EGU23-8268, updated on 25 Feb 2023
EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Multi-Soil-Layering, the Emerging Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Review, Bibliometric Analysis, and Future Directions

Sofyan Sbahi1, Laila Mandi1, Tsugiyuki Masunaga2, Naaila Ouazzani1, Abdessamad Hejja1, and Abderrahman Lahrouni1
Sofyan Sbahi et al.
  • 1Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco (
  • 2Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Japan

Due to its unique structure and excellent purification efficiency (e.g., 98% for organic matter and between 94 and 100% for nutrients), multi-soil-layering (MSL) has emerged as an efficient eco-friendly solution for wastewater treatment and environmental protection. Through infiltration-percolation, this soil-based technology allows pollutants to move from the MSL upper layers to the outlet while maintaining direct contact with its media, which helps in their removal via a variety of physical and biochemical mechanisms. This paper attempts to comprehensively evaluate the application of MSL technology and investigate its progress and efficacy since its emergence. Thus, it will attempt via a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science database (from 1993 to 01/06/2022) related to MSL technology, to give a clear picture of the number of publications (70 studies), the most active academics, and countries (China with 27 studies), as well as collaborations and related topics. Furthermore, through hybrid combinations, pollutant removal processes, MSL effective media, and the key efficiency parameters, this paper review will seek to provide an overview of research that has developed and examined MSL since its inception. On the other hand, the current review will evaluate the modeling approaches used to explore MSL behavior in terms of pollutant removal and simulation of its performance (R2 > 90%). However, despite the increase in MSL publications in the past years (e.g., 13 studies in 2021), many studies are still needed to fill the knowledge gaps and urging challenges regarding this emerging technology. Thus, recommendations on improving the stability and sustainability of MSLs are highlighted.

How to cite: Sbahi, S., Mandi, L., Masunaga, T., Ouazzani, N., Hejja, A., and Lahrouni, A.: Multi-Soil-Layering, the Emerging Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Review, Bibliometric Analysis, and Future Directions, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8268,, 2023.