Programme group scientific officers:
Theory and simulation of solar system plasmas
The “Theory and simulation of solar system plasmas” session is a long-standing element of the EGU programme, covering all aspects of theoretical modelling and computer simulation of plasmas in the heliosphere, interfacing with observations, relating to the Sun and its atmosphere, the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres and interplanetary space. This provides a forum to present advances in plasma theory relevant to current and future space missions, such as MMS, Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter, as well as space exploration including space stations, the moon and Mars. Each year, a topic of special focus is chosen, and for 2022 this will be “Integration of fluid and kinetic models of solar system plasmas”. One of the major challenges facing modellers is the vast range of temporal and spatial scales that must be encompassed, from the smallest kinetic scales such as electron gyro-radii, to the largest global scales which can be treated by fluid models. Furthermore, the strong variation in parameters between different parts of the heliosphere must be accounted for in integrated models. Therefore, this year we particularly encourage presentations on approaches to tackle these challenges, including new codes and methodologies, and their application to heliospheric plasma processes such as waves, turbulence and magnetic reconnection - and interfaces with observations from current space missions, and planning of future missions.
This session provides a forum to present advances in plasma theory relevant to current and future space missions, such as MMS, Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter, as well as space exploration including space stations, the moon and Mars. The special focus this year is “Integration of fluid and kinetic models of solar system plasmas”. One of the major challenges facing modellers is the vast range of temporal and spatial scales that must be encompassed, from the smallest kinetic scales such as electron gyro-radii, to the largest global scales which can be treated by fluid models. Furthermore, the strong variation in parameters between different parts of the heliosphere must be accounted for in integrated models. Presentations will cover various approaches for tackling these challenges, including new codes and methodologies, and their application to heliospheric plasma processes such as waves, turbulence and magnetic reconnection - and interfaces with observations from current space missions, and planning of future missions.
Mon, 23 May, 08:30–11:48 (CEST), 13:20–14:18 (CEST)
Turbulence, magnetic reconnection, shocks, and instabilities: non-linear processes in space, laboratory, and astrophysical plasmas.
This session focuses on the non-linear processes that take place in space, laboratory and astrophysical plasma. These processes are usually not separated from one another and often go "hand in hand". Just to mention a few examples, magnetic reconnection is an established ingredient of the turbulence cascade and it is also responsible for the production of turbulence in reconnection outflows; shocks may form in collisional and collisionless reconnection processes and can be responsible for turbulence formation, as for instance in the turbulent magnetosheath; magnetic and velocity-shear driven instabilities triggers plasma turbulence in their non-linear phase and can locally develop in turbulent plasmas. All these non-linear processes are responsible for particle acceleration and plasma heating in the environments where they take place.
We are now in a fortunate time for the investigation of these processes, where we can use a combined approach based on simulations and observations together. Simulations can deliver output in a temporal and spatial range of scales going from fluid to electron kinetic. On the observation side, high cadence measurements of particles and fields, high resolution 3D measurements of particle distribution functions and multipoint measurements make it easier to reconstruct the 3D space surrounding the spacecrafts. In this context, the Parker Solar Probe and the Solar Orbiter mission are opening new research scenarios in heliophysics, providing a consistent amount of new data to be analysed.
This session welcomes simulations, observational, and theoretical works relevant for the study of the above mentioned plasma processes. Particularly welcome this year, will be works focusing on how non-linear processes accelerate particles and produce heating in collisionless plasmas. We also encourage papers proposing new methods in simulation techniques and data analysis, as for example those rooted in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
Fri, 27 May, 10:20–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–16:40 (CEST)
Cosmic rays across scales and disciplines: the new frontier in environmental research
Cosmic rays carry information about space and solar activity, and, once near the Earth, they produce isotopes, influence genetic information, and are extraordinarily sensitive to water. Given the vast spectrum of interactions of cosmic rays with matter in different parts of the Earth and other planets, cosmic-ray research ranges from studies of the solar system to the history of the Earth, and from health and security issues to hydrology and climate change.
Although research on cosmic-ray particles is connected to a variety of disciplines and applications, they all share similar questions and problems regarding the physics of detection, modeling, and the influence of environmental factors.
The session brings together scientists from all fields of research that are related to monitoring and modeling of cosmogenic radiation. It will allow sharing of expertise amongst international researchers as well as showcase recent advancements in their field. The session aims to stimulate discussions about how individual disciplines can share their knowledge and benefit from each other.
We solicit contributions related but not limited to:
- Health, security, and radiation protection: cosmic-ray dosimetry on Earth and its dependence on environmental and atmospheric factors
- Planetary space science: satellite and ground-based neutron and gamma-ray sensors to detect water and soil constituents
- Neutron and Muon monitors: detection of high-energy cosmic-ray variations and its dependence on local, atmospheric, and magnetospheric factors
- Hydrology and climate change: low-energy neutron sensing to measure water in reservoirs at and near the land surface, such as soils, snow pack, and vegetation
- Cosmogenic nuclides: as tracers of atmospheric circulation and mixing; as a tool in archaeology or glaciology for dating of ice and measuring ablation rates; and as a tool for surface exposure dating and measuring rates of surficial geological processes
- Detector design: technological advancements for the detection of cosmic rays
- Cosmic-ray modeling: advances in modeling of the cosmic-ray propagation through the magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their response to the Earth's surface
- Impact modeling: How can cosmic-ray monitoring support environmental models, weather and climate forecasting, irrigation management, and the assessment of natural hazards
Machine Learning in Planetary Sciences and Heliophysics
The increasing amount of data from an increasing number of spacecraft in our solar system shouts out for new data analysis strategies. There is a need for frameworks that can rapidly and intelligently extract information from these data sets in a manner useful for scientific analysis. The community is starting to respond to this need. Machine learning, with all of its different facets, provides a viable playground for tackling a wide range of research questions in planetary and heliospheric physics.
We encourage submissions dealing with machine learning approaches of all levels in planetary sciences and heliophysics. The aim of this session is to provide an overview of the current efforts to integrate machine learning technologies into data driven space research, to highlight state-of-the art developments and to generate a wider discussion on further possible applications of machine learning.
Pioneering exploration of the solar corona and near-Sun environment – Latest results from Parker Solar Probe
The Sun’s corona is the birthplace of the solar wind, coronal mass ejections, associated shock waves, and solar energetic particles which all are fundamental drivers of space weather. The key physical processes at the origin of these phenomena, i.e., the heating and acceleration of the coronal plasma and energetic particles, are not completely understood to date. During EGU 2022, Parker Solar Probe (PSP) would have completed 11 of its 24 scheduled orbits around the Sun. During orbits 10 and 11, the spacecraft will go as close as 13.3 solar radii from the Sun’s center. PSP has already provided a treasure trove worth of in-situ and remote sensing data that have revealed phenomena never seen before in terms of generation of solar wind turbulence, fine-structures of coronal mass ejections, solar energetic particle flows, traces of dust particles and even in planetary physics on Venus. The formal commissioning phase of Solar Orbiter (SolO) ended in mid-June 2020 and valuable data has been provided during the cruise phase of the mission, primarily by the in-situ instruments. The nominal phase of the mission will start at the end of 2021. Combining the PSP and SolO observations with observations from other space-born missions and ground-based observatories (e.g., SDO, STEREO, Proba2, ACE, WIND, DSCOVR, and DKIST ), and with theoretical models is a challenging and exciting task. This session invites scientific contributions on all aspects of research addressed to the exploration of our near-Sun environment, with special focus on the new observations from PSP and SolO and other complementary observations and models.
The neutron monitor network: challenges and future perspective
Since the late 1950’s the neutron monitor (NM) network provides continuous measurements of the cosmic ray (CR) environment, shading light upon the physical mechanisms of solar relativistic ion acceleration, injection and propagation during Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), as well as the effect of large scale structures (i.e. interplanetary coronal mass ejections – ICMEs and corotating interaction regions – CIRs) propagating in the solar wind resulting in short-term decreases of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), termed as Forbush decreases (FDs) and the long-term behavior of CRs. Since 2008, the majority of NMs provide data through a single repository, the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB), making it straightforward for the scientific community to retrieve such data. The NM network has paved the way for the understanding of the near-Earth and the inner heliosphere radiation environment and corroborates with the findings of spacecraft missions, specifically recent measurements of high energy particles from PAMELA, AMS onboard the International Space Station and EPHIN onboard SOHO. At the same time, the network of NMs is extensively used for the establishment of space-weather related services, such as alerts of GLEs and estimations of the radiation environment within the atmosphere, the magnetosphere and beyond. Also, new detectors and electronics expand the current NM network whereas algorithms for the treatment of the data are being investigated.
With a view to the future, the NM network faces challenges with respect to its sustainability, evolution, continuous and updated usage by the scientific community. Nonetheless, the future perspectives of the network are promising, with the NM data being used in a large variety of fields – even non-conventional ones. This session brings together scientists from research fields related to space, solar, neutron monitor, heliospheric and atmospheric sciences. The session solicits contributions related but not limited to:
• Modeling of GLEs, short term FDs and GCRs modulation;
• Long-term variability of the CR flux from ground based and spacecraft measurements;
• Evaluation and quantification of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere;
• Space-weather services based on the NM network;
• Influence of solar activity and the effect of cosmic rays on the atmosphere;
• Instrumentation, algorithms and data access for ground-based CR detectors.
Illuminating the Outer Heliosphere: ENA imaging from IBEX to IMAP
The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission, launched in 2008, in concert with in situ measurements by the Voyager spacecraft have initiated a remarkable scientific quest to discover the global heliosphere and its interaction with the local galactic environment through which our Sun and solar system move. The global boundaries that surround our solar system and the IBEX ribbon are created through a myriad of complex physical processes that mediate the interactions between the solar wind, the local interstellar flow, and the local interstellar magnetic field. At this point in time, more than a solar cycle of IBEX data has been accrued, revealing not only the global properties of our heliosphere, but also our first views of their variations in time. The rich science of the global heliosphere, our growing understanding of suprathermal particle populations that influence interstellar interactions, and expanded research into the properties of the local interstellar medium have helped to usher in the next steps of exploration to be taken by the upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), due to launch in 2025. This session is devoted to the science that is advancing our quest to discover the complex physics of our global heliosphere and its interaction with the local interstellar medium.
This session traditionally provides a forum for the discussion of all aspects of solar and heliospheric physics. Popular topics have included solar cycle dependencies of the Sun, solar wind and heliosphere, Coronal Mass Ejection research, studies of energetic particles throughout the heliosphere, and the outer boundaries of the heliosphere. We encourage contributions related to all ongoing and planned space missions, to ground-based experiments and to theoretical research. Papers presenting ideas for future space missions and experiments are very welcome in this session. The session will consist of both oral and poster presentations.
Mon, 23 May, 08:30–11:47 (CEST), 13:20–14:40 (CEST)
Turbulence in space plasmas: from injection to dissipation
Space and astrophysical plasmas are typically in a turbulent state, exhibiting strong fluctuations of various quantities over a broad range of scales. These fluctuations are non-linearly coupled and this coupling may lead to a transfer of energy (and other quantities such as cross helicity, magnetic helicity) from large to small scales and to dissipation. Turbulent processes are relevant for the heating of the solar wind and the corona, acceleration of energetic particles. Many aspects of the turbulence are not well understood, in particular, the injection and onset of the cascade, the cascade itself, the dissipation mechanisms, as well as the role of specific phenomena such as the magnetic reconnections, shock waves, expansion, and plasma instabilities and their relationship with the turbulent cascade and dissipation.
This session will address these questions through discussion of observational, theoretical, numerical, and laboratory work to understand these processes. This session is relevant to many currently operating missions (e.g., Wind, Cluster, MMS, STEREO, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, DSCOVR) and in particular for the Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe.
Observing and Modelling the Solar Wind and CMEs Through the Heliosphere
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), in addition to corotating density structures and solar energetic particles (SEPs), are known to be the driving force behind significant space weather disturbances at Earth and other planets. Understanding their physical behaviour and making accurate predictions about their arrival times and properties is a difficult and ongoing issue in heliophysics. Remote-sensing and in-situ measurements from multiple vantage points, combined with ground-based observations and modelling efforts, are employed to study the solar wind plasma and CMEs from their onset to their arrival at planets and spacecraft throughout the heliosphere.
Recently launched spacecraft including Parker Solar Probe, Solar Orbiter, BepiColombo, in addition to existing missions such as STEREO and future missions to L1 and L5 present an ideal opportunity to test, validate and refine current knowledge in this field. We therefore encourage submissions with the aim of exploiting the latest observational and modelling efforts regarding CME and solar wind evolution during their propagation throughout the heliosphere.
Energetic Particles: From the Sun to their Impacts at Earth and Other Planets
The heliosphere is permeated with energetic particles of different compositions, energy spectra and origins. Two major populations of these particles are galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which originate from outside of the heliosphere and are constantly detected at Earth, and solar energetic particles (SEPs) which are accelerated at/near the Sun during solar flares or by shock fronts associated with the transit of coronal mass ejections. Enhancements in energetic particle fluxes at Earth pose a hazard to humans and technology in space and at high altitudes. Within the magnetosphere, energetic particles are present in the radiation belts, and particle precipitation is responsible for the aurora and for hazards to satellites. Energetic particles have also been shown to cause changes is the chemistry of the middle and upper atmosphere, thermodynamic effects in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region, and can influence components of the global electric circuit. This session will aim to address the transport of energetic particles through the heliosphere, their detection at Earth and the effects they have on the terrestrial atmosphere when they arrive. It will bring together scientists from several fields of research in what is now very much an interdisciplinary area. The session will allow sharing of expertise amongst international researchers as well as showcase the recent advances being made in this field, which demonstrate the importance of the study of these energetic particle populations.
The links between magnetic reconnection, turbulence, and energy dissipation in the heliosphere.
Turbulence and magnetic reconnection are multiscale processes that convert energy from outer to inner scales. In the last decades, the improvement of observational and computational capabilities has suggested close links between turbulence and reconnection in Heliospheric and magnetospheric plasmas. Thanks to high-cadence and multi-spacecraft measurements, as well as large-scale computations, it has become possible to study the interplay between these fundamental processes across a broad range of scales, including electron-scales. This session welcomes contributions from observational, numerical and theoretical work, including new techniques and methods for characterising the links between reconnection and turbulence. Topics of interest include reconnection that occurs in turbulent systems, turbulence generated by reconnection events, the role of reconnection in the development of kinetic turbulence, and the influence of turbulence and reconnection on energy dissipation.
The session solicits contributions that report on nonthermal solar and planetary radio emissions. Coordinated multi-point observations from ground radio telescopes (e.g., LOFAR, LOIS, LWA1, URAN-2, UTR-2) and spacecraft plasma/wave experiments (e.g., Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Galileo, Juno, Stereo, Ulysses and Wind) are especially encouraged. Presentations should focus on radiophysics techniques used and developed to investigate the remote magnetic field and the electron density in solar system regions, like the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and the magnetized auroral regions. Interest also extends to laboratory and experimental studies devoted to the comprehension of the generation mechanisms (e.g., cyclotron maser instability) and the acceleration processes (e.g., Alfven waves). Further preparations, evaluations, investigations, analyses of forthcoming space missions or nanosatellites (like BepiColombo, Juice, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe, SunRISE, UVSQ-Sat, Inspire-Sat 7) are also welcome.
Programme group scientific officer:
Analysis of complex geoscientific time series: linear, nonlinear, and computer science perspectives
This interdisciplinary session welcomes contributions on novel conceptual and/or methodological approaches and methods for the analysis and statistical-dynamical modeling of observational as well as model time series from all geoscientific disciplines.
Methods to be discussed include, but are not limited to linear and nonlinear methods of time series analysis. time-frequency methods, statistical inference for nonlinear time series, including empirical inference of causal linkages from multivariate data, nonlinear statistical decomposition and related techniques for multivariate and spatio-temporal data, nonlinear correlation analysis and synchronisation, surrogate data techniques, filtering approaches and nonlinear methods of noise reduction, artificial intelligence and machine learning based analysis and prediction for univariate and multivariate time series.
Contributions on methodological developments and applications to problems across all geoscientific disciplines are equally encouraged. We particularly aim at fostering a transfer of new methodological data analysis and modeling concepts among different fields of the geosciences.
Nonlinear Processes in Geosciences: from past methods to novel approaches
Observations and measurements of geophysical systems and dynamical phenomena are obtained as time series or spatio-temporal data whose dynamics usually manifests a nonlinear multiscale (in terms of time and space) behavior. During the past decades, nonlinear approaches in geosciences have rapidly developed to gain novel insights on weather and climate dynamics, fluid dynamics, on turbulence and stochastic behaviors, on the development of chaos in dynamical systems, and on concepts of networks, nowadays frequently employed in geosciences.
In this short course, we will offer a broad overview of the development and application of nonlinear concepts across the geosciences in terms of recent successful applications from various fields, ranging from climate to near-Earth space physics. The focus will be on a comparison between different methods to investigate various aspects of both known and unknown physical processes, moving from past accomplishments to future challenges.
Peter Ditlevsen: "The paleoclimatic record, a tale of dynamics on many time scales: what can be learned about climate change"
Tommaso Alberti: "From global to local complexity measures: learning from dynamical systems and turbulence"
Reik Donner: "Harnessing causal discovery tools for process inference from multivariate geoscientific time series"
The session covers contributions on dwarf planets and small solar system objects, including comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and dust. Topics include dynamics, evolution, physical properties, and interactions of dust and meteors in space as well as planetary atmospheres. Presenters are invited to highlight results obtained from recent space missions (SO, PSP, etc.), observations, laboratory studies, theoretical and numerical simulations, as well as the latest results on the physics of meteors and of dust in ionospheres, ionospheric phenomena, other atmospheric phenomena, and space weathering of surfaces. This session further provides a forum for presenting future space instrumentation on these topics. We welcome young minds and encourage the presentation of multi-disciplinarity research.
Tue, 24 May, 10:20–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–16:40 (CEST)
Open Session on the Magnetosphere
This open session traditionally invites presentations on all aspects of the Earth’s magnetospheric physics, including the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, magnetosheath, bow shock and foreshock as well as solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We welcome contributions on various aspects of magnetospheric observations, remote sensing of the magnetosphere’s processes, modelling and theoretical research. The presentations related to the current and planned space missions and to the value-added data services are also encouraged. This session is suitable for any contribution which does not fit more naturally into one of the specialised sessions and for contributions of wide community interest.
Fri, 27 May, 09:15–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–16:40 (CEST)
Wave-particle interactions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, radiation belt dynamics, and coupling
Wave-particle interactions represent a unique mechanism of an energy transfer in the nearly collisionless plasma environment of the Earth's inner magnetosphere, affecting ultimately distribution functions of energetic particles trapped in the Van Allen radiation belts. Their evaluation, along with the quantification of the resulting particle acceleration, transport, and loss, is thus crucial for understanding the dynamics of the radiation belts. Considering that these processes are mainly driven by the solar wind, the ability to accurately forecast the radiation belts is further dependent on understanding their coupling with external regions (e.g. solar wind, foreshock, magnetosheath), and the processes that dictate their global dynamics. Additionally, precipitating magnetospheric particles cause changes in the ionospheric conductivity and may affect the upper atmospheric chemistry. The aim of this session is to discuss the dynamics of energetic particle populations in the radiation belts, wave-particle interactions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, as well as generation mechanisms and properties of involved electromagnetic emissions (EMIC, chorus, hiss, fast magnetosonic waves, etc.) in various frequency ranges (ULF, ELF, VLF). Theoretical and model contributions, as well as observational studies using data from older and recent satellite missions (Cluster, MMS, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, ERG-Arase, etc.) and ground-based instruments are encouraged.
Thu, 26 May, 10:20–11:47 (CEST), 13:20–14:02 (CEST)
Observations and modelling of the effects of solar wind pressure pulses on the terrestrial magnetosphere
Positive solar wind pressure pulses are pockets of solar wind plasma that are faster and/or denser than the surrounding ambient plasma. When a pressure pulse impacts the terrestrial magnetosphere, it is rapidly compressed, and the effects propagate inwards resulting in a well observed enhancement in the magnetic field, as evidenced in the SYM-H index; this communication of a pressure pulse into the magnetosphere is known as a geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC). SCs can be further subdivided into sudden impulses (SIs) and sudden storm commencements (SSCs), where in the latter case, the pressure pulse triggers a geomagnetic storm. Even for small, short lived, pressure enhancements, the effects on the terrestrial magnetosphere can be dramatic, exciting and even reconfiguring the electrodynamics within. Among these effects, observations and modelling have shown: enhancements and restructuring of high latitude ionospheric currents and convection; auroral emission excited by particle precipitation; energisation of the plasmasphere; excitation of magnetospheric current systems; enhanced ULF wave activity.
In this session, we invite contributions based on both observations and modelling of the effect of solar wind pressure pulses on the coupled solar wind – magnetosphere – ionosphere system. We seek to facilitate crossover discussion between the observational and modelling communities on pressure pulse driving of phenomena including (but not limited to): ULF wave propagation; ionospheric convection; ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems; auroral emission; terrestrial radio emissions; plasmasphere effects.
Global magnetospheric dynamics in simulations and observations
Large-scale dynamic processes in different magnetospheric regions, e.g., at the magnetopause, in the dayside magnetosphere, magnetotail, ring current, plasmasphere, ionosphere, are generally interconnected therefore the magnetosphere should be considered as a global system. The state of the magnetosphere is controlled mainly by solar wind conditions. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind plasma parameters regulate the energy input into the magnetosphere. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the tail current layer regulate energy transfer through the magnetosphere. Changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF move the magnetopause, causing global magnetospheric expansions and contractions. Variations in the solar wind velocity and IMF direction may also displace the magnetotail. Processes within the magnetotail inject thermal and energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and downward along magnetic field lines into the ionosphere. On the other hand, the polar wind from the upper atmosphere may influence nightside reconnection rates. Global magnetospheric dynamics can be studied by means of numerical simulations (MHD or kinetic), using empirical and semi-empirical models, or with the help of multipoint in situ spacecraft observations. Arrays of ground-based observatories and individual well-situated space missions can image magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena globally, providing crucial information concerning the positions and dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma boundaries and the global distribution of ionospheric currents, convective flows, and particle precipitation. Accurate modelling of global magnetospheric processes is an essential condition for successful space weather predictions. We welcome any work presenting results on the global dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere as well the magnetospheres of other planets and for instance modeling activities undertaken for the preparation of the future Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) mission.
The Earth's inner magnetosphere contains different charged particle populations, such as the Van Allen radiation belts, ring current particles, and plasmaspheric particles. Their energy range varies from eV to several MeV, and the interplay among the charged particles provides feedback mechanisms that couple all those populations together. Ring current particles can generate various waves, for example, EMIC waves and chorus waves, which play important roles in the dynamic evolution of the radiation belts through wave-particle interactions. Ring current electrons can be accelerated to relativistic radiation belt electrons. The plasmaspheric medium can also affect these processes. In addition, precipitation of ring current and radiation belt particles will influence the ionosphere, while up-flows of ionospheric particles can affect dynamics in the inner magnetosphere. Understanding these coupling processes is crucial.
While the dynamics of outer planets’ magnetospheres are driven by a unique combination of internal coupling processes, these systems have several fascinating similarities which make comparative studies particularly interesting. We invite a broad range of theoretical, modeling, and observational studies focusing on the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere of the Earth and outer planets, including the coupling of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere and coupling between the solar wind disturbances and various magnetospheric processes. Contributions from all relevant fields, including theoretical studies, numerical modeling, observations from satellite and ground-based missions are welcome. In particular, we encourage presentations using data from MMS, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, Arase (ERG), Cluster, cube-sat missions, Juno, SuperDARN, magnetometer, optical imagers, IS-radars, and ground-based VLF measurements.
Modelling and measuring Geomagnetically Induced Currents in grounded infrastructure
Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) can damage grounded infrastructure such as high voltage transformers, gas pipelines and rail networks. Understanding their impact is vital for protecting critical national infrastructure from harm and reducing any economic consequences. GICs are caused by geoelectric fields induced in the resistive subsurface during periods of rapid change of the magnetic field, typically in geomagnetic storms; however, an increasing body of evidence shows they occur in nominally quiet times too. We seek contributions from studies that measure (directly or indirectly) or model GICs in grounded infrastructure to assess the potential hazard and vulnerability of the infrastructure and to produce reliable models with which to forecast the potential effects of severe space weather events.
The Lunar Science, Exploration & Utilisation Session will address the latest results from lunar missions: from ground-based and satellite measurements, to lunar meteorites research, terrestrial analog studies, laboratory experiments and modelling. All past/current results as well as future exploration ideas and prospects are welcome. The session aims to bring together contributions on theoretical models concerning the deep interior and subsurface structure and composition; observations of the surface morphology and composition; analyses of the atmospheric composition, dynamics and climate; the interaction with the solar wind; astrobiology, analog studies and future habitability of the Moon.
This session aims at presenting highlights of relevant recent results regarding the exploration and sustainable utilization of the Moon through observations, modelling, laboratory. Key research questions concerning the lunar surface, subsurface, interior and their evolution will be discussed. More in detail, the topics of interest for this session include:
-Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration
-Synthesis of results from Clementine, Prospector, SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang’e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Artemis and GRAIL
- First results from Chang'E 4, Chandrayaan2, Chang’E5, Commercial Lunar Payload
- Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna25-27, SLIM, GLXP legacy, LRP, commercial landers, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions
- Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties with Artemis and Intl Lunar Research Station
- Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns (eg EuroMoonMars), In-Situ Resources, ISRU, support studies
- ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village
Note that this session is open to all branches of lunar science and exploration, and is intended as an open forum and discussion between diverse experts and Earth geoscientists and explorers at large. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.
Fri, 27 May, 10:20–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–14:06 (CEST)
ST3 – Ionosphere and Thermospere
Programme group scientific officer:
Turbulent cascades in geosciences 100 years after Richardson 1922
In his seminal work "Weather Prediction by Numerical Process" in 1922, Lewis Fry Richardson proposed his famous cascade picture qualitatively, for a turbulent flow where the energy is transferred from large scale structures to small scale ones, until reaching viscosity scales where it is converted to heat. This picture now has been widely adopted to describe different type of turbulent phenomena, for not only the classical hydrodynamic turbulence, but also, not limited to, the movement of atmosphere and oceans.
After 100 years of developments, the concept of cascades has been extended significantly. Now, it describes mainly the nonlinear interactions crossing a large range of scales where scale invariants might emerge spontaneously. More precisely, balances between the external forcing and the dissipation are expected for a turbulent system. However, due to the complexity of atmospheric or oceanic systems, such as earth rotation, stratification, large aspect ratio, mesoscale eddies, ocean current, tidal, waves, etc., the exact balance is still unknown. We still lack an efficient methodology to diagnose the scale-to-scale energy or other physical quantities fluxes to characterize the cascade quantitatively, e.g., strength, direction, etc.
With the increasing capability of remote sensing, computational fluid dynamics, field observation, etc., we have accumulated a large amount of field data. It is now a suitable time to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of Richardson's idea of cascades in the geosciences, and to understand it quantitatively.
This interdisciplinary session welcomes theoretical, methodological, laboratory, data analysis works that aim to characterize the cascade in atmosphere and oceans and other fields.
Wed, 25 May, 11:05–11:44 (CEST), 13:20–14:50 (CEST)
Towards better understanding of the ionospheric plasma irregularities and scintillations
Plasma density irregularities can occur at all latitudes in the Earth’s ionosphere. However, the onset and evolution of these irregularities as well as their influence on the radio wave signals continue to be unsolved scientific questions. The various proposed generation mechanisms, including instability growth rates and seeding processes, are strongly coupled to the neutral atmosphere and magnetospheric dynamics, making the forecasting of ionospheric irregularities much more challenging. Recent observations from ground- and space-based measurements, as well as new innovative data analysis and modeling techniques, e.g., data assimilation and machine learning, have the potential to advance our understanding of the ionospheric irregularities. Studies that focus on the observation, modeling and prediction of plasma irregularities of different scales are welcome at this session. The mitigation of negative effects and recent developments to forecast scintillation effects on Global Navigation Satellite or other communication systems are also of high interest.
The Earth's ionosphere embedded in the thermosphere is a coupled system influenced by solar and magnetospheric processes from above, as well as by upward propagating disturbances from lower atmospheric layers. This open session is suitable for contributions on all aspects of ionospheric and thermospheric physics and ionospheric effects on HF propagation. The session invites theoretical studies, (multi)instrumental ground-based and satellite observations, simulations and modelling studies that address the dynamics of the ionosphere, concerning transient events, plasma waves and irregularities, as well as large-scale dynamics and long-term variations. Contributions dealing with magnetospheric forcing are sought in the areas of ionospheric disturbances caused by CME- and CIR/CH HSS-related magnetic storms and substorms. New results that focus on investigation of latitudinal, seasonal and hemispherical effects of the storms and substorms on ionosphere are especially appreciated. Also ionospheric effects from other sources, such as solar terminator, solar eclipse, seismic activity or human-made explosions, are welcome. As for lower atmosphere forcing, contributions are sought that focus on atmospheric waves, wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions, atmospheric electricity and electrodynamical coupling processes.
Electrodynamic coupling from high and middle latitudes to the equatorial region: Observations and simulations
Solar wind energy enters the Earth's high latitude region through magnetic reconnection. Due to the different response time of Region 1 and Region 2 field-aligned currents to changes in magnetospheric convection, the high latitude electric field can penetrate into middle and low latitudes. The Joule heating in the polar region enhances the neutral temperature which alters atmospheric circulation and causes temporal and spatial changes of the ionosphere and thermosphere density and composition at middle and low latitudes. Furthermore, the inner magnetospheric electric field is projected to the ionospheric subauroral region along the geomagnetic field, driving fast plasma flows and associated wind jets. This subauroral electric field can also penetrate down to the equatorial region, and the ion-neutral frictional heating in the subauroral region leads to large variations in neutral temperature and pressure gradients, which result in global neutral wind circulation and composition variations. All these processes can cause drastic changes in the ionosphere and thermosphere both at middle latitudes and in the equatorial region during geomagentically active periods. This session aims to solicit presentations of new research progresses in the dynamic, eletrodynamic and chemical coupling across different latitudes. Both simulation and observation works are welcome.
Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System
The upper and middle atmosphere is subject to a combination of dynamics,
e.g., fluid-dynamic, chemical, and electrodynamical processes. These
processes drive vertical interactions among different atmospheric regions on
a broad range of spatial and temporal scales through various mechanisms,
including atmospheric circulation and waves (e.g., planetary waves, tides,
gravity waves), recurring patterns (the El Niño–southern oscillation and the
quasi-biennial oscillation), transient phenomena (e.g., sudden stratospheric
warming), and long-term trends. The current session aims to emphasize the
recent contributions on vertical coupling within the atmosphere-ionosphere
system. We invite relevant papers on methodologies, theory, modeling,
experiment, and observations of different aspects.
Space environments of unmagnetized or weakly magnetized solar system bodies and the effects of space weather on these systems
The ionospheres and (induced) magnetospheres of unmagnetized and weakly magnetized bodies with substantial atmospheres (e.g. Mars, Venus, Titan, Pluto and comets) are subject to disturbances due to solar activity, interplanetary conditions (e.g. solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles), or for moons, parent magnetospheric activity. These objects interact similarly as their magnetized counterparts but with scientifically important differences.
As an integral part of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres are tightly coupled with the neutral atmosphere, exosphere and surrounding plasma environment, possessing rich compositional, density, and temperature structures. The interaction among neutral and charged components affects atmospheric loss, neutral winds, photochemistry, and energy balance within ionospheres.
This session invites abstracts concerning remote and in-situ data analysis, modelling studies, comparative studies, instrumentation and mission concepts for unmagnetized and weakly magnetized solar system bodies.
Thu, 26 May, 08:30–11:44 (CEST), 13:20–14:16 (CEST)
ST4 – Space Weather and Space Climate
Programme group scientific officer:
Space Weather Prediction of Solar Wind Transients in the Heliosphere
Coronal Mass Ejections and their interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs), the associated shocks, the high-speed streams of solar wind from corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and the solar energetic particles (SEPs) are the main drivers of the heliospheric variability. The corresponding geospace disturbances affect a wide range of technological systems in space and on ground, as well as human health. Therefore, the prediction of their arrival and impact is extremely important for the modern space-exploration and electronics-dependent society.
Significant efforts have been made in the past decade to develop and improve the prediction capabilities, through both state-of-the art observations and modelling. Although significant progress has been made, many new challenges have been revealed. We are limited in obtaining reliable observation-based input for the models, tracking solar wind transients throughout the heliosphere and reliably evaluating prediction models. These challenges can be tackled by exploiting and improving our existing capabilities, as well as using the out-of-the-box thinking and break from the traditional methods.
This session is devoted to provide the overview of the current state of the space weather prediction of the arrival time and impact of various solar wind transients and to introduce new and promising observational and modelling capabilities.
We solicit abstracts on observational and modelling efforts, as well as space weather prediction evaluation. With the overview of our current capabilities and possible future prospects we aim to highlight guidelines to the general direction of the future scientific efforts, as well as space-mission planning.
Nowcasting, forecasting, operational monitoring and post-event analysis of the space weather and space climate in the Sun-Earth system
Space Weather (SW) and Space Climate (SC) are collective terms that describe the Sun-Earth system interactions on timescales varying between minutes and decades and include processes at the Sun, in the heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and at the lower atmosphere. Being able to predict (forecast and nowcast) the extreme events and develop the strategy for mitigation vital as the space assets and critical infrastructures, such as communication and navigation systems, power grids, and aviation, are all extremely sensitive to the external environment. Post-event analysis is crucially important for the development and maintenance of numerical models, which can predict extreme SW events to avoid failure of the critical infrastructures.
This session aims to address both the current state of the art of SW products and new ideas and developments that can enhance the understanding of SW and SC and their impact on critical infrastructure. We invite presentations on various SW and SC-related activities in the Sun-Earth system: forecast and nowcast products and services; satellite observations; model development, validation, and verification; data assimilation; development and production of geomagnetic and ionospheric indices. Talks on SW effects on applications (e.g. on airlines, pipelines and power grids, space flights, auroral tourism, etc.) in the Earth’s environment are also welcomed.
Measuring space weather condition with geomagnetic data
It is well known that solar activity influences the state of the circumterrestrial space and can affect technological systems in many different ways and with different degrees of damage severity.
Geomagnetic data, both from ground-based observatories and low Earth orbit satellites, represent a powerful tool to monitor space weather events, such as magnetic storms, substorms and geomagnetically induced currents.
Geomagnetic field monitoring makes it possible to improve internal geomagnetic field models and gain better knowledge on the dynamics of solar-terrestrial events and ionospheric and magnetospheric geomagnetic sources (both internal and external). Furthermore, geomagnetic field data provide proxies to nowcast and forecast different ground effects due to space weather events.
In this session we therefore encourage submissions focussing on the use of geomagnetic data (from ground observatories to satellites such as CHAMP, Swarm, CSES, ePOP and others) as a tool to gain insight both into the physics of the processes involving the Earth's magnetic field in response to space weather events and into their effects as the degradation of satellite signal, perturbation in radio communications, disruption of power system devices, just as some known examples.
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