EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Review of a systematic protocol for carbon dynamics and ecosystem services of species associated with land-use and land-cover change in mangrove ecosystems

Citra Gilang Qurani1, Sigit D Sasmito2,3, Agus Muhammad Maulana1, Mihyun Seol1, Bora Lee4, Himlal Baral1,5, and Putu Angga Wardana6
Citra Gilang Qurani et al.
  • 1Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR-ICRAF), Situ Gede, Bogor 16115, Jawa Barat, Indonesia (
  • 2NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077
  • 3Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411
  • 4Warm Temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center, National Institute of Forest Science, Jeju, Republic of Korea
  • 5School of Ecosystem and Forest Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia
  • 6Study Program of Biology, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Jalan Raya Padangluwih, North Kuta, Badung 80361, Bali, Indonesia

Mangrove ecosystems are among the most efficient natural carbon sinks on Earth. Overall global mangrove loss between 2000 and 2016 was 3363 km2 (2.1%) owing to land-use and land-cover change. It is predicted that global greenhouse-gas emissions will reach 2391 Tg CO2 eq by 2100. The conversion of mangrove forests for various activities has reduced vegetation abundance, which has an impact on the global carbon cycle because of changes to the carbon dynamics in each climate zone. We will create a revised systematic protocol built on the systematic protocol of Sasmito et al. (2016) by adding information on species’ ability to absorb carbon to contribute to the global climate cycle, particularly, in relation to land-use and land-cover change of mangrove forests. Our primary question will be how do local climate characteristics (micro-meteorological) associated with land-use and land-cover change affect the carbon dynamics of mangrove species? Our protocol will focus on carbon dynamics, including absorption ability, stocks, fluxes and sequestration, in particular climate zones, to assess species’ distribution and diversity, using spatial mapping to identify suitable species for restoration programmes across Asia and the Pacific. The review will include peer-reviewed and grey literature (including unpublished studies) since 2019 onwards combined with references from Sasmito et al. 2016 from 1970 onwards specific to carbon dynamics of mangrove species. The output of our review will be geographical mapping of species’ distribution and diversity together with estimation of carbon absorption capacity, stocks, fluxes and sequestration in different climate zones, noting latitude, longitude and characteristics of the habitats. Rhizophora sp. — one of the most dominant species — has higher carbon absorption ability than Bruguiera sp. of the same age undergoing tropical monsoon mangrove-cover changing to fishponds and housing in Indonesia. Rhizophora sp. also store high amounts of carbon owing to strong carbon uptake ability compared to Octornia octodonta, Sonneratia alba, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia marina in tropical northwest monsoon areas. In contrast, Kandelia obovata has the highest carbon density (148.03 t ha-1) followed by Avicennia marina (104.79 t ha-1) and Aegiceras corniculatum (99.24 t ha-1) in another tropical monsoon climate in China. The carbon stocks of vegetation in subtropical mangroves show lower rates compared to tropical mangroves. The ability of species to absorb carbon is affected by the climate zone and its characteristics — which has a strong impact on carbon dynamics and affects global climate regulation — particularly, in disturbed mangrove forests. Mangrove ecosystems are home to coastal flora and fauna with high quantities of carbon stored and sequestered as part of major global carbon cycles. Consequently, it is essential to assess the carbon dynamics of mangrove species and the association with ecosystem services as part of land-use and land-cover change in various mangrove ecosystems.

How to cite: Qurani, C. G., Sasmito, S. D., Maulana, A. M., Seol, M., Lee, B., Baral, H., and Wardana, P. A.: Review of a systematic protocol for carbon dynamics and ecosystem services of species associated with land-use and land-cover change in mangrove ecosystems, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-12084,, 2023.

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