EGU General Assembly 2023
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the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Spectroscopic Studies and Confirmatory Geochemical Analyses of Rare Earth Element Bearing Rocks from the Neoproterozoic Siwana Ring Complex, Rajasthan, India

Saraah Imran1, Ajanta Goswami1, Angana Saikia1, Hrishikesh Kumar Rai2, and Bijan Jyoti Barman3
Saraah Imran et al.
  • 1Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India (
  • 2Space Application Centre, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad, India
  • 3Geological Survey of India, Jaipur, India


Rare earth elements (REEs) are of high economic value owing to their electronic, magnetic, optical, catalytic, and phosphorescent properties, thereby making them an important part of the development of green technology. They exhibit characteristic sharp absorption features in reflectance spectra in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) to short-wave infrared (SWIR) region due to their 4f-4f orbital intra-configurational electronic transitions.

In this study laboratory based close-range imaging spectroscopy techniques are used along with confirmatory geochemical analytical techniques (petrography, ICPMS, SEM and EPMA) to study 20 samples collected from REE-bearing rocks of the Neoproterozoic Siwana Ring Complex (SRC), a collapsed caldera structure situated in Barmer District, Rajasthan (India).

The SRC is an anorogenic, rift-related bimodal volcano-plutonic rock association belonging to the Malani Igneous Suite. It comprises of felsic and basic volcanic lava flows, rhyolite, peralkaline granite, pyroclastics, tuff and later microgranite, aplite and felsite dykes.

The spectral reflectance curves of the samples collected using an ASD FieldSpec4 (350-2500 nm) exhibit characteristic absorption dips at 439, 491, 580, 740 and 800 nm indicating the presence of Nd3+. Other major absorption dips are attributed to the presence of Sm3+, U4+, etc. Various combinations of absorption features in the VIS-SWIR region indicate the presence of minerals like biotite, epidote, chlorite, nontronite, goethite, and REE fluorocarbonates. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of the samples collected using a Thermo Fisher Scientific Nicolet 6700 (400-4000 cm-1) show symmetric and asymmetric bending and stretching vibration features of Si-O, P-O and O-H bonds, which are diagnostic of minerals like aegirine, riebeckite, and REE minerals like monazite apart from other major silicate minerals like quartz and feldspar. The presence of these minerals is confirmed by mineral chemistry, bulk and trace element data.

The observations from the spectroscopic studies seem to correlate well with data obtained from various geochemical analyses. This study provides spectroscopic information on the rocks from SRC for the first time. It shows the proficiency of spectroscopic studies as a cost-effective and non-destructive technique for the identification of REE minerals which can be used before detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies as well as future exploration.

Keywords: Siwana Ring Complex, Spectroscopy, REE


ASD – Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc.

EPMA – Electron Probe Micro Analyzer

FTIR – Fourier Transform Infrared

ICPMS – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

REE – Rare Earth Elements

SRC – Siwana Ring Complex

SWIR – Short Wave Infrared

VNIR – Visible Near Infrared

How to cite: Imran, S., Goswami, A., Saikia, A., Kumar Rai, H., and Jyoti Barman, B.: Spectroscopic Studies and Confirmatory Geochemical Analyses of Rare Earth Element Bearing Rocks from the Neoproterozoic Siwana Ring Complex, Rajasthan, India, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-71,, 2023.