SSS7.2

EDI
Soil pollution versus natural background as a source of ecological and geochemical risk and imbalance of elements in biota and spread of endemic diseases

The soil is a key system of the biosphere that supports the existence and development of human civilization. However, the growing anthropic activities are accompanied by an expansion of soil pollution. From a geochemical point of view, anthropic activities lead to the emergence of a new state of the biosphere - the noosphere, when anthropogenic chemical elements and their compounds are added to natural soil. This determines the current spatial heterogeneity of the chemical composition of the soil and vegetation cover. Such an alteration to soil composition/properties can cause negative biological impacts on both native and introduced species in local biocenosis, as well as the emergence of endemic diseases among plants animals, and humans. Human diseases can be aggravated by the fact that Homo sapiens evolving as a species under certain environmental/geochemical conditions inherited a corresponding need for certain dietary elements to maintain homeostatic regulation. As a result, people, like other organisms, need to ingest elements in the correct amounts, otherwise, they suffer from a deficiency or excess of these elements. A negative reaction may occur when the species’ natural metabolism fails to compensate for this imbalance in the life cycle. Therefore, complex studies on the identification, spatial distribution, migration, and concentration of the contaminants in soils, plants, and surface and groundwater in urban, mining, agricultural/forest, and natural areas, as well as its biological effects, is an essential issue and important task for 1)identification of zones of different natural and man-made ecological risks; 2)understanding contaminants’ pathways and impact, and 3)mitigation or elimination of negative biological effects, including the spread of non-communicable endemic diseases.
At this session, participants are invited to present their new data on soil pollution, as well as to show ideas and approaches to the solution of the problem of soil reclamation, to show results that contribute to modern knowledge on the ecological and geochemical assessment of various regions of the world exposed to anthropic geochemical impact, including industrial pollution, transport, mining and use of fertilizers and biocides. We also welcome presentations devoted to methodological problems on soil pollution assessment, the creation of ecological and geochemical databases, and compiling risk maps. We hope that live discussion will contribute to each study.

Public information:


Co-organized by BG3/GI1
Convener: Elena Korobova | Co-conveners: Jaume Bech, Maria Manuela Abreu, Vladimir BaranchukovECSECS, Michael J. Watts
Presentations
| Fri, 27 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST)
 
Room D3
Public information:


Presentations: Fri, 27 May | Room D3

Chairpersons: Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, Elena Korobova, Maria Manuela Abreu
08:30–08:31
08:31–08:41
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EGU22-13164
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solicited
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Benedetto De Vivo, Annamaria Lima, Domenico Cicchella, Chengkai Qu, Dave Hope, Pellegrino Cerino, Mauro Esposito, Antonio Pizzolante, Stefano Albanese, and Elena Korobova

Campania Region, Southern Italy, in the last 10 years was facing potential environmental issues which needed to be addressed, with the proper scientific approach, to alleviate pressure from public opinion, based more on emotions than on scientific data. Such pressure indicated an increase of oncological incidence, not supported by scientific data on the presence of anomalous pollutants in different natural media (soil, water, air, agricultural products). To face environmental/health alarm, the Campania Regional Government in 2015 funded a large, multidisciplinary, environmental project known as Campania Trasparente, to Istituto Zooprofilattico del Mezzogiorno (IZSM), to get a deeper and scientific knowledge of the Campania territory carrying out geochemical investigations, to: 1) characterize the geochemical composition of agricultural soil, air and groundwater at regional and local scale; 2) define the level of bio-availability of the toxic elements; 3) try to demonstrate a direct relationship between the presence of contaminants in the environmental matrices, in agricultural products and finally in the human matrices (hair, urine, blood). Within this project we got data on the presence of the potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs: OCPs, PCBs, PAHs, PAEs, PBDEs) in different media of the entire Region. The new large dataset complemented our research and monitoring activities, which before 2015, were focused mostly on PTMs in soils, both at regional and local scale. In Campania Trasparente project, samples (9,000) of top and bottom soils, air and bulk deposition (150 passive air samplers, over 7 seasons), waters (1,200), vegetation (2,500) and biological (4,200) media, were collected to characterize the status of PTMs and POPs. The results obtained showed that: a) most of these elements and compounds, in higher concentrations, occur predominantly in critical areas of Napoli Urban and Metropolitan Area (NMA) and in the Sarno river basin; b) the infamous area, in the Caserta and Napoli provincial territory, known as Terra dei Fuochi (Land of Fires), is only marginally interested by anomalous occurrence of PTMs and POPs in some spot areas, not justifying the emotional alarms calling for an increase of oncological cases due to diffuse illegal practice of wastes disposal in the area; c) the agricultural crops of the Terra dei Fuochi are not affected by anomalous PTM. Specifically, the ecological risk conditions for PAHs and some OCPs (Endosulfan) occur, mostly in NMA; PCBs are sourced mostly in urban areas, being dissipated in rural areas, whereas PAEs and PBDEs occur, in general, in concentrations similar to those in other Italian regions, with some higher hot spot values in NMA and south of Salerno town. The interactional complexity between metropolitan and the surrounding rural areas is also confirmed, as it is the role that urban areas play in the migration and transformation process of POPs. High urban-rural gradients for atmospheric PAHs, PCBs and OCPs are observed mostly in the NMA and the urban areas, identified as the main emission source of POPs.  Only OCPs, originating from the nearby agricultural areas, experienced long-term soil re-emission, continuously influencing conterminous urban environment via atmospheric transport processes.

How to cite: De Vivo, B., Lima, A., Cicchella, D., Qu, C., Hope, D., Cerino, P., Esposito, M., Pizzolante, A., Albanese, S., and Korobova, E.: Potentially Toxic Metals and high resolution monitoring at regional and local scale of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the soil, air, and bulk deposition of the Campania Region, southern Italy: Sources and environmental processes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13164, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13164, 2022.

Geochemical risks in natural conditions with anthropogenic contribution
08:41–08:48
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EGU22-10028
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Presentation form not yet defined
Victor Berezkin, Victor Glebov, Elena Kayukova, and Elena Korobova

Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of endemic goiter and other diseases, largely due to the geographical features of the regions. Iodine deficiency diseases can occur not only in inland regions and high-altitude areas, but also in those regions where iodine is poorly involved in the food chains of the local population. Thus, for some territories, an important factor of iodine deficiency may be the diversity of rocks and the difference in soils and aquifers caused by them.

The purpose of the article is to identify the contrast in the concentration of iodine content in the soil cover and natural drinking waters in the Mountainous Crimea, on different rocks. Soil and water samples collected in several regions of the Mountainous Crimea, mostly in Bakhchisarai, were examined.

Samples of natural drinking water (n=34) were taken in three districts of the Mountainous Crimea (Bakhchisarai, Alushta and Simferopol) from various sources (rivers, wells, ponds, aqueduct) in 2017. Soil samples (n=23) were taken in the Bodrak River valley (Bakhchisarai district) from the upper horizons (sampling depth up to 20 cm) in 2019. Iodine was determined by kinetic thiocyanate-nitrite method in the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The iodine content in the surveyed drinking water sources corresponds to the existing standards (2-10 μg/l), however, for some sources, extremely low values of iodine content are observed (both for wells 0.89 μg/l and for private pumps and aqueduct 1.11 μg/L), which can be determined primarily by the composition of the water-bearing rocks. The highest median values are marked for springs (Me=5.34 μg/L; n=8) and rivers (Me=6.77 μg/L; n=8), the lowest for aqueduct (Me=1.74 μg/L; n=7). The high variability of iodine in the soils of the automorphic landscapes of the Crimean Mountains was established from 0.43 mg/kg (mountain cambisols) to 15.4 mg/kg (regosols), depending on the humus content and the pH. The highest median values are marked for regosols (Me=5.6 mg/kg; n=13) and cambisols (Me=1.7 mg/kg; n=6), the lowest for fluvisols (Me=1.1 mg/kg; n=4).

The dependence of the iodine content in the upper horizons of different types of soils, primarily on the content of humus and soil pH-water, has been established. It has been confirmed that the content of iodine in natural waters is primarily determined by the difference in aquifers. The study was carried out without financial support, with the partial support of the Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which provided equipment for measuring iodine.

How to cite: Berezkin, V., Glebov, V., Kayukova, E., and Korobova, E.: A study of iodine concentration in soils and drinking waters of the Mountainous Crimea, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10028, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10028, 2022.

08:48–08:55
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EGU22-9523
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Liudmila Kolmykova and Elena Korobova

The geochemical features of stable strontium distribution in groundwater of the Upper Devonian hydrogeological complex within the southwestern flank of the Moscow artesian basin used for centralized drinking water supply in the northeastern part of the Bryansk region were considered in order to detail the potential influence of additional geochemical factors on the manifestation of endemic decease caused by natural iodine deficiency.

Strontium concentration in water samples varied from 0.21 to 28.8 mg/l (median (Me) = 1.03 mg/l, n=34). The analysis of strontium distribution with considering the genetic features of water-bearing rocks showed no significant differences in the content of this element in the waters of depositions of the Frasnian (Me=0.86 mg/l, n=25) and Famennian stages (Me=1.09 mg/l, n=9) (p<0.01). The main sources of strontium in investigated groundwater are strontium-containing minerals (celestine) or strontium impurities in limestones of varying degrees of gypsification associated with the Upper Devonian carbonate rocks (Sr correlation with SO4: r<0.05=0.78). The maximum levels of strontium, which significantly exceed the Russian hygienic standard for drinking waters (7 mg/l), were detect in groundwater of Famennian sediments of the Rognedinsky district of the Bryansk region (>20 mg/l). Given the lack of significant correlation between strontium content and water salinity, which is usually observed for strontium-enriched artesian waters of regional hydrogeochemical provinces (Kraynov et al., 2012) it can be explained by the existence of natural local strontium anomaly in this area (Сa/Sr <7).

Membrane filtration of water samples allowed suggesting that strontium migrate in fresh and low-salinity waters mainly within dissolved fraction of groundwater (divalent cation and complexes with sulfate, chloride and hydrocarbonate) with sizes not exceeding 0.45 µm.

The presence of a local anomaly of strontium-containing waters within the Moscow artesian basin, which impair the quality of drinking water in this area, can be a factor of potential risk to the health of the local population living under conditions of iodine deficiency.

 

The reported study was funded by the Vernadsky Institute federal budget (research task #0137-2019-0006). The Field work was partly funded by RFBR and BRFBR project #20-55-00012 and BRFBR project # Х20Р-386.

How to cite: Kolmykova, L. and Korobova, E.: Concentrations and migration forms of strontium in groundwater used for drinking within the Moscow artesian basin (Russia, Bryansk region), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9523, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9523, 2022.

08:55–09:02
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EGU22-10118
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Sergey Romanov, Aleksander Chervan, and Elena Korobova

A series of maps using different GIS spatial analysis techniques were constructed to perform spatial analysis of the distribution of oncological diseases in Belorussia. Mapping was based on the data of the national cancer register, which contains considerable information of all cancer cases of different localization and allows separation of different sex and age groups of the population. Preliminary data verification showed a high variation of cancer cases in different areas. The second step of the research confirmed the high spatial heterogeneity of medical data when the maps characterizing different variation levels of cancer cases were made using a specialized GIS. After that, the regional zoning was carried out for the Gomel and Mogilev regions most subjected to the Chernobyl radionuclides fallout in Belarus and the areas with a significant difference in the level of general and localized cancer rates were separated. The general picture showed that the actual risk level of the oncological diseases (including those of different localization) spatially varies by four times or even more. Such a significant change in the frequency of occurrence of cancer cases of mans and women within limited areas univocally showed on the local factors that can provoke such an increase in morbidity. Considerable radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident within this area obvious could be such a factor. However, the obtained maps showed a high level of differentiation before the Chernobyl catastrophe and no definite correlation with radionuclide fallout maps. In any case, in our opinion, the revealed zones of enhanced cancer morbidity and those where the morbidity appeared to be minimal should become the objects of priority study. Those which represent the highest density of cancer cases need priority examination and prevention.

The study was partly funded by RFBR and BRFBR project #20-55-00012 and BRFBR project # Х20Р-386. 

How to cite: Romanov, S., Chervan, A., and Korobova, E.: Spatial analysis of cancer distribution in Gomel and Mogilev oblasts of Belarus as a preliminary stage for revealing the provoking local factors, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10118, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10118, 2022.

09:02–09:09
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EGU22-4773
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ECS
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Presentation form not yet defined
Rustam Tembotov, Ivan Kushnov, Evgeny Abakumov, and Sebastian Zubrzycki

The problem of retreating glaciers is pronounced in almost all high-altitude and high-latitude landscapes. Black carbon is considered as one of the most important pollutants that contributes to global climate change and the melting of glaciers, especially in polar and mountainous regions due to formation of cryoconite. It is a supraglacial sediment which represents a mixture of black carbon, mineral particles and organic matter. Cryoconites are considered as accumulators of various pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trace elements and radionuclides, which can be transported by aeolian and water flows to the downstream ecosystems and affect the safety of the region both directly and indirectly, through the cultivation of crops and grazing. Moreover, cryoconites considerably reduce the albedo of the glacier and take part in formation of primary soils after its retreat which is especially important in the context of global climate change.

The main purpose of this research is to study the pollution of cryoconites, other sediments and soils by trace elements at the Central Caucasus mountainous region, Russia. Cryoconite, moraines and mudflows were sampled from the biggest valley glacier at the Caucasus mountains, Bezengi Glacier; cryoconite derived soils were collected from the Khulamo-Bezengi Gorge. Chernozems and fresh mudflow samples were collected at Baksan Gorge. Trace elements content was determined by flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method according to the standard ISO 11047-1998 at Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. We determined concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd due to the facts that they are the most toxic for human health as well as they are mostly accumulated in a black carbon.

High concentrations of Zn (70.9 mg/kg) and Pb (30.0 mg/kg) in cryoconites have been determined on the Bezengi Glacier, which may be due to both local human activities and allochthonous pollution associated with the arrival of contaminated air masses from other regions. The content of Cu (max. 17.4 mg*kg), Ni (max. 19.0 mg*kg) and Cd (max. 0.052 mg*kg) was relatively low. However, concentrations of Zn (max. 89.2 mg*kg) and Cd (max. 0.313 mg*kg) in cryoconite derived soils were higher than in cryoconite which indicates high input of polluted material from the glacier into downstream ecosystems. The highest level of pollution with some trace elements has been determined in fresh mudflow: Cu = 40.7 mg*kg, Zn = 89.3 mg*kg, Ni = 42.0 mg*kg which also indicates that sediments act as a source of pollutants for mountain ecosystems. Pollution of Chernozems with trace elements was higher than in moraine sediments, however, it was lower than in cryoconites which shows possible impact of these sediments on pollution status of soils in mountainous region.

This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No 19-05-50107 “The role of microparticles of organic carbon in degradation of ice cover of polar regions of the Earth”.

How to cite: Tembotov, R., Kushnov, I., Abakumov, E., and Zubrzycki, S.: Trace elements accumulation in cryoconites and periglacial soils of the Central Caucasus, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4773, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4773, 2022.

09:09–09:14
Geochemical risks in agricultural conditions
09:14–09:21
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EGU22-5779
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Andrey Barbashev, Tamara Dudnikova, Tatiana Minkina, Svetlana Sushkova, Gulnora Bakoeva, Elena Tikhonenko, Natalya Chernikova, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, and Hazrat Amin

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds of the benzene series, which differ in the number of benzene rings. Due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, they have been included in the list of priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Community. Among all PAHs, there is a mutagen and a carcinogen of the 1st hazard class - benzo (a) pyrene (BaP), which is most often used as a marker of environmental pollution with PAHs. Up to 95% of the emitted pollutants are accumulated by the soil in various chemical forms. Since plants are inextricably linked with the soil, it becomes necessary to study the behaviour of PAHs in the formed plant-soil system. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of BaP on the morphometric characteristics of tomato plants under the conditions of a model experiment.

The studies were carried out under the conditions of a vegetation experiment. The soil was sifted through a sieve with a diameter of 1 mm and placed in 2 kg pots in 4 L pots. A BaP solution in acetonitrile was added to the soil surface based on the creation of a pollutant concentration in the soil of 400 and 1200 ng / g, which corresponds to 20 and 60 MPC of BaP. The original uncontaminated soil was used as a control. The soil was sown with tomato plants (Solánum lycopérsicum) of the early maturing variety White filling 241. The experiment was repeated three times. We analyzed such morphometric parameters as root length and stem height, as well as dry biomass of plants.

The root length and stem height in the control sample is set at 32 and 63 cm, respectively. In the samples contaminated with 20 MPC BaP, these indicators were lower, so the root length was 19 cm, and the stem height was 40 cm. In the samples with the introduction of 60 MPC BaP, the root length decreased to 14 cm and the stem height - to 27 cm.

In the control sample, the dry biomass of the roots was 10.3 g and the vegetative part was 80.2 g. When 20 MPC BaP was applied, these parameters decreased to 6.8 g of roots and 67 g of the vegetative part. In the samples with the introduction of 60 MPC BaP, the biomass of the roots was 3.1 g and the biomass of the vegetative part was 44 g, which is lower than the control values.

Thus, a decrease in the length of roots and the height of plant stems, as well as a decrease in their biomass relative to the control values, was established, which indicates that tomato plants are quite susceptible to soil pollution with BaP.

The research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation project on the development of the Young Scientist Laboratory (no. LabNOTs-21-01AB).

How to cite: Barbashev, A., Dudnikova, T., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Bakoeva, G., Tikhonenko, E., Chernikova, N., Rahman, M. M., and Amin, H.: Effect of benzo(a)pyrene on the morphometric characteristics of tomato plants (Solanum Lycopersicum) under the conditions of a model experiment, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5779, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5779, 2022.

09:21–09:28
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EGU22-2770
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Tatiana Bauer, Vishnu D. Rajput, Tatiana Minkina, Chernikova Natalya, Vladimir Beschetnikov, Aleksei Fedorenko, Svetlana Sushkova, and Saglara Mandzhieva

The application of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing drastically, especially in crop production. The repeated inputs of metal-based NPs in agri-field could increase their concentration in soil, and cause a threat to sustainable crop production. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the role of spore-forming metal tolerant bacteria (MTB) and biochar (B) to alleviate the toxic effects of high dose of ZnO NPs (2000 mg kg-1) on plants (Hordeum sativum L.) spiked to the soil. For detailed evaluation, the five treatments were used such as 1) clean soil, 2) soil+NPs, 3) soil+NPs+MTB, 4) soil+NPs+B and 5) soil+NPs+B+MTB in plastic vessels in triplicate. The addition of MTB and B showed a promising impact on H. sativum growth in combination and individual inputs. The application of MTB to the contaminated soil reduced the mobility of Zn by 7%, mainly due to exchangeable compounds, and B reduced mobility up to 33%, because of a decrease in equally exchangeable, complex, and specifically sorbed forms. The combined introduction of MTB and B reduced most effectively the actual and potential content of Zn compounds in soil. The content of Zn in H. sativum tissues was increased drastically, especially in ZnO NPs contaminated soil. MTB and B in the contaminated soil reduced Zn accumulation in H. sativum roots by 20% and 63%, and in the aboveground tissues by 11% and 68%, respectively, compared to ZnO NPs polluted soil without amendments. The combined application of MTB and B showed the greatest decrease in Zn accumulation in H. sativum tissues. The root length and H. sativum height was decreased by 52% and 40% in contaminated soil. However, the addition of B, both separately and in combination with MTB reduced root length by 48% and 85%, and plant height by 53% and 40%, respectively, compared to polluted control. The anatomical results also showed an improvement in cellular- sub-cellular organelles, especially in chloroplast by B and in combination with MTB. The results indicate that metal-tolerant bacteria and biochar could be an effective soil amendment to decrease metal toxicity enhance crop growth, and improve soil health.

The research was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 19-34-60041.

How to cite: Bauer, T., Rajput, V. D., Minkina, T., Natalya, C., Beschetnikov, V., Fedorenko, A., Sushkova, S., and Mandzhieva, S.: Insights into biochar and metals tolerant bacteria in alleviating ZnO nanoparticles toxicity in plant, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2770, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2770, 2022.

09:28–09:35
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EGU22-11146
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Natalia Chernikova, Arpna Kumari, Vasiliy Chokheli, Vishnu Rajput, Saglara Mandzhieva, Viktoria Shuvaeva, Viktoria Tsitsuashvili, Anatoly Barakhov, Dina Nevidomskaya, Michael Kirichkov, and Alena Timoshenko

Improper dumps are one of the most common indicators of accumulated harm and are a source of a wide range of pollutants entering the environment. The waste of packaging materials, household chemicals, agrochemicals, used industrial catalysts, ash from thermal waste disposal, and other contaminants have been identified as sources of their introduction into soils from dumps. The accelerated applications of nano-forms of metals are one of the emerging concerns. Like other contaminants, the soil is the main sink for nanoparticles (NPs). Undoubtedly, in the last decade, metal NPs have been recognized for their numerous roles in research and development but due to their increasing amount in the environment, these emerging issues cannot be ignored. Therefore, with this background, the current work was proposed, in which, Pisum sativum L. was exposed to nano-disperse (30-50 nm) and macro-disperse (3-5 μm) forms of metal oxide viz., Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cd, Ti, Ni, and Pb at the doses of 3, 30, and 90 background contamination (in mg/kg). After 3-4 days of exposure, the emerged roots were harvested, cleaned with distilled water, and fixed in Clark’s fluid (aceto-alcohol) for further analyses. For microscopic observations, slides were prepared using the squash technique. In this work, the mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were recorded to depict the extent of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, respectively. The experimental outcomes revealed that the maximal genotoxicity was found in all soil samples at the level of 90 background contamination, regardless of the macro- or nano-state of the metals. Besides, the commonly observed chromosomal aberrations were bridges and fragments. Also, cell ruptures at the metaphase stage, forming a metaphase plate was found but rarely. Thus, the current observation depicted the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of different nano- and macro-disperse forms of metals, however further studies are needed to explore the responsible mechanisms for these toxicological vulnerabilities.  

This study was supported by Russian Science Foundation project no. 21-77-20089.

How to cite: Chernikova, N., Kumari, A., Chokheli, V., Rajput, V., Mandzhieva, S., Shuvaeva, V., Tsitsuashvili, V., Barakhov, A., Nevidomskaya, D., Kirichkov, M., and Timoshenko, A.: Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of macro- and nano-form of heavy metals in Pisum sativum L. grown in soil, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11146, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11146, 2022.

09:35–09:42
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EGU22-10220
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Highlight
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Presentation form not yet defined
Manuel Hernandez, Rosa Peñalver, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia Campillo, Ignacio López-García, and Pilar Viñas

There is a continuous increase of the use of plastic materials globally, which makes difficult to manage their waste, constituting an important source of pollution for the different environmental areas. Specifically, the long-term quality and productivity of agricultural soils is affected by the contamination of these plastic residues, being these pollutants mainly present as microplastics coming from the degradation of the larger initial plastic contaminants. In addition, plastics contain different additives to improve their properties which are normally toxic organic compounds which may have a negative impact to the agricultural environment.

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate an analytical method based in a solid-liquid extraction stage followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MC) to determine volatile organic compounds related to plastics (monomers, additives, and degradation products) in soil samples of agricultural areas. For this purpose, a number of samples were collected in a wide zone located in the Rambla del Beal (Cartagena, Spain).

The optimized method has allowed the quantification of 14 volatile compounds, such as styrene, phthalates or bisphenol A that may be released from plastic residues, because they are monomeric species or additives. Other species associated to the degradation (environmental conditions over time) of the plastic residues such as 2,4-diterbutylphenol have been also found in the samples.

In addition, a non-targeted approach has been developed for the identification of other pollutants present in the soil samples without the use of standards. This goal was achieved by the use of the mass spectrometer detector working in the full scan mode and the application of MS database libraries (NIST and Wiley).

This analytical methodology represents a basis for a reliable evaluation of the presence of plastic pollutants in soils through the determination of their additives, monomers and degradation compounds.

 

The authors are grateful to the Spanish MICINN (Project PGC2018-098363-B-100) for financial support

How to cite: Hernandez, M., Peñalver, R., Arroyo-Manzanares, N., Campillo, N., López-García, I., and Viñas, P.: An approach for evaluating the level of plastic residues in agricultural soils, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10220, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10220, 2022.

09:42–09:49
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EGU22-10054
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Ilia Lobzenko, Tatiana Bauer, Marina Burachevskaya, Tatiana Minkina, Alexey Fedorenko, Mahmoud Mazarji, Svetlana Sushkova, Saglara Mandzhieva, Vishnu Rajput, Inna Zamulina, Alexey Scherbakov, and Viktoria Severina

Biochar is the perfect solution to reduce the adverse effects of climate change by adopting viable solutions inspired by nature. Since biochar can be made from a variety of different sources, the paper aims to compare the properties of biochar made from different sources, including wood, sunflower, and rice husk. The results obtained from the elemental analysis showed that there are no exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of trace elements in any of the samples. Moreover, it was found silicon oxide is presented in rice husk. IR spectroscopy of wood biochar and sunflower husk biochar showed the presence of hydroxyl functional groups and aliphatic C-H groups of cellulose, as well as phenolic functional groups and esters. In addition, the total surface area of the wood biochar and rice husk biochar is found to be highest and lowest, respectively. It was found that the total volume of pores in the following descending order rice husk>wood>sunflower. The SEM and 3D confocal microscopy results indicate that wood biochar contains the surface with the most upside-down as compared to other samples. The XRD demonstrated that wood and sunflower husk biochar samples take crystallinity from cellulose compared to rice husk biochar. TGA results manifested that the wood biochar is more stable, and the new step as the decomposition of lignin part results by increasing the temperature up to 500 °C. The addition of all the biochars to the soil (Сalcaric Fluvic Arenosols) increases the sorption capacity of the soil under mono- and polyelement contamination by copper, zinc, and lead.

This study was supported by RFBR project no. 19-05-50097, Grant of the President of Russian Federation project no. МК-6137.2021.1.5 and by the Strategic Academic Leadership Program of the Southern Federal University ("Priority 2030").

How to cite: Lobzenko, I., Bauer, T., Burachevskaya, M., Minkina, T., Fedorenko, A., Mazarji, M., Sushkova, S., Mandzhieva, S., Rajput, V., Zamulina, I., Scherbakov, A., and Severina, V.: Analysis and comparison of the composition, functional groups, sorption characteristics and surface structure of biochar affected by biomass feedstock , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10054, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10054, 2022.

09:49–09:56
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EGU22-9248
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Tatiana Minkina, Elizaveta Konstantinova, Nevidomskaya Dina, Tatiana Bauer, Saglara Mandzhieva, Vishnu Rajput, Irina Deryabkina, Vladimir Beschetnikov, Iliya Lobzenko, Svetlana Sushkova, and Muhammad Tukur Bayero

The Lower Don basin and the adjacent coastal zone of the Azov Sea are considered one of the most economically developed and anthropogenically transformed regions within Southern Russia. This territory is characterized by a high degree of urbanization, intensive agriculture, and diverse transport infrastructure facilities. Long-term anthropogenic activities have resulted in a strong transformation of the natural environment of the Lower Don floodplain, the Don Delta and Taganrog Bay coast. One of the main consequences of human activities is related to the degradation of vegetation and soil cover of subaquatic landscapes caused by pollution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). The main aim of this study was to assess potential environmental risks of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in soils of the Lower Don floodplain and the Taganrog Bay coast.

The floodplain and coastal landscapes of the study area are dominated by Eutric and Calcaric Gleyic Fluvisols, Gleyic Fluvisols (Humic), Gleyic Phaeozems and Haplic Chernozems which are background soils of the region are less common. Soil samples were collected in summer 2020 from the surface soil horizon (0–20 cm deep). The total concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined in air-dried powder samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis using a Spectroscan MAX-GV spectrometer (Spectron, Russia). Environmental risks were assessed using potential ecological risk factor (Er) and the potential ecological risk index (RI) based on the single pollution index (PI) and modified potential ecological risk factor (MEr) and the modified potential ecological risk index (MRI) based on the Müller geoaccumulation index (Igeo).

The obtained results showed that Er and MEr indicated a low ecological risk for most of the PTEs studied, with the exception of Cd, which was found to be moderate in 8% and 3.5% of the samples, respectively. The highest values of both Er and MEr for Cd were detected in the soils of the Don Delta. Integral ecological risk assessed using RI and MRI, based on the sum of all Er and MEr, respectively, was low in all samples studied. Values of RI ranged from 10.52 to 86.87 with a mean of 32.2. Similar results were observed for MRI, which ranged from 7.01 to 57.91 with a mean of 21.46. The highest values of both RI and MRI were observed in soils of the Don Delta in the vicinity of urbanized territories, which indicates an additional supply of PTEs due to more significant anthropogenic pressure. Thus, according to the results of the study, the risk of a potential negative impact of soil pollution on adjacent components of the landscapes of the Lower Don and Taganrog Bay does not cause serious concerns. Apparently, a relatively favourable land-use regime with a predominance of agriculture has developed in the region.

This work was funded by the Russian Science Foundation, grant no. 20-14-00317.

How to cite: Minkina, T., Konstantinova, E., Dina, N., Bauer, T., Mandzhieva, S., Rajput, V., Deryabkina, I., Beschetnikov, V., Lobzenko, I., Sushkova, S., and Tukur Bayero, M.: Ecological risks of PTEs pollution in soils of the Lower Don floodplain and the Taganrog Bay coast, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9248, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9248, 2022.

09:56–10:00
Coffee break
Chairpersons: Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, Vladimir Baranchukov, Maria Manuela Abreu
Geochemical risks in mining and industrial conditions
10:20–10:27
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EGU22-9123
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Presentation form not yet defined
Jaume Bech, Alexey Alekseenko, Maria Machevariani, and Daniel Karthe

The extraction of solid fossil fuels results in the accumulation of overburden and host rocks stored on the Earth's surface. Coal mining sites are among the most disturbed and polluted areas. Soils are affected by these transformations in multiple ways, including structural changes, the loss or suppression of vegetation cover, and the migration and accumulation of chemical elements in soils and water. To assess the global concentrations of chemical elements in the coal mine soils, we discussed and developed a meta-study on pollutants in Technosols and altered natural soils. For this, we collected data from papers published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2022, covering 25 major coal-producing countries of Eurasia, Africa, Australia, and the Americas. To understand better the patterns of soil pollution driven by coal extraction itself, we gathered the concentrations measured in soils, spoils, and dumps near open-cut and underground coal mines. For the same reason, the data on pollutants in remediated or reclaimed soils, as well as in soils near coal power plants (or other pollution sources) were excluded. Likewise, we did not consider other abiotic (e.g., coal ash, mine water) or biotic media (e.g., grasses, trees, and plants in general)  even though they are undoubtedly interlinked. Moreover, the data on soil pollution are far more abundant and thus statistically significant.

The typical set of keywords used for searching in databases included “coal mine”, “soil/dumps”, “pollution/contamination”, and “elements/metals”. Obviously, other terms like “colliery”, or “wasterock”, or “geochemical transformation” were applied too but gave fewer search results. To harmonize measurement units, we recalculated all data to mg/kg or ppm. When necessary, concentrations were recalculated from oxides into elemental forms. To confirm the representativeness of the figures, we checked the number of specimens analyzed in each research. The total number of samples used in the meta-study was over 7,000. For the standard statistical processing, the mean concentrations were collected alongside the minimum and maximum contents, and standard deviation values; when not provided in a paper, they were calculated from the raw data. After that, we obtained the average contents of chemical elements that characterize each coalfield separately.

The preliminary results reveal that priority pollutants are inherited from the world averages for trace element contents in coals rather than the natural background. In other words, concentrations of priority pollutants are predominantly determined by coal extraction and the release of related pollutants. The research outcomes indicate that the oxidation-reduction and alkaline-acid milieu, water and temperature regimes, sorption capacity, and other landscape-geochemical conditions are being ambiguously transformed in new ecosystems and can be derived from both natural conditions and the man-inflicted damage. The geochemical cycles in biocenoses are altered and the tasks for their restoration may vary significantly. The established global concentrations of chemical elements in coal mine soils can be used for comparative assessments and the management of legacy contamination and soil/landscape rehabilitation in post-mining regions. However, remediation efforts will also need to consider site-specific geological, hydrological, and climatic characteristics as well as socio-economic conditions and other regional development objectives.

How to cite: Bech, J., Alekseenko, A., Machevariani, M., and Karthe, D.: Global pollutant concentrations in coal mine soils: Discussing an approach to the meta-study , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9123, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9123, 2022.

10:27–10:34
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EGU22-12209
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Alexander Kostin, Pavel Krechetov, Olga Chernitsova, and Elena Terskaya

Long-term coal mining (more than 50 years) in the Moscow basin has a complex negative effect on soils. Because of underground mining at coal fields spoil heaps with a high content of iron sulfides, aluminosilicates and organic carbon of coal origin were formed. Oxidation of sulfides and acid hydrolysis of aluminosilicates in waste dumps results in the producing of toxic sulfuric acid, Al and Fe sulfates (Nordstrom and Alpers 1999). Acid mine drainage (AMD) entering from eroded spoil heaps, leads to physico-chemical and morphological changes in soil characteristics. On foreslopes around spoil heaps technogenically transformed soils are common. Our study aimed at evaluation of post-mining geochemical evolution of chemical composition and properties of solid and liquid soil phases.

We examined two key sites within abandoned coal mine fields in the central part of the Moscow basin. Predominant natural soils are Greyic Phaeozems and Haplic Chernozems (WRB 2014) (Grey forest and Leached Chernozems in Russian classification).

Soil samples and displaced soil solutions (by ethanol) were analysed for acid-base properties, content and composition of readily soluble salts, content of Fe2+ and Fe3+, H+ and Al3+, composition of exchangeable cations, heavy metals (HM) and organic carbon) by standard methods. The composition of clay minerals in soils were determined by X-ray diffractometry. The saturation degree of soil solutions by gypsum, iron and aluminum hydroxides was estimated.

Properties of technogenic soils differ significantly from natural soils. We observed the transformation of the composition of soil solutions. Key geochemical processes at mine sites in contaminated soils were: (1) acidification and Fe-Al-SO4 salinization of entire soil profile along with the increment in H+ and Al3+ ions content; (2) cation exchange, leading to displacement of Cа2+ and Mg2+ ions by Al3+, H+ and, probably, by Fe2+ and Fe3+ in soil cation-exchange complex (CEC); (3) alteration of radial differentiation of organic carbon and carbonates in soils; (4) clay mineral transformations.

Topsoil features a high content of technogenic organic carbon (reaches 12%) due to the inflow of coal material particles from the dump. Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions predominate (for 70 to 90%) in CEC of natural soils. Exchangeable Al3+ accounts for more than 75% of the acidity formation in transformed soils. The share of exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ in CEC of contaminated soils depletes on 22-38%.

Extracted soil solutions from polluted soils are heavily oversaturated by Al hydroxides. Even though the activity of Ca2+ and SO42- ions in some samples reaches the gypsum saturation level, gypsum neoformations are not distinguished morphologically.

The content of Co, Сu, Ni and Zn in displaced solutions of transformed soils in tens or even hundreds times exceeds the background values. The clay minerals of natural soils are represented by kaolinite, illite, vermiculite and mixed-layer minerals. The sharp increase in smectite fraction (up to 75-80%) and slightly in chlorite fraction was revealed in transformed soils.

Post-technogenic soils have no analogues in natural forest-steppe landscapes of the Russian Plain.

 

How to cite: Kostin, A., Krechetov, P., Chernitsova, O., and Terskaya, E.: Geochemical transformations in liquid and solid phases of forest-steppe soils in the affected area of Moscow brown coal basin (Russia), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12209, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12209, 2022.

10:34–10:41
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EGU22-4373
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Presentation form not yet defined
Martin Mihaljevic, Vojtech Ettler, and Ales Vanek

The purpose of this study is to describe the Tl distribution and accumulation rates in Czech peat soils with contrasting anthropogenic loads. Nine peat cores were sampled in the mountain areas of the Czech Republic (6 cores in the northern part affected by emissions from coal-burning power plants and 3 in the pristine southern part). In addition, 3 cores were collected close to the Pb mining and smelting area of Pribram. Cores were 210-Pb dated and trace metals/metalloids were measured in the digests by ICP-MS. Maximum Tl concentrations in peat were significantly higher in the polluted northern areas (1.16 mg/kg) and close to the Pb smelter (0.83 mg/kg) than in the pristine area (0.45 mg/kg). Thallium distribution well correlated with other metals (Pb, Hg) and metalloids (As, Sb). Thallium enrichment factors (EFs) calculated against Sc reached the maximum value of 17 indicating significant input of anthropogenic Tl. Thallium accumulation rates in peat varied between 20 and 50 µg/m2/y until 1930s, followed by a significant increase related to industrial activities in the northern part of the Czech Republic (up to 290 µg/m2/y in 1980s). In contrast, maximum Tl accumulation rate at the pristine site was 88 µg/m2/y. Data from the vicinity of Pb mines/smelter indicated higher accumulation rates even in the second half of the 19th century (between 50 and 200 µg/m2/y) followed by a significant decrease in late 1970s as a result of more efficient flue gas cleaning technology installed in the smelter during this period. 

How to cite: Mihaljevic, M., Ettler, V., and Vanek, A.: Is thallium in peat a good indicator of anthropogenic contamination?  Examples from Czech sites with contrasting pollution histories., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4373, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4373, 2022.

10:41–10:48
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EGU22-10446
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Highlight
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Presentation form not yet defined
Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, Maria Jose Martínez Sánchez, Salvadora Martínez López, Lucia Belén Martínez Martínez, Carmen Hernández Pérez, Carmen Gomez Martinez, Manuel Hernández-Córdoba, and Jaume Bech

Arsenic is a Potentially Toxic Element (PTE), which is present in the soils/sediments of abandoned mining areas, such as the Sierra Minera de Cartagena La-Unión and the mining site of Mazarron (SE Spain) and its areas of influence. In order to assess the risk to human health and the ecosystem, it is necessary to know the nature of the materials that contain this PTE, their alterability and their speciation.

On the one hand, there is a geogenic relationship between this element and materials rich in phyllosilicates and Fe minerals. These minerals can constitute primary mineralisation such as sulphide veins (pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc.) or secondary mineralisation such as haematite, goethite, siderite, jarosite, etc., and can even be found as a mineral phase forming various arsenates. Another very important aspect is the climatology of the area, which coincides with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate with infrequent but very heavy rainfall.

The As concentration range in the studied areas is very wide (5000 -70 mg.Kg-1), with an average value of 150 mg.Kg-1, being As (V) the predominant species. Only soils located in wetland areas with permanent waterlogging can show significant concentrations of As(III). 

The As content in surface waters, such as runoff water, is low, only reaching significant values (>2 mg.L-1) when these waters are acid mine drainage and have pH values <2, coinciding in these cases with the presence of reduced As forms.

Particulate As is associated both with Fe oxides and hydroxides, through surface adsorption processes on Fe(OH)3 particles, and with carbonates, through precipitation reactions as calcium arsenate. These reactions are evident in some places such as wadis that transport particulate and dissolved materials from areas affected by mining, and mainly take place both in the riverbed and in flooding areas when rainfall events occur.

For an appropriate understanding of the main processes involved, a detailed scheme is given. It should be noted that the dynamics of this PTE is of a particular interest in the zones studied due to the proximity of urban sites.

 

How to cite: Pérez-Sirvent, C., Martínez Sánchez, M. J., Martínez López, S., Martínez Martínez, L. B., Hernández Pérez, C., Gomez Martinez, C., Hernández-Córdoba, M., and Bech, J.: Arsenic dynamics in soils placed near old mining sites in SE Spain, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10446, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10446, 2022.

10:48–10:55
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EGU22-2348
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Presentation form not yet defined
Guliaeva Uliana, Kuzmina Tatyana, and Ermakov Vadim

In the Urov sub-region of the biosphere (Eastern Transbaikalia), a local increased content of Sr in soils and plants was found due to high concentrations of Sr in soil-forming rocks (carbonated granites). The purpose of this study is to assess the concentrations of Ca and Sr in the technozem of dumps and quarries of seven developed deposits (W-Mo, Mo-Cu, Pb-Zn, Au). The fraction of technozem (< 1 mm) was ground to a grain size of 150-200 mesh and analyzed by XRF. The content of Ca and Sr in plant mowing was determined by the flame variant of AAS. It was found that the content of Ca and Sr in 25 samples of technozem varied between 4970-37200 mg/kg (Ca) and 100-620 mg/kg (Sr). The average content of Sr is 308 ± 122 mg/kg. The increased Sr content was characteristic of carbonate technozems with an increased level of Ca (Mo-Cu ore occurrence). Increased accumulation of Ca and Sr in mowing plants was found in the technozems of the Zhireken Mo-Cu deposit: 35100 mg/kg (Ca) and 397 mg/kg (Sr). In general, the concentrations of Ca and Sr in technozem approach to their content in conditionally background soils and do not significantly contribute to the pollution of natural landscapes within the Urov-region of the biosphere.

How to cite: Uliana, G., Tatyana, K., and Vadim, E.: Ca and Sr in the technozem of various ore deposits of Eastern Transbaikalia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2348, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2348, 2022.

10:55–11:02
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EGU22-461
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ECS
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Anju Verma and Sudesh Yadav

Metal pollution in surface soils of industrial and urban areas is of concern owing to risk to human health and ecosystem and to its transport via winds and water. This study was aimed to determine total concentrations, contamination levels and source identification of metals in surface soil (n=37) from the Bhiwadi Industrial Cluster (BIC; a satellite industrial township to New Delhi). Average metal concentrations in surface soil exceeded their corresponding values in Upper Continental Crust (UCC, taken as background here) and varied depending upon metal(s) and sampling sites(s). Intensive industrial emissions/activities in BIC lead to high contamination factors (CFs > 6) and high pollution load indices (PLI > 1) for metals in surface soil. Average CFs followed the order Cr > Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Pb > Mn > V > Fe. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) of metals in surface soils fall under unpolluted to extremely polluted for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, unpolluted to heavily polluted for Mn and Pb and unpolluted to moderately polluted for Fe and V. Ecological risk assessment in surface soil samples showed low to extremely high potential ecological risk for Cr, Cu and Ni, considerable to extremely high ecological risk for Cd, low to considerable ecological risk for Pb and low ecological risk for Mn, V and Zn. Risk (RI) values indicated that 37.8% of surface soil samples carried very high risk (RI > 600) of metal contamination in this industrial cluster. Findings suggested that proper waste collection and disposal techniques should be employed to safeguard human health and ecological risk in the region.  

How to cite: Verma, A. and Yadav, S.: Metal Pollution And Ecological Risk Assessment In Surface Soil Of An Emerging Industrial Cluster Near New Delhi, India, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-461, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-461, 2022.

11:02–11:06
Geochemical risks in urban and rural conditions
11:06–11:13
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EGU22-8325
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Vladimir Baranchukov, Elena Korobova, Sergey Romanov, and Irina Kurnosova

Bryansk region is only Russian, where total radionuclide contamination exceeding 1480 kBq/m2 was detected after the Chernobyl accident. At the same time, a definite increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (ICD-10 code C73) was recorded in this area. From 1990 to 2020, thyroid cancer morbidity in the region increased up to 18.7 cases per 100 000 population compared to the mean value of this parameter for Russia is 6.2 (Kaprin et al., 2020) and 6.0 global (Deng et al., 2020).

To study the geochemical factors responsible for the distribution of thyroid gland diseases, we applied some specialized geographic information system methods. Our approach is based on the idea of a two-layers spatial structure of the modern noosphere (Korobova, 2017). According to the developed approach, the natural geochemical background presented by the soil cover structure is overlain by technogenic contamination fields. In this case, we hypothesize that revealing the causes of the diseases is possible by evaluating the correlation between the two structures: the geochemical and the diseases'.

To analyze the spatial distribution of morbidity, we used the method of kernel density (Silverman, 1986) and the analysis of the obtained maps of thyroid cancer allowed us to identify five territories (with an area of 100-200 km2) characterized by high morbidity (18.0-55.7 cases) and four territories with low morbidity (2.7-10.6 cases). Spatial evaluation of the difference between the original experimental data on iodine content in soils, drinking water, and 137Cs deposition in settlements located in areas with high and low thyroid mobidity was performed to estimate natural and anthropogenic geochemical factors contributing to the spread of thyroid diseases. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test showed significantly higher iodine content in centralized water supply (Z=1.46, p=0.06), pasture soils (Z=2.10, p=0.03), local milk (Z=1.71, p=0.08), and lower 137Cs deposition, which is used to the restoration of 131I contamination of the territory (Z=-4.43, p<0.001) in areas with low thyroid morbidity). In our opinion, this witnesses a definite contribution of geochemical factors (iodine deficiency and radioiodine contamination) to the specific spatial distribution of thyroid gland diseases.

The study was partly funded by RFBR (project #20-55-00012) and BRFBR (project #X20P-386).

References:

Kaprin, A., Starinsky, V., Prteova, G. (Eds.) (2021). Malignant neoplasms in Russia in 2020 (morbidity and mortality). National Medical Research Radiological Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow (in Russian)

Deng, Y. et al. (2020). Global Burden of Thyroid Cancer From 1990 to 2017. JAMA Network Open, 3(6), e208759. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8759

Korobova, E.M. (2017). Principles of spatial organization and evolution of the biosphere and the noosphere. Geochem. Int. 55, 1205–1282 (2017) doi:10.1134/S001670291713002X

Silverman, B.W. (1986). Density estimation for statistics and data analysis: Monographs on statistics and applied probability. London; New York: Chapman and Hall

How to cite: Baranchukov, V., Korobova, E., Romanov, S., and Kurnosova, I.: Comparison of the Spatial Distribution of Thyroid Cancer Morbidity and Geochemical Factors in Areas of the Bryansk Region (Russia), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8325, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8325, 2022.

11:13–11:20
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EGU22-2506
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Virtual presentation
Olga Chernitsova, Natalia Kosheleva, Olga Popovicheva, Dmitry Vlasov, and Oxana Erina

Environmental geochemical studies of urban territories involve heterogeneous information that can be most effectively processed within a unified database (DB). Since a significant portion of the accumulated data is georeferenced, geographic information technologies should be used at all stages of the researches. The purpose of this work is to consider the structure of the DB for information support of ecological and geochemical studies of different urban environments in Moscow within the framework of the Russian Science Foundation project No. 19-77-30004 "Integrated technology for environmental assessment of Moscow megacity based on chemical analysis of microparticle composition in the "atmosphere - snow - road dust - soil - surface water" system (Megacity)".

The project aims to develop technologies for the chemical analysis of the urban environments impacted by the pollutants coming from vehicles, industry, and construction sites, as well as the assessment of the environmental state of the megacity. Various components of the environment are analyzed at several spatial scales: for the entire Moscow city, for administrative districts, for drainage basins of two urban rivers (Moskva and its tributary Setun). The composition of pollutant emissions is characterized using monitoring aerosol data at the Meteorological Observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Microparticles PM10 and PM2.5 are analyzed for the content of elemental carbon, ionic and organic compounds, as well as potentially toxic elements, under different meteorological conditions and seasonal variations. The fallout of aerosols during winter is determined by the chemical analysis of dissolved and solid fractions of snow samples and its comparison with a natural background. Water migration of pollutants is assessed by analyzing river flows (water and suspended/bottom sediments) at reference stations in the Moskva River basin. The ecological state of road dust and soils that accumulate pollutants is estimated in geochemical surveying. Finally, source apportionment is quantified using statistical methods of multivariate analysis.

The development of a DB with the integrated geographic information system (GIS) allows systematizing the spatial and non-spatial information accumulated in field works, chemical and analytical studies, and organizing effective data storage and processing along with providing geoinformation support for DB users. We created four DB subsystems designed for: (1) processing georeferenced data (GIS); (2) working with time series; (3) handling regulatory and reference information; (4) assessing pollution and environmental hazard with computational models. For Moscow megacity, GIS brings together two large blocks of information: spatial layers stored within the geodatabase and spreadsheets with the results of field studies and chemical analyses. The main functions of the GIS are geoprocessing, execution of non-spatial and spatial queries, data analysis (including exploratory spatial data analysis and modeling), visualization of the results.

The report will present subsystems of the DB and the interrelationships between them. The use of the database in practice will be considered on the example of assessing the pollution of road dust with benzo(a)pyrene, accounting for anthropogenic and natural factors.

How to cite: Chernitsova, O., Kosheleva, N., Popovicheva, O., Vlasov, D., and Erina, O.: Database for geochemical assessment of the urban environments: a spatially oriented approach, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2506, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2506, 2022.

11:20–11:27
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EGU22-8951
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Virtual presentation
Elizaveta Konstantinova, Anatoliy Barakhov, Natal’ya Chernikova, Tamara Dudnikova, Andrey Barbashev, and Iliya Lobzenko

Long-term anthropogenic impact as a result of urbanization leads to environmental pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Soil metal contamination poses significant risks for the conjugated landscape components and for the public health. Taganrog is the second largest city in the Rostov Oblast with a population of 248,600 people, with a developed metallurgy and mechanical engineering. The aim of the study is to evaluate possible ecological and human health risks related to PTEs in urban topsoils of Taganrog.

Topsoil samples (0–20 cm deep) were collected in summer 2021. The total concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis using a Spectroscan MAX-GV spectrometer (Spectron, Russia). Individual environmental risks were assessed using the potential ecological risk factors (Er and MEr), integral risks were identified using the potential ecological risk indices (RI and MRI). Human health risk assessment was based on the US EPA model (1989). The noncarcinogenic risk, expressed as a hazard quotient (HQ), was evaluated by comparing the average daily dose of pollutant with a reference dose. To assess the cumulative noncarcinogenic risk, a total hazard index (HI) was used. The carcinogenic risk (CR) was calculated as lifetime average daily dose of a pollutant multiplied by the corresponding carcinogen slope factor. The total carcinogenic risk (TCR) of exposure to elements along all routes of intake was calculated as sum of CR.

The individual ecological risks of all elements were low (Er and MEr <40), with the exception of Cd. The environmental risk due to Cd pollution, assessed by Er, was moderate (55.8–70.1) in 27.3% of the samples and considerable (89.4–106.6) in 18.2% of the samples. In 36.4% of the samples was moderate Cd risk (MEr 41.6–71.1). According to RI, moderate risk was detected only in 9.1% of samples; the rest of the samples are characterized by a low risk. Values of RI ranged from 20.6 to 197.1 with a mean of 84.0. The integral environmental risk, assessed by MRI, was low in all studied samples and ranged from 13.7 to 131.4.

Noncarcinogenic risks were more likely caused by intake of As and Pb (HQ>1). For both children and adults, the risk associated with the oral intake of pollutants was the greatest. The HI values for children varied from 0.9 to 5.6, on average 2.3, for adults - from 0.1 to 0.7, on average 0.3. Most of the territory was characterized by a medium non-carcinogenic risk for children (90.9% of samples) and a low risk for adults (100%). Significant CR (>1 × 10−6) was associated with long-term exposure to As and Pb. The TCR values under the combined effect of PTEs ranged from 2.1 × 10-5 to 1.5 × 10-4, on average 5.5 × 10-5. In general, the level of carcinogenic risk in the city was assessed as moderate in 81.8% of samples and as unacceptable in 18.2% of samples.

This work was funded by the Council for Grants of the President of the Russian Federation, grant no. MK-4654.2022.1.5.

How to cite: Konstantinova, E., Barakhov, A., Chernikova, N., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., and Lobzenko, I.: Preliminary risk assessment of metal contamination of urban soils in Taganrog, Russia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8951, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8951, 2022.

11:27–11:34
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EGU22-5308
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Denis Kozyrev, Sergey Gorbov, Elena Buraeva, and Nadezhda Salnik

Topsoil is a filter that can absorb all wastes of production and anthropogenic activities. During the last 35 years, following several large industrial disasters and artificial radionuclides entering ecosystems, the ways of their migration and impact on living and biosphere systems are attracting close attention. As a result, the determination of both artificial and natural radionuclides in the soil seems relevant and is part of the radiation monitoring of the soil cover in Russia and the world. The purpose of the work was to carry out ecological monitoring of park-recreational, residential areas, as well as specially protected natural areas of the South of European Russia.

 

The maximum average value of activity for the artificial radionuclide 137Cs was revealed in the soils of specially protected natural territories, there is a maximum variation of values. Significant variation of the obtained activity results relates to large sampling and wide geography of studied objects and proximity to the place of the Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986). Specific activity of natural radionuclides is at the level of average values typical for the Rostov region, which are confirmed by the previously conducted data. The specific activity in recreational areas and specially protected natural territories is approximately at the same level and has a similar distribution pattern. The arithmetic average of specific activity of the studied radionuclides for the inhabited zones is:137Cs - 13,5 ± 1,3 Bq/kg, 226Ra - 19,0 ± 1,1 Bq/kg, 232Th - 20,6 ± 0,8 Bq/kg, 334 ± 13,3 Bq/kg - 40K; for recreational:15,8 ± 0,9  Bq/kg - 137Cs, 226Ra – 24,0 ± 0,4 Bq/kg, 232Th – 31,5 ± 0,4 Bq/kg, 436 ± 6 Bq/kg - 40K and for specially protected natural areas: 25,6 ± 3,6 Bq/kg - 137Cs, 226Ra – 23,8 ± 0,7 Bq/kg, 232Th – 26,4 ± 0,8 Bq/kg, 365,8 ± 13,1 Bq/kg - 40K.

This study  was performed with financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation within the framework of the state task in the field of scientific activity (no. 0852-2020-0029)

How to cite: Kozyrev, D., Gorbov, S., Buraeva, E., and Salnik, N.: Activity concentration of radionuclides of natural and anthropogenic-transformed soils in Rostov region, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5308, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5308, 2022.

11:34–11:41
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EGU22-464
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Hina Kumari and Sudesh Yadav

Recycling and disposal of e-waste by informal sector in developing nations raise concerns due to its environmental consequences and human health hazards. In this study, metal toxicity and leaching behaviour of 13 metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn).  were investigated in surface dust samples (n=20) of informal e-waste recycling area in New Delhi by using Waste Extraction Test (WET) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The WET and TCLP tests were developed by California’s Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) respectively to simulate landfill conditions for metal leaching under laboratory conditions. All metals were leached more in WET compared to TCLP. In WET test, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn exceeded the prescribed threshold limits of CDTSC and failed the test whereas Cd and Pb exceeded the threshold limits of USEPA in TCLP. Though Cu, Ni and Zn are not regulatory metals in TCLP, but their leaching concentrations exceeded the threshold limits of CDTSC. In both the tests, Fe, Mn and Sn were also leached in considerable amounts. In WET, Sn (37.7) leached in maximum percentage followed by Cd (28.7), Zn (27.9), Pb (27.7), Co (21.1), Mn (14.8), Ni (11.4), Fe (8.5), V (7.6), Cu (7.5), Ba (3.5), Cr (2.9) and As (0.4) respectively; whereas in TCLP Co (20.7) leached maximum followed by Cd (17.1), Zn (12.8), Mn (7.1), Ni (6.7), Sn (4.9), Cu (3.1), Pb (2.2), Ba (1.1), Fe (0.4), V (0.3), Cr (0.2) and As (0.1) respectively. The WET test was found to be more aggressive in leaching of metals when compared to TCLP due to citrate ion chelation property. Leaching of metals higher than the threshold limits can cause contamination of soil, surface water and ground water in nearby areas and can affect the human health and environment. Therefore, there is needs to regulate policies and environmentally sound new technologies for e-waste recycling to safeguard the human health and environment.

How to cite: Kumari, H. and Yadav, S.: Metal Leaching from Surface Dust of an Informal E-Waste Recycling area in New Delhi, India , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-464, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-464, 2022.

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