity in the summer of 2020, the emission intensity has increased and the direction of BC sources has changed. Furthermore, these factors resulted in substantial increase in the pollution levels for the most of PTEs during the period of economical restoration. For instance, Ba, Sn, K, Cu, Bi, B, Mo, As, Sb, and Pb concentrations emitted from vehicles and industrial sources were increased by 42–167%. Levels of PTEs originated from construction and demolition processes (Sr, Mg, and Ca by 175%, 21%, and 19%, respectively), road dust and soil particles resuspension (Zr, P, Mn, and Fe, by 76%, 51%, 49% and 46%, respectively) also experienced the significant growth. Real-time measurements of short-term changes in the atmosphere aerosol pollution with a rapid extreme fall and subsequent restoration of economic activity allows a better understanding of the processes taking place in the system of economy-society-environment of large cities.

How to cite: Kasimov, N., Popovicheva, O., Vlasov, D., Chichaeva, M., and Larionova, A.: Spring-summer 2020 aerosol pollution in Moscow metropolitan area, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5168,, 2021.

Nataly Chubarova, Elizaveta Androsova, Alexander Kirsanov, Alexei Poliukhov, Ekaterina Zhdanova, Marina Shatunova, Julia Khlestova, Bernhard Vogel, Heike Vogel, and Gdaliy Rivin

Atmospheric aerosol has a noticeable effect on the microphysical and optical properties of the atmosphere, solar radiation, temperature and humidity conditions, thereby determining the quality of the forecast of important meteorological elements and affecting the regional climate and the dynamics of geochemical processes. Using the results of the spring AeroRadCity experiment at the MSU Meteorological Observatory in 2018-2019, and numerical calculations on the base of modern COSMO and COSMO-ART mesoscale models using Russian (-Ru) configurations we determined the level and main features of urban air/aerosol pollution, and assessed its magnitude and its impact on the radiative and meteorological characteristics of the atmosphere in typical conditions (Chubarova et al., 2020). In the context of the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, especially during the period of lockdown in the spring, there was a significant decrease in emissions of pollutants in many countries, including Russia. The aim of this study is to show the consequences of decrease in emissions of pollutants on the air quality and on urban aerosol pollution. A special attention is paid to the division between the effects of meteorological factors and the influence of pollution emission on aerosol and gas concentration. The effects of the air pollution decrease on solar radiation and air temperature during this period have been analyzed using COSMO-Ru-ART model.  For a more detailed study of the observed spatial aerosol distribution on solar radiation and air temperature, we have developed a methodology of the implementation of the satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data in the COSMO-Ru model. Using this approach we evaluated the radiative and temperature effects observed due to aerosol in typical conditions during the spring of 2018-2019 and during the period of lockdown in the spring of 2020 under various meteorological conditions. To do this, the satellite AOT data from the MAIAC/MODIS algorithm and aerosol measurements from Cimel sun photometers data were used for characterising the urban aerosol in typical and lockdown conditions. We also discuss the aerosol indirect effects on cloud properties using an experimental scheme of COSMO-Ru model and their influence on solar radiation and surface temperature during this period. The aerosol study has been partially supported by the RSF grant number 18-17-00149; the analysis of gas species has been partially funded by the megagrant number 2020-220-08-5835.


Chubarova N.Ye., Ye.Yu. Zhdanova., Ye.Ye. Androsova, A.A. Kirsanov, M.V. Shatunova, Yu.O. Khlestova, Ye.V. Volpert, A.A. Poliukhov, I.D. Eremina, D.V. Vlasov, O.B. Popovicheva, A.S. Ivanov, Ye.V. Gorbarenko, Ye.I. Nezval, D.V. Blinov, G.S. Rivin. The aerosol urban pollution and its effects on weather, regional climate and geochemical processes: Monograph / Edited by N.Ye. Chubarova – Moscow, MAKS Press, 2020. 339 pp.  ISBN 978-5-317-06464-8

How to cite: Chubarova, N., Androsova, E., Kirsanov, A., Poliukhov, A., Zhdanova, E., Shatunova, M., Khlestova, J., Vogel, B., Vogel, H., and Rivin, G.: Сhanges in air quality and aerosol pollution in Moscow megacity and its direct and indirect impact on radiative and meteorological properties of the atmosphere due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in spring 2020 according to modelling and measurements., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4160,, 2021.

Georgy Nerobelov, Yury Timofeyev, Sergei Smyshlyaev, Stefani Foka, Ivan Mammarella, and Yana Virolainen

The growing content of greenhouse gases (GHGs) influences the radiation balance of the planet causing the rise of air temperature in lower atmosphere. This circumstance triggers researchers to create and develop the new methods of estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. One of such method is top-down estimation which is based on measurements and chemical transport modelling. Since the errors of the top-down approach depend on quality of the modelled data it requires validation by complex observations. In current study we investigated the performance of regional numerical weather prediction and chemistry transport model WRF-Chem and CAMS service in simulating spatio-temporal variation of near surface atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in March and April 2019 for the Saint-Petersburg area (Russia). To validate the modelled data, we used local observations obtained on Peterhof (St. Petersburg) station. The analysis demonstrates that WRF-Chem model can adequate simulate the transport of CO2 in near-surface layer with spatial resolution of 3 km. Average difference and correlation coefficient are in range 0.8-1.6% and 0.55-0.72 respectively. It was found that the WRF-Chem modelled data where biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes were considered fit the observation data worse than the WRF-Chem simulation where only anthropogenic emissions were used. It can be linked to the errors of the biogenic flux calculation. However, to prove that investigations for two contrast periods (in summer and winter) are needed. Despite the rude spatial resolution of the CAMS data (approximately 200x400 km) we found that in general the trend of surface atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in March and April 2019 for the Saint-Petersburg area from the CAMS dataset fits the observations.

How to cite: Nerobelov, G., Timofeyev, Y., Smyshlyaev, S., Foka, S., Mammarella, I., and Virolainen, Y.: Validation of the capability of WRF-Chem model and CAMS to simulate near surface atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio for the territory of Saint-Petersburg, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1497,, 2021.

Alexander Mahura, Roman Nuterman, Alexander Baklanov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala

In the recent decade, the Arctic as a whole is subject to amplified warming and well documented changes in the Arctic ecosystems, and especially, these changes are became more and more pronounced over territories of the Russian Arctic.

In this research, to study atmosphere-land-sea surfaces interactions, and in particular, heat-moisture exchange/ regime between these surfaces and for better understanding and forecasting of local meteorology in the Arctic, the seamless modelling approach was tested and applied. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is an online integrated meteorology – atmospheric composition multi-scales and -processes modeling system. This model was adapted for a region of interest located in the Russian Arctic covering the inland, seashore and adjacent seas territories with the Yamal Peninsula in the center of the domain. Two short-term periods during summer (in July) and winter (in January) were chosen.

The performed model runs include changes in vegetation and land-cover as well as taking into account direct  and indirect aerosol effects (for summer), which is needed to estimate interactions and feedbacks between meteorology – atmospheric composition – land cover changes. In this study, the model was run in a downscaling chain with 5 and 1+ km horizontal resolutions. The meteorological and aerosols/ gases initial and boundary conditions required were extracted from ECMWF. The model output includes both 3D meteorology and atmospheric composition (with focus on aerosols in this study) in the surface, boundary layer and free troposphere.

The analysis of variabilities on a diurnal cycle (for key selected meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind characteristics, boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes) due to changes in vegetation and land-cover was performed for selected warm and cold periods and will be presented.

How to cite: Mahura, A., Nuterman, R., Baklanov, A., Zilitinkevich, S., and Kulmala, M.: Numerical experiments on sensitivity of local meteorology vs. land-cover changes in the Arctic through seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13613,, 2021.

Anna Bohushenko, Sergiy Stepanenko, and Inna Khomenko

In this study the trends and variations in 25 extreme temperature and precipitation indices
defined by ETCCDI, are examined using trend method, probability distribution analysis and
spatial statistics for periods of 71 to 137 years for 16 stations evenly distributed in Ukraine. Data
on the indices were obtained from
Since 1981, temperature has increased by about 1ºC in all stations in question relative to the
period of 1945-1980. Analysis of the temperature indices indicates that during the 20th and the
beginning of the 21th century there is significant warming which is particularly pronounced in
annual mean and annual maximum temperatures. Occurrence of more summer days, warm days
and tropical nights and warm spell duration reached the record highest level, and conversely
occurrence of frost and ice days, cold days and cold spell duration fall to a record low for the last
three decades in the most of study territory.
Since 1981, precipitation amount has grown by 30-50 mm relative to the period of 1945-1980 for
the most of Ukrainian territory, except Uzhhorod and Uman where precipitation amount has
remained the same. For Ukraine average, an increase in maximum daily and maximum 5 days
precipitation amount, the maximum number of consecutive wet days, heavy and very heavy
precipitation days, and a decrease in the maximum number of consecutive dry days are observed
for the last three decades.
The analysis of the spatial distribution of trend of precipitation and temperature indices showed
that there are large differences between regions of Ukraine, and coherence of spatial distribution
of trends of various indices is low.
Spectral analysis and harmonic regression techniques were used to derive simulated and
predicted (2019-2050) values of annual precipitation and annual mean temperature and four
indices such as maximum value of daily maximum temperature, minimum value of daily
minimum temperature, the highest 1-day precipitation amount and maximum number of
consecutive dry days for some stations such as Kerch (the Crimean Peninsula), Kyiv (situated in
north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper River), Lubny (Dnieper Lowland), Lviv and Shepetivka
(Podillia Upland), Uzhhorod (Transcarpathia), Uman (Dnieper Upland).
Annual mean temperature and maximum value of daily maximum temperature were predicted to
increase by 0.33°C per decade in the period of 2019-2050 with respect to 1981-2018, while
minimum value of daily minimum temperature was predicted to grow slightly faster (by 0.43-
0.63ºC per decade).
Precipitation was predicted to increase for the stations in question by 20-66 mm up to 2050
relative to 1981-2018 and conversely maximum number of consecutive dry days will slightly
decline except Lubny where increase in an aridity index was predicted. In the next three decades
changes in maximum daily precipitation will be various: in Shepetivka and Kyiv such
precipitation will be decreased and in other stations increasement in such precipitation will be up
to 6 mm till 2050 with respect to 1981-2018.

How to cite: Bohushenko, A., Stepanenko, S., and Khomenko, I.: Detecting climate change in Ukraine: trends, prediction and extreme events, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6197,, 2021.

Svitlana Krakovska, Vira Balabukh, Anastasia Chyhareva, Larysa Pysarenko, Iryna Trofimova, and Tetiana Shpytal

Climate change is one of the major challenges for future development in every country including Ukraine where actual warming already has impacted many sectors, population, and ecosystems. Recently, the International Initiative of Coordinated Downscaling Experiment for Europe (Euro-CORDEX) has provided RCM data for 0.1o grid. This detailed RCM projection dataset is an excellent basis for estimation of exposure and vulnerability to climate change of different objects and for updating projections for a new National Communication of Ukraine to UNFCCC as well as for Strategy of Ecological Safety and Adaptation to Climate Change in Ukraine.

The study is focused on the estimation of the essential and special climatic characteristics and their changes in the near future (2021-2040) as well as to the middle (2041-2050) and end (2081-2100) of the century over the base period 1991-2010 for three scenarios: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. We used bias-adjusted RCM data for daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature and precipitation provided via ESGF web-portal. We applied a multi-model ensemble approach with further bias-correction by delta-method for multi-year monthly values of the essential characteristics as well as calculated climatic indices using a gridded observational dataset of E-Obs v.20.0e. Ensembles for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 consisted of 34 RCMs while for RCP2.6 only data of 3 RCMs were available. That is why RCP2.6 is only indicative, while the other two scenarios results have a high confidence level and quartiles and percentiles of the ensemble range are estimated.

More consistent temporally and spatially results were obtained for temperature projections. Increases relative to the baseline were in the range of 0.5-1.5ºC for all the RCPs with a bit higher warming in the North of the country in 2021-2040. In 2041-2060, the increases were 1.0-2.0ºC under RCP2.6 and 1.5-2.5ºC under RCP8.5, with RCP4.5 in between. By the end of the century 2081-2100 the differences between scenarios became much pronounced: from 1-2ºC for RCP2.6 to 4-6ºC for RCP8.5.

Precipitation changes are much complex with high variability across the seasons and the territory. In winter precipitation tends to increase relative to the baseline in most of the country for all the RCPs. In early spring (March) there is a relative decline in the near-future period, especially in RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 but not in RCP4.5. In later periods the decline becomes less and in the higher RCPs, there is a relative increase. Later spring rainfall changes show a decline in RCP2.6 but an increase for the other RCPs. The summer months show a relative decline with all the higher RCPs getting drier over time. In the fall relative changes are mixed, with declines in some months and increases in others.

Based on these two essential climatic characteristics other important indices were calculated and analyzed: length of vegetation season, tropical nights, summer days, water deficit, aridity/humidity index, etc.

Obtained projections of climatic characteristics were(will be) used for further agriculture, forest, and human health impact assessments, that will be the basis for the development of adaptation measures to climate change in the frames of the National Adaptation Plan of Ukraine.  

How to cite: Krakovska, S., Balabukh, V., Chyhareva, A., Pysarenko, L., Trofimova, I., and Shpytal, T.: Projections of regional climate change in Ukraine based on multi-model ensembles of Euro-CORDEX, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13821,, 2021.

Olga Stupishina and Elena Golovina

The work presents some investigation results of the Space Weather state during the macrosynoptic processes movements in North Atlantic and Eurasia extratropical latitudes. The types of these processes, as it is known, were defined by A. F. Vangengeim as atmosphere circulation types: E-type (east transport in the troposphere which matches with stable anticyclone above the continent), W-type (west transport), and C-type (meridional transport).

The investigation time interval: 1.01.2007 – 1.01.2014. That corresponds to: the Solar Activity (SA) 23 cycle fall branch, the SA minimum, the rise branch of the 24 SA cycle, the maximum of 24 SA cycle.

From the investigation we have found out the different periods of the circulation types conservation:  (5-7) days which corresponds to the Natural Synoptic Period (NSP) in Europe region – in our study we have registered 95 NSP cases - it occurs 45% of all discovered periods); (7-10) days – 27% (58 cases), and the Long Period (LP) which endured more than 10 days - 28% (59 cases).

Here we compare the space weather state at the beginnings of NSP and LP.

We have investigated the matching of LP-circulation with registered Long-live Pressure Systems (LPS) on different terrestrial latitude locations - Saint-Petersburg (59o57‘N, 30o19‘E) and Tambov (52o43‘N, 41o27‘E).

Space Weather parameters were: global  variations of SA parameters; daily characteristics of the SA flare component in various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum; variations of Interplanetary Space characteristics in Earth vicinity; variations of daily statistics of Geomagnetic Field characteristics.

Results: (1) The modes of LP-circulation distributions are in the SA maximum and on the SA rise branch (37% and 36% of all LP cases respectively). (2) LP- E-type occurs 56% of all LP. (3) NSP- W-type occurs 48% of all NSP. (4) Most frequent LP- E- type placed on the SA rise branch (24% of all LP). (5) The opening and final moments of LP-circulations was not the same for those moments of LPS on different terrestrial latitude locations but 50% of Saint-Petersburg LPS and 81% of Tambov LPS were intersecting with the time intervals of LP-circulations. (6) All Saint-Petersburg anticyclonic LPS and 82% of them in Tambov area have registered with the E-type of atmosphere circulation. (7) The behaviour of the whole Space Weather parameters complex is specific for LP and differs from it for NSP of different circulation types. (8) The days of the maximal difference of abovementioned complexes were discovered in the folder epoch’s interval – that shows the good forecast perspective. (9) The concrete Space Weather parameters which difference the moments of LP-beginnings from NSP-beginnings are listed in the work.

Results may be useful for the understanding of the solar-terrestrial connections and can create the base for the forecast of atmosphere response to the space impact.

How to cite: Stupishina, O. and Golovina, E.: The atmosphere circulation movements in the matching with space weather parameters variations, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3556,, 2021.

Anastasiia Demakova, Olga Garmash, Ekaterina Ezhova, Mikhail Arshinov, Denis Davydov, Boris Belan, Steffen Noe, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Heikki Junninen, Federico Bianchi, Lubna Dada, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala

New Particle Formation (NPF) is a process in which a large number of particles is formed in the atmosphere via gas-to-particle conversion. Previous research shows the important role of formation of new particles for atmosphere, clouds and climate (Kerminen, V.-M. et al. 2018).

              There exist measurements from different parts of the world which show that NPF is happening worldwide (Kerminen, V.-M. et al. 2018). Measurements at SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland (Hari P. and Kulmala M., 2005), show that NPF is a common process in Finland’s boreal forests. However, measurements at Zotto station in Siberia, Russia, show that NPF events are very rare in that area (Wiedensohler A. et al., 2018). Measurements in Siberian boreal forests are sparse. We have conducted new measurements at Fonovaya station near Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) using Neutral cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), Particle Size Magnifier (PSM), Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF). Those instruments measure aerosol particle number size distribution (NAIS, DMPS), ion number size distribution (NAIS), size distribution of small particles (PSM) and chemical composition of aerosol particles (APi-TOF). The novelty of this work is that such complex measurements have not been done in Siberia before.

              Here we report the first results of our research on NPF phenomenon in Siberian boreal forest. We present detailed statistics of NPF events, as well as formation rates (J) and growth rates (GR) of aerosol particles. The results from Fonovaya station are compared with those from SMEAR II station and from SMEAR Estonia station in Järvselja, Estonia.





  • [1] Kerminen V.-M. et al. “Atmospheric new particle formation and growth: review of field observations”. In: Environmental Research Letters 10 (2018), p. 103003.
  • [2] Wiedensohler A. et al. “Infrequent new particle formation over the remote boreal forest of Siberia”. In: Atmospheric Environment 200 (2019), pp. 167–169.
  • [3] Dada L. et al. “Long-term analysis of clear-sky new particle formation events and nonevents in Hyytiälä”. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (2017), pp. 6227–6241.


How to cite: Demakova, A., Garmash, O., Ezhova, E., Arshinov, M., Davydov, D., Belan, B., Noe, S., Komsaare, K., Vana, M., Junninen, H., Bianchi, F., Dada, L., Petäjä, T., Kerminen, V.-M., and Kulmala, M.: Formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forest of Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14353,, 2021.

Tuukka Petäjä and the iCUPE team

The world is changing. The polar regions are critical component in the Earth system and influenced by on-going megatrends, such as globalization and demographical changes. The extensive use of Arctic natural resources will have effects on regional pollutant concentrations in the Arctic. We set up the ERA-PLANET Strand 4 project “iCUPE – integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments” to provide novel insights and observational data on global grand challenges with a polar focus. We deploy an integrated approach with in-situ observations, satellite remote sensing and multi-scale modeling to synthesize data from a suite of comprehensive long-term measurements, intensive campaigns, and satellites. This enabled us to deliver novel data and indicators descriptive of the polar environment. The iCUPE framework includes thematic state-of-the-art research and the provision of novel data in atmospheric pollution, local sources and transboundary transport, characterization of arctic surfaces and their changes, an assessment of the concentrations and impacts of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and their cycling, the quantification of emissions from natural resource extraction, and the validation and optimization of satellite Earth observation data streams. Here we summarize the project results and provide novel insights into continuation of the work. 

How to cite: Petäjä, T. and the iCUPE team: Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) – concept, results and outlook, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14824,, 2021.

Heterogeneous response of ecosystem productivity to anthropogenic modifications in different bioclimatic locations in northern high latitudes.
Victoria Miles and Igore Ezau
Victor Gornyy, Andrei Kiselev, Sergei Kritsuk, Iscander Latypov, and Andrei Tronin

The climate change of the last decades has to be reflected in the ecosystems dynamics. By investigating the ecosystem dynamics one can get the information about climate change. One of the most suitable source of information about ecosystem dynamics is remote sensing satellite data. We used EOS multispectral images, gravimetric data of the GRACE satellite, and AURA satellite contents of sulfur dioxide data for the period of the last ~20 years. Daily and 8 days composites of different quantitative characteristics, reduced to the spatial resolution 1x1 km, were retrieved from standard products and raw data: - the daily averaged land surface temperature; - the duration of vegetation (the period of year when a land surface temperature is higher than +10oC); - the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI); - the effective water layer thickness (EWLT) according satellite gravimentry); - the concentration of sulphur dioxide in atmosphere. The speed of each characteristics change was estimated and mapped by using linear regression. As the result, the regular chain of isometric domains of land surface temperature rising and decreasing was noticed from the West edge to the East edge of Northern Eurasia. The presence of this chain was the reason to express hypothesis about more complex structure of the modern atmospheric circulation and interaction between the Ferrel and the Polar cells. Additionally we have noticed that domain of the land surface temperature growth at the Northern part of West Siberia coincides with decreasing of EWLT. We interpreted this phenomena as result of permafrost degradation.

How to cite: Gornyy, V., Kiselev, A., Kritsuk, S., Latypov, I., and Tronin, A.: Multiyear Dynamics of Remotely Mapped Characteristics of Ecosystems in Northern Eurasia , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3090,, 2021.

Irina Repina, Victor Stepanenko, Alexander Varentsov, Arseniy Artamonov, and Kuksova Natalia

Skin temperature (Ts) plays a central role in shaping the land surface energy balance and is also widely available from remote sensing for model evaluation and data assimilation. Both offline land models and land–atmosphere coupled models still have difficulty in realistically simulating or predicting Ts. In the case of an inhomogeneous surface, under the same atmospheric conditions, there are patches of different skin temperature and different daily variability. This observational study reports variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil heat) and ancillary atmospheric/surface/soil data based on in-situ measurements conducted at Mukhrino field station located in the middle taiga zone of the West Siberian Lowland. To measure the surface temperature, we used an infrared camera (TIR, ~8–14 mkm wavelength range) based on an unmanned aerial vehicle. This UAV-based system provides high-resolution multi-sensors data acquisition. It also provides maximal flexibility for data collection at low cost with minimal atmospheric influence, minimal site disturbance, flexibility in measurement planning, and ease of access to study sites (e.g., peatlands) in contrast with traditional data collection methods. e demonstrate that the temperature of the boggy surface has significant variability: depending on the time of day, temperature contrasts can reach more than 10 degrees, which is associated with different surface moisture and albedo. A technique has been developed for restoring the surface albedo from the data of IR measurements. Ground measurements have shown that the variations of temperature and humidity across the subsurface layer can be very large. Furthermore, these variations are directly related to the concept of a difference between the roughness length for momentum versus that for heat. Information about the ratio of z0/z0h is necessary in order to be able to use surface skin temperature from satellite remote sensing for the computation of surface fluxes. The relationship between the difference in skin temperature and soil contact temperature with the heat balance, especially with sensible heat fluxes and heat flux through the soil, is considered. The parametrizations obtained in this work can be used in Earth System models to represent wetland ecosystems.

The work was supported by RFBR grant 18-05-60126, by the Moscow Center for Fundamental and Applied Mathematics and within the grant of the Tyumen region Government in accordance with the Program of the World-Class West Siberian Interregional Scientific and Educational Center (National Project "Nauka").

How to cite: Repina, I., Stepanenko, V., Varentsov, A., Artamonov, A., and Natalia, K.: Inhomogeneous surface of West Siberian peatland diagnosed by skin temperature distribution, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10654,, 2021.

Ekaterina Ezhova, Oleg Sizov, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster

Transition of arctic vegetation from tundra to shrubs and forest is an important process influencing global carbon budget. Transition is predicted due to warming and prolongation of the growing season but observations show that it is slower than expected. Fires are disturbances that could trigger a shift of biomes.

We studied the transition of dry tundra to forest and woodland in northwest Siberia for burned and background sites within the time interval of 60 years. We used meteorological data to estimate potential shifts in vegetation based on a bioclimatic model. To investigate fire and vegetation dynamics, we used historical and modern satellite imagery (Corona KH-4b, Landsat-5,7,8, Resurs-P, SPOT-6,7). We performed comparative analysis of vegetation using high-resolution satellite data from different years.

The growing season length increased by 20 days and the mean temperature of the growing season increased by 1°C making climatic conditions suitable for trees. We showed that ca 40% of the total study area experienced fires at least once during the last 60 years. Within this period, shift from dry tundra to tree-dominated vegetation occurred in 6-15% of the area in the non-disturbed sites compared to 40-85% of the area in the burned sites.

How to cite: Ezhova, E., Sizov, O., Tsymbarovich, P., Soromotin, A., Prihod'ko, N., Petäjä, T., Zilitinkevich, S., Kulmala, M., Bäck, J., and Köster, K.: The role of fires for tundra-forest transition in northwest Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11428,, 2021.

Larysa Pysarenko and Svitlana Krakovska

The impact of temperate forests on climate still has open questions about their quantitative effect on radiative and thermal properties of the territory. The study addresses some of these questions and the analysis is based on the data from the Land-Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP), which is the part of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). The main aim of CMIP is to study climate on different periods of time from the past to the future with help of observations and Earth System Models (ESM).

LUMIP belongs to historical experiments and implies gradual deforestation with linear trend up to 1% all over the world during 50 years in pre-industrial period (1850-1899) and next 30 years with no change in forest cover. The goal of this experiment is to reveal the contribution of forest cover reduction on climate characteristics under quasi-constant anthropogenic forcing. This experiment was based on ESM simulations and the dataset of 8 ESM was retrieved for calculations of different climatic characteristics for the territory of Ukraine. These models have different spatial resolution, the initial and the final forest cover in grid cells respectively. Therefore, we analysed ESMs one-by-one and summarised the results over latitudinal zones. To analyse radiative regime we used monthly data of downwelling and upwelling shortwave radiation, which affect thermal regime estimated via surface and 2-m air temperature changes as well as mean daily and annual ranges. Anomalies of each characteristics were obtained over the base averages of the first 20 years of deforestation (1850-1869), which were further smoothed using the 5-year running mean.

It is known that the forest cover influences the ratio of surface downwelling and upwelling shortwave radiation, particularly, via albedo. We found the highest changes in albedo in winter season, most probably due to the presence of snow cover. Increase of albedo is well correlated with deforestation and the maximal rate of 18%/50 years was found in the Carpathians in winter. There were much less changes in warm season with rates up to 2%/50 years due to small difference between values of forest (~3-10%) with grass (~10-30%) than snow albedo (~40-90%).

These changes in radiative properties cause shifts in temperature regime with moderate and strong negative correlations between albedo and both surface and air temperatures. Higher albedo in winter season caused the decrease of mean monthly surface temperature up to -0.4℃/10 years in winter and -0.3℃/10 years in warm season. Values of changes of mean monthly air temperature corresponded to surface temperature changes and they were -0.4℃/10 years in winter and -0.2℃/10 years in warm season. Based on mean maximum and minimum monthly temperatures we found that deforestation also affected mean daily air temperature range only in winter with tendency up to 0.1–0.3℃/ 10 years. Meanwhile the models showed controversial results for annual air temperature range. One of the essential research outcomes we found that the impact of gradual deforestation on the thermal regime was shifted on approximately 20 years and diminished after stopping land cover change.

How to cite: Pysarenko, L. and Krakovska, S.: Impact of deforestation on surface radiative properties and temperature characteristics in Ukraine based on LUMIP CMIP6 datasets, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7726,, 2021.

Alexander Makshtas, Petr Bogorodski, and Ilya Jozhikov

Investigations of active soil layer on the Research station “Ice Base Cape Baranova’’ had been started in February 2016 after installation on the meteorological site sensors of Finnish Meteorological Institute: thermochain with IKES PT00 temperature sensors at depths of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm, soil heat flux sensor HFP, and two ThetaProbe type ML3 soil moisture sensors. Based on the results of measurements annual cycle of soil temperature changes was revealed with amplitudes 10 - 15 ° C less than the amplitudes of surface air layer temperature (Ta) and especially the temperature of the soil upper surface (Tsrad), in great degree determined by short-wave radiation heating and long-wave radiation cooling. Approximation by linear fittings shows average rates of increase Ta - 0.4°C/year, Тsrad - 0.3°C/year, and temperatures of active soil layer - 0.2°C/year.

The data on thermal regime of active soil layer and characteristics of energy exchange in atmospheric surface layer make it possible to draw the conclusion about the reason for the abnormally warm state of the upper meter soil layer in summer 2020, despite in March during the whole period under study active soil layer was the warmest in 2017. Comparison in temperatures of the underlying surface and characteristics of surface heat balance during period under study showed that in 2020 the temperature of the soil surface at the end of May for a short time reached the temperature of snow melting. It is happened 25 days earlier than in 2017 as well as other years and led to radical decrease in surface albedo, sharp increase of heat flux to the underlying surface, and increased duration of active soil layer heating.

Additionally, permafrost thawing studies using a manual contact method were carried out on the special site, organized according to CALM standards. These studies showed significant variety of soil active layer thicknesses in the relatively small area (~0.12 km2), which indicates significant spatial variability of microrelief, structure and thermophysical properties of soil, as well as vegetation, typical for Arctic desert. Calculations carried out with version of the well-known thermodynamic Leibenzon model for various parameterizations of vegetation and soil properties partly described peculiarities of spatial variability of observed thawing depths.

How to cite: Makshtas, A., Bogorodski, P., and Jozhikov, I.: Thermal regime of soil active layer at the Bolshevik Island (Archipelago Severnaya Zemlya) during 2016 – 2020 years, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8838,, 2021.

Sergiy Stepanenko, Anatoliy Polevoy, and Alexander Mykytiuk

Dynamic modeling of the processes of transformation of soil organic matter is part of a more complex problem - modeling the processes of soil formation and functioning of soils, and the development of the entire soil system. It is important tool for studying the functioning and predicting changes in the soil system, quantifying the role of the soil cover in the balance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and in the processes of climate change

The PEAT-GHG-Model (furthermore – PEAT-GHG-MODEL), based on further development of ROTHC-model (Coleman, Jenkinson, 2008) for mineral soil and ECOSSE model (Smith, Gottschalk et al., 2010) for organic soils.

 The PEAT-GHG-MODEL evaluates of CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes values at organic soils and soil carbon deposition for non-forest types of land cover. The model utilize data from existing weather stations, published soil data, and data generated by remote sensing of land cover. The model evaluates of CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes values at organic soils and soil carbon deposition, including at peatlands, retrospectively for targeted period or back in time with available space images library. The model can evaluates of CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes values at organic soils and soil carbon deposition for future period based on meteorological input data generated by climate change scenarios and land cover data generated by relevant habitats (land cover) change scenarios. The PEAT-GHG-MODEL estimates of CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes from organic soils and soil carbon deposition for non-forest types of land cover. The model input data generates by existing weather stations, remote sensing of land cover and published soils data. The model estimates of GHG emissions from organic soils, including peatlands, retrospectively for targeted period or back in time with available space images library. The model can simulates of GHG emissions for future period based on meteorological input data generated by climate change scenarios and land cover data generated by relevant habitats change scenarios. The model generates georeferenced data. Minimum land surface area, which can be evaluates by model, equal of size of one pixel of land cover images, used for remote sensing of land cover, it can be 1 m2 or less. Due to high resolution, the model estimates highly variable in space CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes with high accuracy. Maximum land surface area is not limited. The model generates data on decade and/or annual bases. Article presents the model’ verification results. The model verified in 2017 by independent, from the model authors, verification team in frame of “CLIMA EAST: conservation and sustainable use of peatlands” project (UNDP-Ukraine). Direct field measurement data for two peatlands used for model verification, including one site drained, and another one is under natural hydrological conditions.  The cumulative annual of CH4 and CO2 emission presented in Table.

The model calculations were compared with the experimental data obtained for peat soils in the western Polesie of Belarus. The cumulative annual of CH4 and CO2 emission presented in Table.

Table. Cumulative annual of CH4 and CO2 emissions according to field measurements and assessment of PEAT-GHG-MODEL



How to cite: Stepanenko, S., Polevoy, A., and Mykytiuk, A.: Estimation of emission from organic soils, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6451,, 2021.

Irina Fedorova, Roman Zdorovennov, Valeriy Kadutskiy, Grigorii Fedorov, Elena Shestakova, Galina Zdorovennova, Alina Guzeva, Mariya Chernyshova, Antonina Chetverova, Larisa Frolova, and Gulnara Nigamatzyanova

Yamal Peninsula is one of the significant region which terrestrial and aquatic landscapes are sensitive to the climate change. Geochemical processes in lakes can show impact of climate variability on hydrochemical and biological specific, trophic and ecological status. During 2012-2013 and 2018-2020 several Yamal lakes were observed during the summer field investigations. Water samples and sediment cores were taken and analyzed. Distribution of hydrochemical data is wide and cover Yamal coastal zone and central part of the peninsula including several anthropogenic chanced ecosystems. Sediment cores were taken in river terraces of Yuribey, Erkuta, Pysedeiyakha rivers, marine terraces of central Yamal (Neitinskie Lakes), and small core from Beliy island (North part of Yamal). Main ions and trace elements in lakes will be presented in a report as well as TOC/TC, grain-size, dating and paleoecological description of sediments. In order to reconstruct recent environmental and ecological changes half-core MSCL logging (physical properties, 0.5 cm spacing) and half-core XRF scanning (chemical composition, 0.1 cm spacing) have been applied for cores from Neitinskie Lakes (central part of Yamal). The first results of scanning and the statistic will be presented in the report. Comparison of aquatic ecosystem geochemistry for different parts of Yamal peninsula allow to explain the climate impact in different landscapes. Studies supported by RFBR 18-05-60291.  MSCL logging and XRF scanning have been done in Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of RAS by Geotek MSCL-XYZ instrument using.

How to cite: Fedorova, I., Zdorovennov, R., Kadutskiy, V., Fedorov, G., Shestakova, E., Zdorovennova, G., Guzeva, A., Chernyshova, M., Chetverova, A., Frolova, L., and Nigamatzyanova, G.: Geochemical sensitivity of lacustrine ecosystems of Yamal Peninsula (Russian Arctic) to climate change, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15069,, 2021.

Sergey Berdnikov, Vera Sorokina, and Valerii Kulygin

Changes in the Arctic environment in recent decades may result in favourable conditions for the increase of biological production. However, there are not many well-documented climate-related shifts in plankton, fish and benthic communities in the Arctic Ocean marine ecosystems, and there is significant uncertainty about the present and future productivity values. Researchers often estimate (using forecasts, etc.) how some key stocks may respond to future climatic changes to assess the prospects of fisheries.
In our study, applying the Ecopath multi-species balance production model, we estimated the distribution of climate-induced primary productivity increase, along the food web in the Barents Sea ecosystem. Assessment was made for two periods (“cold” (1970-1990) and “warm” (1991-2016)) and three regions - the Southern Barents Sea and the adjacent areas of the Norwegian Sea, the Svalbard Archipelago region, and the Northern Barents Sea. For each identified area, the food web has differences in both the structure and quantitative indices (for example, in abundance and biomass) of different trophic groups in different periods, in particular, during the increased ice coverage and relative warming.
We propose a new approach to assess food rations for the Ecopath model. It allows to consider more flexibly the change in the ecosystem food structure, associated with changes in biomasses (stocks) and the appearance of new species in the studied area due to environmental fluctuations related to marine climate warming. Based on the simulation results, we made conclusions concerning the observed and probable changes, related to the primary productivity increase, in the considered ecosystems of the three identified Barents Sea regions.
An integral indicator of the mean trophic level reflects climate-induced changes in the Barents Sea ecosystem. It remained almost unchanged in the southern region but increased for the Northern region and the Svalbard region. This is due to the fact that new species appeared in the structure of food webs of these regions and/or the existed species' biomass (stocks) changed during the warm period when compared to the cold one.
А generalized indicator of biological diversity is an additional evidence of climate-induced changes in the primary production. During the warm period, the Shannon Biodiversity Index for the Northern and the Svalbard regions increases, while it decreases in the Southern region mainly because the biomass of the main trophic groups (cod, herring) increases.
The commercial fishing increase in the Northern and the Svalbard Archipelago regions is likely to be expected. However, there is a possibility that there will be increased stratification between the upper cold and less salty water masses formed by melt ice and the Atlantic water below, which becomes cooler and denser. This can lead to the decrease in the nutrients content of the productive zone and prevent the positive effects of the warm water inflow.

How to cite: Berdnikov, S., Sorokina, V., and Kulygin, V.: Distribution assessment of climate-induced changes of primary production in the Barents Sea ecosystem, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7399,, 2021.

Bin Cheng, Yubing Cheng, Timo Vihma, and Fei Zheng

A thermistor-string-based Snow and Ice Mass Balance Apparatus (SIMBA) was deployed in an Arctic lake Orajärvi in northern Finland (67.36°N, 26.83°E) during winter seasons 2011/2012 - 2019/2020. The snow depth and ice thickness (total and separately for congelation ice and granular ice) were retrieved from SIMBA temperature measurements. The average maximum ice thickness was 72 cm with a standard deviation of 10 cm. The interannual variability of lake ice composition was large. In the past 3 ice seasons, the granular ice dominated the total ice thickness. For example, granular ice accounted 80% of the total ice thickness in May 2020. A high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model was applied to simulate ice mass balance, with special attention to the lake ice composition. Local weather station data and ECMWF reanalysis products were used as model forcing.


The increase of granular ice formation is a result of more snow precipitation during the ice season, increased variability of seasonal air temperature, and a warming trend. The observed snow thickness on land showed a high correlation with snow-ice thickness on top of lake ice. The relationships between the ratio of snow-ice to total ice thickness and the large-scale atmospheric circulation indexes were investigated. Precipitation and, consequently, snow ice thickness on Lake Orajärvi correlated with the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which is in line with previous results for precipitation and ice conditions in northern Finland, but an eventual causal teleconnection still requires further studies.


How to cite: Cheng, B., Cheng, Y., Vihma, T., and Zheng, F.: Inter-annual variations and large-scale atmospheric forcing on ice thickness and composition during the last decade in an Arctic lake , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14840,, 2021.

Petteri Uotila, Joula Siponen, Eero Rinne, and Steffen Tietsche

Decadal changes in sea-ice thickness are one of the most visible signs of climate variability and change. To gain a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms involved, long time series, preferably with good uncertainty estimates, are needed. Importantly, the development of accurate predictions of sea ice in the Arctic requires good observational products. To assist this, a new sea-ice thickness product by ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is compared to a set of five ocean reanalysis (ECCO-V4r4, GLORYS12V1, ORAS5 and PIOMAS).

The CCI product is based on two satellite altimetry missions, CryoSat-2 and ENVISAT, which are combined to the longest continuous satellite altimetry time series of Arctic-wide sea-ice thickness, 2002–2017. The CCI product performs well in the validation of the reanalyses: overall root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between monthly sea-ice thickness from CCI and the reanalyses ranges from 0.4–1.2 m. The differences are a sum of reanalysis biases, such as incorrect physics or forcing, as well as uncertainties in satellite altimetry, such as the snow climatology used in the thickness retrieval.

The CCI and reanalysis basin-scale sea-ice volumes have a good match in terms of year-to-year variability and long-term trends but rather different monthly mean climatologies. These findings provide a rationale to construct a multi-decadal sea-ice volume time series for the Arctic Ocean and its sub-basins from 1990–2019 by adjusting the ocean reanalyses ensemble toward CCI observations. Such a time series, including its uncertainty estimate, provides new insights to the evolution of the Arctic sea-ice volume during the past 30 years.

How to cite: Uotila, P., Siponen, J., Rinne, E., and Tietsche, S.: A means-corrected estimate for the Arctic sea-ice volume in 1990–2019, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3840,, 2021.

Yubao Qiu, Xingxing Wang, Matti Leppäranta, Bin Cheng, and Yixiao Zhang

Lake-ice phenology is an essential indicator of climate change impact for different regions (Livingstone, 1997; Duguay, 2010), which helps understand the regional characters of synchrony and asynchrony. The observation of lake ice phenology includes ground observation and remote sensing inversion. Although some lakes have been observed for hundreds of years, due to the limitations of the observation station and the experience of the observers, ground observations cannot obtain the lake ice phenology of the entire lake. Remote sensing has been used for the past 40 years, in particular, has provided data covering the high mountain and high latitude regions, where the environment is harsh and ground observations are lacking. Remote sensing also provides a unified data source and monitoring standard, and the possibility of monitoring changes in lake ice in different regions and making comparisons between them. The existing remote sensing retrieval products mainly cover North America and Europe, and data for Eurasia is lacking (Crétaux et al., 2020).

Based on the passive microwave, the lake ice phenology of 522 lakes in the northern hemisphere during 1978-2020 was obtained, including Freeze-Up Start (FUS), Freeze-Up End (FUE), Break-Up Start (BUS), Break-Up End (BUE), and Ice Cover Duration (ICD). The ICD is the duration from the FUS to the BUE, which can directly reflect the ice cover condition. At latitudes north of 60°N, the average of ICD is approximately 8-9 months in North America and 5-6 months in Eurasia. Limited by the spatial resolution of the passive microwave, lake ice monitoring is mainly in Northern Europe. Therefore, the average of ICD over Eurasia is shorter, while the ICD is more than 6 months for most lakes in Russia. After 2000, the ICD has shown a shrinking trend, except northeastern North America (southeast of the Hudson Bay) and the northern Tibetan Plateau. The reasons for the extension of ice cover duration need to be analyzed with parameters, such as temperature, the lake area, and lake depth, in the two regions.

How to cite: Qiu, Y., Wang, X., Leppäranta, M., Cheng, B., and Zhang, Y.: Lake ice phenology changes in the northern hemisphere, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15155,, 2021.

Fidel Pankratov, Alexander Mahura, Valentin Popov, and Vladimir Masloboev

During 2013-2015 the gaseous elemental mercury (thereafter, mercury) measurements were carried out at two weather monitoring stations/sites (Listvyanka – from 25 July until 19 November 2013 and Tankhoj – from 27 July 2014 until 11 January 2015). The mercury analyzer Lumex RA-915AM was used for measurements. Although in the Northern Hemisphere the minimal average mercury concentration is about 1.5 ng m-3, the obtained results indicated that in the southern part of the Lake Baikal the lowest average concentration was about 1.18 ng m-3. Thus, the natural reserve territory of the Lake Baikal can be used as the main region to the background level of especially clean areas for monitoring heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants.

For the Listvyanka measurements, the mercury analyzer was installed at 20 m distance from a shore of the lake. During July-November 2013, the average concentration value was about 1.41±0.37 ng m-3 (with max - 4.81, min - 0.16). For the July-August period, the maximum variance distribution was estimates as 0.62 ng m-3. For the August-November period, the variance did not exceed the value of 0.38 ng m-3. Mercury from the atmosphere is deposited on the underlying surface, and with increasing intensity of total solar radiation the re-emission of mercury occurred resulting in increased concentrations of mercury at Listvyanka. A rather low mercury values were recorded during October-November 2013. Analysis of atmospheric transport during summer showed, that main sources of pollution are situated to the west of the lake, and it is a relatively larger area in the southwestern sector, and therefore, it is complex to identify exact locations of such pollution sources.

For the Tankhoj site, in July 2014 the mercury analyzer was installed at about 100 m distance from a shore of the lake. It was for the first time, when the mercury monitoring was conducted for such long-term period of time in the Lake Baikal region. Note, that short-term measurements of mercury do not provide full understanding of the background level mercury and are insufficient to study dynamics. Analysis of obtained time-series showed that summer is characterized by a high variability of mercury (max - 2.86, min - 0.27, with an average 1.19±0.27 ng m-3). In particular, in July an average value of 1.18 ng m-3 (max - 2.68, min - 0.43) was obtained, which corresponds to concentrations observed in the Northern Hemisphere. In August the average value of 1.22 ng m-3 (max - 2.86, min - 0.27) was obtained.

Moreover, obtained results showed that location of the Tankhoj monitoring site can be used for long-term background monitoring of mercury.

How to cite: Pankratov, F., Mahura, A., Popov, V., and Masloboev, V.: Mercury background monitoring in the Lake Baikal region, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3346,, 2021.

Elena Klyuchnikova, Larisa Riabova, and Vladimir Masloboev

Climate change in the Arctic is noticeable and affecting the well-being of the population. The health and emotional state, food and water availability, livelihoods are on the threat. The towns are particularly sensitive to climate change. Their population and infrastructure density is exceptionally high, and temperature fluctuations, as well as extreme weather events, have an exceptionally strong impact on air and water quality, health and other components of human well-being. At the same time, urban communities in the Arctic, especially in industrial development zones, represent a little-studied area in this case.

The report presents the interdisciplinary study results concerning the climate change consequences for the population of Russian Arctic industrial developed areas. The study carried out in Murmansk Region which is a highly industrial and highly urbanized region that is completely included in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Qualitative methods were used; in-depth (more than 50 questions) interviews were conducted with residents of several towns in the region. The study showed corresponds between the subjective perceptions of climate change by urban residents of the Murmansk Region with objective data on meteorological parameters changes. The surveyed urban residents feel changes in health and environmental management practices, and many respondents associate these changes with climate fluctuations. Such a phenomenon as the destruction of infrastructure (residential, public and industrial buildings, roads, energy infrastructure) due to climate change has not been identified. Concerns have been raised about the potential impact of climate warming on the ability to have a decent job due to reduced employment in some industries (such as energy).

The results obtained contribute to a better understanding of the social consequences of climate change in the Russian Arctic. This is important for adaptation actions development.


How to cite: Klyuchnikova, E., Riabova, L., and Masloboev, V.: Social consequences of climate change in the Arctic towns, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9669,, 2021.

Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Magdalena Brus, Katri Ahlgren, Alexander Mahura, Hanna K. Lappalainen, and Markku Kulmala

A recurring question among research projects is how to optimize the use data that already exists and to identify its stakeholder’s needs, particularly in effort to bring services to a wider community outside academia. We propose a hackathon to allow the collaboration between civil, educational, business and governmental actors to address environmental challenges with the use of environment scientific data from international projects.

Hack the Arctic is co-organized by the Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/University of Helsinki, the Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure (ICOS-ERIC) Headoffice, and the Environmental Research Infrastructures (ENVRI) Community. The hackathon event aims to enhance the usage and impact of environmental research data by and for society. The 48 hr event will gather multi-disciplinary teams through a public call to make use of existing environmental data from a network of research projects to develop services addressing the needs of different end-users. The participating teams will be mentored by researchers and data scientist in the use of the data. A panel of judges comprising of science mentors, innovation specialists and government sector actors will assess the implementation of the final pilot products at the end of the event.

We present Hack the Arctic as an up-and-coming alternative to expand the usage and visibility of research data and to make it widely accessible to a broader (nonacademic) audience by offering mentorship from data and scientific experts under one roof.

How to cite: Buenrostro Mazon, S., Brus, M., Ahlgren, K., Mahura, A., Lappalainen, H. K., and Kulmala, M.: Hack the Arctic: transforming data into solutions as a community  , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14631,, 2021.

Katja Anniina Lauri, Alexander Mahura, Sini Karppinen, Irina Obukhova, Tatiana Kalganova, Marek Frankowicz, and Inga Skendere

MODEST (Modernization of Doctoral Education in Science and Improvement Teaching Methodologies) is a capacity building project funded by the Erasmus+ programme.

The project is coordinated by the University of Latvia. There are three other EU partners (from Finland, Poland and the United Kingdom) and a total of ten partners from three partner countries (Russia, Belarus and Armenia).

The project aims to improve the structure and content of doctoral education and the internal capacities of services that manage doctoral studies in accordance with the modern European practices, to facilitate a successful adherence with Bologna process reforms and its instruments, to improve and increase the quality of international and national mobility of doctoral students of Armenia, Belarus and Russia, and to establish a sustainable professional network providing the use of participatory approaches and ICT-based methodologies.

During the past year, almost one hundred members of academic and administrative personnel as well as doctoral students have contributed to creating a total of 14 new courses mainly in transferable skills: Research methodology and research design; Project writing, project management, and funding sources; International research writing and presentation skills; Research ethics, Intellectual property rights and personal data protection; 3I - Interdisciplinarity, interculturality, internationalization in research; Organization of doctoral training; Educational/constructive alignment, design and implementation of courses for doctoral studies; Digital literacy; Data analysis and expert systems; Virtual environment; Commercialization of research, managerial skills; Personal development; Complexity; and Sustainable development and global challenges of 21st century. Each course has specific target group(s) such as PhD students, university teachers, doctoral programme managers, or administrative staff.

Summary of each developed course – aims, learning outcomes, content (including course blocks on lectures, seminars, homeworks, etc.), planned learning activities and teaching methods, assessment methods and criteria, and other relevant – will be presented. The developed courses will be an integral part of the Doctoral Training Centers for PhD students to be established in the MODEST partner universities in Armenia, Belarus and Russia.

The MODEST project serves as a great example of transfer of good practices in higher education, especially on doctoral level, but it has also created new connections for educational and scientific collaboration. From the PEEX perspective, MODEST is an important initiative strengthening connections between European universities and institutions in Russia, Belarus and Armenia. The project will continue until 2022. More detailed information is available at

How to cite: Lauri, K. A., Mahura, A., Karppinen, S., Obukhova, I., Kalganova, T., Frankowicz, M., and Skendere, I.: Science education for doctoral students: MODEST approach and experience, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12840,, 2021.