GI3.1 | Open Session on Planetary Instrumentation and Data Techniques

GI3.1

EDI

This session aims to inform the geoscientists and engineers regarding new and/or improved instrumentation and methods for space and planetary exploration, as well as about their novel or established applications.
The session is open to all branches of planetary and space measurement tools and techniques, including, but not limited to: optical, electromagnetic, seismic, acoustic, particles, and gravity.
Please, kindly take contact with the conveners if you have a topic that may be suitable for a review talk.
This session is also intended as an open forum, where discussion between representatives of different fields within planetary, space and geosciences will be strongly encouraged, looking for a fruitful mutual exchange and cross fertilization between scientific areas.

Co-organized by PS1, co-sponsored by IAF and COSPAR
Convener: Bernard Foing | Co-conveners: Serena CrottiECSECS, Hakan Svedhem
Orals
| Thu, 27 Apr, 14:00–17:55 (CEST)
 
Room G2
Posters on site
| Attendance Thu, 27 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)
 
Hall X4
Posters virtual
| Attendance Thu, 27 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)
 
vHall ESSI/GI/NP
Orals |
Thu, 14:00
Thu, 10:45
Thu, 10:45

Session assets

Orals: Thu, 27 Apr | Room G2

The oral presentations are given in a hybrid format supported by a Zoom meeting featuring on-site and virtual presentations. The button to access the Zoom meeting appears just before the time block starts.
Chairpersons: Bernard Foing, Hakan Svedhem, Serena Crotti
MoonMars Missions and Instruments
14:00–14:05
14:05–14:25
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EGU23-2676
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solicited
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On-site presentation
Lisa Woerner, Bart Root, Philippe Bouyer, Claus Braxmaier, Dominic Dirkx, Joao Encarnacao, Ernst Hauber, Hauke Hussmann, Ozgur Karatekin, Alexander Koch, Lee Kumanchik, Federica Migliaccio, Mirko Reguzzoni, Birgit Ritter, Manuel Schilling, Christian Schubert, Cedric Thieulot, Wolf von Klitzing, and Olivier Witasse

With MaQuIs we propose a mission to investigate the gravitational field of Mars. Observing the gravitational field over time yields information about the planets tectonic lithoshphere, mass distribution, and composition. Consequently, this mission allows to study static and dynamic processes on and under the surface of Mars, including phenomena such as melting cycles and tectonic activity.

MaQuIs will deploy quantum mechanical means to measure Mars gravitational field with the highest precision yet. In addition, the nature of the proposed instrumentation achieves high sensitivities without needing more complex satellite constellations. As such, MaQuIs follows successful missions for the Earth and Moon, extending the technology to Mars.

In this presentation we will outline the expected scientific merit and explain the underlying technology and planned configuration of the mission.  

How to cite: Woerner, L., Root, B., Bouyer, P., Braxmaier, C., Dirkx, D., Encarnacao, J., Hauber, E., Hussmann, H., Karatekin, O., Koch, A., Kumanchik, L., Migliaccio, F., Reguzzoni, M., Ritter, B., Schilling, M., Schubert, C., Thieulot, C., von Klitzing, W., and Witasse, O.: MaQuIs - Mars Quantum Gravity Mission, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-2676, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-2676, 2023.

14:25–14:35
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EGU23-320
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Constantijn Vleugels, Bernard Foing, and Okta Swida

Large parts of the Martian surface have been imaged with orbiters. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) can be used to build Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) of Mars with high horizontal and vertical resolution – distinguishing metre-size objects with a vertical error of tens of centimetres – and interpret the geologic history of a site. These maps may aid in rover landing site selection and finding science targets for these missions. However, rover-based imaging ultimately brings the most detailed view of a site and provides ‘ground-truth’ data to orbital observations on much smaller scales. Studying the differences between geologic interpretations from larger scale orbital observations and smaller scale rover images helps understand the limits of orbital maps and the added value of rover observations. We compare remote sensing data from orbit with rover panoramic camera data. The validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data (such as HiRISE) in Jezero Crater is examined with ground-based, publicly available data from Mastcam-Z on the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover. Mastcam-Z can provide stereo colour images of the scene around the rover. 

The rover is currently in its Delta Campaign after landing at the Octavia E. Butler site and its subsequent trip to the Séítah formation, indicated in the figure below which shows Perseverance’s traverse near the western delta of Jezero crater (the basemap is a HiRISE DTM overlaid on a Context Camera mosaic produced by The Murray Lab).  Along the way, it has imaged the Séítah and Máaz formations and outcrops of the western delta formation. These units are expected to be volcanic (Séítah and Máaz) and deltaic (western delta) deposits. We can use the Mastcam-Z images made along the traverse to test what geologic interpretations we can reliably infer from orbital data.

How to cite: Vleugels, C., Foing, B., and Swida, O.: A comparison of Perseverance rover and HiRISE data: siteinterpretations in Jezero Crater, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-320, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-320, 2023.

14:35–14:45
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EGU23-9318
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Serena Crotti, Jara Pascual, Bernard Foing, Agata Kołodziejczyk, Brent Reymen, Ioana Roxana Perrier, Henk Rogers, Sofia Pavanello, Celia Avila Rauch, Gabriel De La Torre, and Armin Wedler

EuroSpaceHub is a project funded by the EIT HEI initiative, led by EIT Manufacturing and Raw Materials. The main goal of the project is fostering collaborative innovation and entrepreneurship in the Space-Tech ecosystem. EuroSpaceHub includes several initiatives; among them is the EuroSpaceHub Academy: an educational programme to train young students, researchers and professionals as Analog Astronauts and Space entrepreneurs.

Thanks to the experience of one of the founding partners of EuroSpaceHub - Lunex EuroMoonMars - students have the opportunity to participate as analog astronauts in various campaigns, which makes them learn with a hands-on approach. Analog missions are both important for carrying out investigations with a view to future Space exploration  and for developing technical scientific knowledge in students. EuroMoonMars has been involved in the organization of these campaigns since 2009, starting at the MDRS (Utah). Other missions were organized at the HISEAS base on the Mauna Loa (Hawaii), in Iceland (CHILL-ICE), in Etna/Vulcano Italy, Atacama Desert (Chile), at the AATC in Poland, ESTEC Netherlands, Eifel Germany and others [1-10]. During analog simulations, students learn to control on-board instruments and to structure their own experiments, collecting data and processing the results efficiently. EuroSpaceHub and Lunex support not only student participation in these missions and their organisation, but also a set of specific trainings under the umbrella of the ESH Academy, complementary to the missions. During the missions, PhD and Master's students can take advantage of special settings and equipment to conduct their investigations, which range from Space and planetary science, instruments, protocols, data analysis,
(biology, psychology, physiology and engineering, to name but a few).

EuroSpaceHub and Lunex are also developing an innovative habitat for analog missions and outreach, ExoSpaceHab Express. Its easy transportation, which is conceived on wheels, makes it a unique contribution in the landscape of existing habitats. Thanks to ExoSpaceHab-X, an increasing number of students will have access to the missions and dedicated training. Also, more and more data will be collected to investigate crews’ reactions in confinement, mission protocols, planning and operations. 

References: [1] Foing, B. et al (2022) LPSC 53, 2042 [2] Foing B. et al (2021) LPSC52, 2502 [3] Musilova M. et al (2020) LPSC51, 2893 [4] Perrier I.R. et al (2021) LPSC52, 2562 [5] Crotti, S. et al (2022) EGU22, 5974 [6] Foing, B. et al (2021) LPSC52, 2502 [7] Heemskerk, M. et al (2021) LPSC52, 2762 [8] Foing, B. et al (Editors, 2011) Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments, Special Issue IJA, 10, vol. 3. 137-305; [9] Foing B. et al. (2011) Field astrobiology research at Moon-Mars analogue site: Instruments and methods, IJA 2011, 10 (3), 141 [10] Foing, B. H. et al, (2017) LPICo2041, 5073 

Acknowledgments: We thank EuroSpaceHub Consortium, collaborators, EIT HEI initiative, EIT Manufacturing and Raw Materials, VilniusTech, Collabwith, International Space University, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Lunex Foundation and EuroMoonMars. We thank Adriano Autino and Space Renaissance International, all EMMPOL participants and the staff of AATC.

How to cite: Crotti, S., Pascual, J., Foing, B., Kołodziejczyk, A., Reymen, B., Perrier, I. R., Rogers, H., Pavanello, S., Rauch, C. A., De La Torre, G., and Wedler, A.: Training the future Space Entrepreneurs and Astronauts: the experience of the EuroSpaceHub Academy with the Analog Missions for validation of planetary instruments, protocols and techniques, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-9318, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-9318, 2023.

14:45–14:55
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EGU23-10788
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solicited
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Heather Smith

We propose a suite of instruments, Botany on The Moon, designed to investigate the feasibility of plant growth on the Moon. Botany is composed of two single-species plant growth modules (Arabidopsis, & radish) plus two environmental monitoring instruments that record (1) direct and scattered sunlight in the photosynthetically active radiation or wavelengths (termed PAR), and (2) level of cosmic radiation and induced lunar neutrons. Together these four investigations contribute to our understanding of how plants can be grown on the Moon.

The core perspective in Botany is that physical experiments are needed to understand plant growth on the Moon. Little is known about plant behavior in reduced (fractional) gravity environments (less than the nominal 1g that occurs on Earth). How biology responds to partial gravity (in combination with radiation effects) remains unexplored.

Botany’s primary science goals can be achieved during the sunlit timeframe of a Lunar Day. However, significantly more data and knowledge is gained by extending the growth duration window to approximately 45 Earth days. Hence, Botany is proposing to take advantage of the CLPS provided Survive-the-Night service.  If the CLPS provider is able to provide power for Botany to survive the night, our secondary science goal to determine the feasibility of transitioning the plants from a normal growth phase (at 22oC during the sunlit time) to a slow growth phase (at 5oC during the nighttime), returning to normal growth phase (at 22oC during the second sunlit time) can be achieved. However, all of Botany’s primary science goals can be achieved during the lunar sunlit timeframe, albeit with the loss of data due to the shorter growth duration. The Botany instrument suite including the LPX plant chambers are designed for a 45 Earth-day mission on the Lunar surface, including surviving the 354 hours of the Lunar night. The Botany on The Moon proposed project has a payload mass of ~ 12kg and estimated cost of ~ $11.5 Million U.S. dollars.

The 20-person Botany payload team is led by a mid-career women scientist and involves a gender diverse science and engineering team at various stages in their career from 10 institutions located within three countries. The Botany team includes NASA ARC, KIPR (a long-term NASA ARC contract organization), SDL, UNC-G (a minority serving institution (MSI)), a Canadian instrument provided by McMaster University, and a science team from various institutions. Our team combines complimentary skills, mission management experience, and expertise in plant science.

How to cite: Smith, H.: Botany on The Moon, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10788, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-10788, 2023.

14:55–15:05
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EGU23-10549
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On-site presentation
Development of the Concept of Operations for depth-data collection on the Lunar Surface
(withdrawn)
Cody Paige, Don Derek Haddad, Ferrous Ward, Ariel Deutsch, Vandana Jha, Valentin Bickel, Anthony Colaprete, Amanda Cook, Jennifer Heldmann, and Dava Newman
15:05–15:15
|
EGU23-15409
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Jari Joutsenvaara, Antti Tenetz, Julia Puputti, and Ossi Kotavaara

Callio SpaceLab is an initiative for international space testing, R&D for future human space exploration. SpaceLab's extremely confined environment of the mine and surroundings provide testbeds to simulate human space exploration, analogue astronaut training and experiences for space research and systems in extreme environments on Earth.

Many steps need to be taken here on Earth to put a (hu)man on the Moon and later on Mars. The Earth-based simulation environments are called Terrestrial analogue sites or space analogues. Some analogues are more general, but some have characteristics similar to the extra-terrestrial conditions: e.g., Venus has an analogue environment at Mt. Etna (1), Italy, Mars at Atacama desert (2), Chile and Moon (3), Mauna Kea, Hawai, USA.

Space analogues research covers many topics ranging from testing of habitats and other constructions, fieldwork, in-situ resource utilisation and vehicles; some concentrate on low gravity  (simulated, e.g., in pools) and confinement from the existing world in enclosed environments.

Callio SpaceLab is a concept being developed at the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland. It is one of Europe’s deepest  (1.4 km) base metal mines. The underground mining ended in 8/2022, but that is just the beginning. The Pyhäjärven Callio is developing the site for a second life, including underground pumped-hydro energy storage, a solar park, FUTUREMINE testing environment for autonomous mining equipment, and more (4,5). Research activities are coordinated by the University of Oulu´s Kerttu Saalasti Institute.

In order to survive on the extraterrestrial landscapes Moon and Mars, one needs to bring enough protection to sustain life and activities. Mine is a suitable terrestrial analogue test environment for confinement studies, biology, astrobiology, in-situ resource utilisation, scientific drilling, rover testing (inclines up to1:7), communications systems testing, space design-, art- and culture projects, etc. (6). The mine has extensive connectivity. Deep space communications can be simulated for different missions, from spaceflights to extraterrestrial bases and activities both on surfaces and in the depth of space objects and celestial bodies.

The site´s hosting rock is a massive volcanogenic sulfide (VMS) deposit formed 1.9 Ga (7). Exploration drilling has found saline water pockets dated at least 30 Ma old. The water samples have shown traces of bacteria common to deep subsurface environments (8).

 

References

  • Gabriel V.,  et al. Mineralogy and Spectroscopy of Mount Etna Lava Flows as an Analogue to Venus. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022LPICo2678.2255E
  • Azua-Bustos A.,  et al. The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile as an Analog Model of Mars. 2022. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspas.2021.810426
  • Inge IL ten K.,  et al. Mauna Kea, Hawaii, as an Analog Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign. Journal of Aerospace Engineering. https://doi:10.1061/(ASCE)AS.1943-5525.0000200
  • Callio - Mine for Business. 2023. https://callio.info
  • Joutsenvaara J.,  et al. Callio Lab - the deep underground research centre in Finland, Europe. 2021.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2156/1/012166
  • Tenetz A., More than Planet - Deep residency and workshop, creative Eu-project - 2022-2025. http://www.photonorth.fi/fi/projektit/more-than-planet/
  • Imaña M,  et al., 3D modeling for VMS exploration in the Pyhäsalmi district, Central Finland in. In: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting. 2013. p. 12–5.
  • Miettinen H, et al., Microbiome composition and geochemical characteristics of deep subsurface high-pressure environment, Pyhasalmi mine Finland. https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffmicb.2015.01203

How to cite: Joutsenvaara, J., Tenetz, A., Puputti, J., and Kotavaara, O.: Callio SpaceLab – Sustainable living, sustaining life, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-15409, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-15409, 2023.

15:15–15:25
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EGU23-7046
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Maria Luisa Alonso Tagle, Romain Maggiolo, Herbert Gunell, Johan De Keyser, Gael Cessateur, Giovanni Lapenta, Viviane Pierrard, and Ann Carine Vandaele

Atmospheric erosion plays a significant role in the long-term evolution of planetary atmospheres, and therefore on the development and sustainability of habitable conditions. Atmospheric escape varies over time, due to changes in planetary conditions and the evolution of the Sun. In the case of a magnetized planet like Earth, the dominant scavenging mechanisms are polar wind and polar cusp escape. Both processes are sensitive to the ion supply from the atmosphere, which depends on the solar EUV radiation and the composition of the neutral atmosphere. Moreover, they are modulated by the coupling between the solar wind and the ionosphere, which depends on the solar wind dynamic pressure and the planetary magnetic moment.

We developed a semi-empirical model of atmospheric loss to extrapolate from current measurements of oxygen escape from Earth to past conditions. This model takes into account the variations of the solar EUV/UV flux, the solar wind dynamic pressure, and the Earth’s magnetic moment. In this study, we identify the main factors and processes that control oxygen escape from Earth, considering present-day atmospheric conditions. We constrain the variation of the oxygen loss rate over time and estimate the total oxygen loss during the last ~2 billion years.

How to cite: Alonso Tagle, M. L., Maggiolo, R., Gunell, H., De Keyser, J., Cessateur, G., Lapenta, G., Pierrard, V., and Vandaele, A. C.: Evolution of the oxygen escape from Earth over geological time scales, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7046, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7046, 2023.

15:25–15:35
Coffee break
Chairpersons: Bernard Foing, Hakan Svedhem, Serena Crotti
Planetary missions and Instruments
16:15–16:35
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EGU23-9912
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solicited
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On-site presentation
Jose M. G. Merayo, Benjamin P. Weiss, Jodie Ream, Rona Oran, Peter Brauer, Corey J. Cochrane, Kyle D. Cloutier, Lindy Elkins-Tanton, John Leif Jørgensen, Clara Maurel, Ryan S. Park, Carol A. Polanskey, Maria De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Carol A. Raymond, Christopher Russell, Daniel Wenkert, Mark A. Wieczorek, Maria T. Zuber, and Kyle Webster

The asteroid (16) Psyche is the target of the NASA Psyche mission, where the magnetometer is one of the three science instruments on board. Its purpose is to prove whether the asteroid formed from the core of a differentiated planetesimal. The magnetometer will measure the magnetic field at different distances from the asteroid in order to detect any remanent magnetization, where a magnetic moment larger than 2×10^14 Am2 could imply that the body once generated a core dynamo, and therefore formed as an igneous differentiation.

The Psyche spacecraft carries two three-axis fluxgate magnetometers mounted on a fixed boom at 2.15m and 1.45m, respectively, which provide redundancy and gradiometer capabilities to compensate for spacecraft-generated magnetic fields. The magnetometers will be powered on early in the initial checkout phase and remain on throughout cruise and orbital operations and producing 50 vectors per second. The in-flight temperature of the magnetometers is expected to span a large range, therefore an extensive calibration program has been carried out in order to characterize the instruments and prove the performance pre-flight.

How to cite: Merayo, J. M. G., Weiss, B. P., Ream, J., Oran, R., Brauer, P., Cochrane, C. J., Cloutier, K. D., Elkins-Tanton, L., Jørgensen, J. L., Maurel, C., Park, R. S., Polanskey, C. A., Pich, M. D. S.-S., Raymond, C. A., Russell, C., Wenkert, D., Wieczorek, M. A., Zuber, M. T., and Webster, K.: The Magnetometer on the Psyche mission, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-9912, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-9912, 2023.

16:35–16:45
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EGU23-2838
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Gwendal Hénaff, Matthieu Berthomier, Leblanc Frédéric, Techer Jean-Denis, Degret Gabriel, and Pledel Sylvain

One of the challenges in space instrumentation is to measure the energy and 3D angular distribution of charged particles within the limited resources available on planetary missions. Current electrostatic energy analyzers allow the measurement of the energy and angular distribution of charged particles around a 2D viewing plane.

Since most planetary probes are three-axis stabilized, electrostatic scanning deflectors are needed to provide the 3D distribution of charged particles using a minimum of two sensors. However, deflections up to +/- 90° cannot be achieved at high energy (above 10-15 keV) while higher energy accelerated particles play a key role in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. In addition, electrons and positive ions have to be measured with dedicated sensors which increases the complexity of plasma payloads and of their accommodation on planetary platforms.

We introduce a novel instrument design, that would allow measurement of the energy spectrum and 3D angular distribution of charged particles on three-axis stabilized platforms without using scanning deflectors. The design is possible using new electrostatic geometries and the capability of additive manufacturing technology. An innovative and compact ion/electron detection system is used to simultaneously observe both type of particles with a single sensor.

 We show that we reach the performance of current reference designs while having a true 3D field of view and significantly reducing the payload needs. With a mass budget of 2 kg, our combined electron/ion instrument fits the requirements to fly aboard small satellites. It would significantly reduce the size and cost of the platform and may open new perspectives for planetary exploration by a fleet of micro/nano-satellites.

How to cite: Hénaff, G., Berthomier, M., Frédéric, L., Jean-Denis, T., Gabriel, D., and Sylvain, P.: Development of a 3D-printed ion-electron plasma spectrometer with an hemispheric field of view for microsats and planetary missions, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-2838, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-2838, 2023.

16:45–16:55
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EGU23-4510
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On-site presentation
Robert Green

NASA’s Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) imaging spectrometer was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on the 14th of July 2022.  EMIT measures the spectral range from 380 to 2500 nm with 285 contiguous spectral channels with 60 m spatial sampling and an 80 km swath.  The EMIT imaging spectrometer is optically fast at F/1.8 to deliver high signal-to-noise ratio observations.  Novel methods are used for on-orbit calibration, dark signal measurement, and geolocation.  The EMIT measurement characteristics and processing results through calibration, atmospheric corrections, and surface mineralogy retrievals are reported.  The EMIT science team will use these new comprehensive observations of surface mineralogy across the Earth’s arid land dust source regions to update the initial conditions of Earth System Models to understand and reduce uncertainties in mineral dust radiative forcing at the regional and global scale now and in the future.  EMIT’s measurements, products, and results with be available to other investigators for the broad set of science and applications they enable through the NASA Land Processes Data Active Archive Center.  The connection between EMIT, Carbon Plume Mapper, the Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa, and the High-resolution Volatiles and Minerals Moon Mapper on Lunar Trailblazer is also described.

How to cite: Green, R.: Imaging Spectroscopy Observations from NASA’s Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation launched in 2022 and Connections to Imaging Spectrometers for Greenhouse Gas Measurement, Europa, the Moon, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-4510, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-4510, 2023.

16:55–17:05
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EGU23-10104
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On-site presentation
Leah-Nani Alconcel, Timothy Oddy, Patrick Brown, and Chris Carr

The calibrated data from the Cluster fluxgate magnetometer instruments (FGMs) aboard the four Cluster spacecraft are accessible through the European Space Agency (ESA) Cluster Science Archive (CSA). The FGM team at Imperial College – the PI institute that built and supports operation of the magnetometers – has regularly provided validated data to the CSA since its inception. The calibration and validation pipeline is well established and provides measurements at the highest instrument resolution within an uncertainty as low as 0.1 nT. New methods for magnetic field calibration have been proposed in the many years since Cluster’s commissioning. One of these uses mirror mode waves in the Earth’s magnetosheath to determine the spin-axis offsets of an in-flight magnetometer instrument. The FGM team applied this method to the Cluster instrument data during periods when the spacecraft spend a substantive proportion of their orbits in the magnetosheath, typically May-June and October-November. The offsets determined by this method were compared to those determined by the method already integrated into the pipeline. Good agreement was found between the two methods.

Due to the limitations in resource, the substantial effort that would be required to change calibration methods and re-deliver over 20 years of FGM data, and the potential impact on literature already published, the team would not recommend retroactive integration of the new method into the pipeline. However, the study provides a useful sense check of the pipeline and the data already delivered, as well as the remaining data to be delivered through to the end of the Cluster mission.

How to cite: Alconcel, L.-N., Oddy, T., Brown, P., and Carr, C.: Sense-checking the calibration of the Cluster FGM magnetometer spin-axis offsets using mirror mode waves in the magnetosheath, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10104, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-10104, 2023.

17:05–17:15
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EGU23-10917
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solicited
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On-site presentation
Robert Wright and the HyTI Team

The HyTI (Hyperspectral Thermal Imager) mission, funded by NASA’s Earth Science Technology Office InVEST (In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies) program, will demonstrate how high spectral and spatial long-wave infrared image data can be acquired from a 6U CubeSat platform. The mission will use a spatially modulated interferometric imaging technique to produce spectro-radiometrically calibrated image cubes, with 25 channels between 8-10.7 microns, at 13 cm-1 resolution), at a ground sample distance of ~60 m. The HyTI performance model indicates narrow band NEDTs of <0.3 K. The small form factor of HyTI is made possible via the use of a no-moving-parts Fabry-Perot interferometer, and JPL’s cryogenically-cooled HOT-BIRD FPA technology. Launch is scheduled for June 2023. The value of HyTI to Earth scientists will be demonstrated via on-board processing of the raw instrument data to generate L1 and L2 products, with a focus on rapid delivery of data regarding volcanic degassing, and land surface temperature. This presentation will describe the mission and the technology, including the interferometric imaging approach, and how the Cube Sat will support instrument operations and data processing.

How to cite: Wright, R. and the HyTI Team: The HyTI Mission: High Spatial and Spectral Sesolution Imaging from a 6U Cube Satellite, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10917, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-10917, 2023.

17:15–17:25
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EGU23-13233
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Song Yezhi

In response to the problem that ground-based optical monitoring systems cannot monitor near-Earth asteroids which are too close to the Sun on the celestial sphere, we raise a method that tracks and determines the orbit of asteroids by Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) platforms with optical monitoring. Through data filtering by visibility analysis and the initial orbit information of the asteroids provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the asteroids' orbits are determined and compared with the reference orbit. Simulation results show that with a measurement accuracy of two arcseconds and an arc length of three years, the orbit determination accuracy of the DRO platform for near-Earth asteroids can reach tens of kilometers, especially the asteroids with Atira orbits to an accuracy of fewer than ten kilometers. In conclusion, the near-Earth asteroids monitoring systems based on DRO platforms are capable to provide sufficient monitoring effectiveness which enables precise tracking of the target asteroids and forecast of their positions.

How to cite: Yezhi, S.: Near-Earth asteroids orbit determination by DRO space-based optical observations, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13233, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13233, 2023.

17:25–17:35
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EGU23-14692
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On-site presentation
Maria Genzer, Pekka Janhunen, Harri Haukka, Antti Kestilä, Maria Hieta, Pyry Peitso, Perttu Yli-Opas, Hannah Ploskonka, Petri Toivanen, Janne Sievinen, Marco Marques, David Macieira, Ahmed El Moumen, Farzaneh Gholami, Miguel Olivares-Mendez, Baris Can Yalcin, and Carol Martinez Luna

When a high-voltage charged tether is put into streaming space plasma, the tether’s electric field disturbs the flow of plasma ions and thereby taps momentum from the plasma flow [1-4]. The effect is called electrostatic Coulomb drag. One application is the electric solar wind sail which uses the solar wind to generate interplanetary propulsion [1, 2]. Another application is the Plasma Brake [3, 4] which uses the ionospheric ram flow to generate Coulomb drag that slowly de-orbits the satellite. Both positive and negative tether polarities work. The plasma physics is different, but the net effect is a transfer of momentum in both cases. The reasons are somewhat complicated, but there is good motivation to select positive polarity in the solar wind case and negative polarity in the ionospheric Plasma Brake case. Measurement of Coulomb drag in Low Earth Orbit and testing deployment of tether is to be carried out by ESTCube-2 cubesat [5] which is scheduled for launch in spring 2023, and forthcoming Foresail cubesat scheduled for launch later in 2023-2024.

Project DragLiner is ongoing and funded by ESA to define requirements and a preliminary design of a passive Coulomb Drag based deorbit system capable of bringing down LEO spacecrafts in an order of magnitude shorter time than the current regulations of re-enter time for the spacecraft (25 years). Other main requirements for the deorbiting system are low mass and independence from the spacecraft resources. The project will also create a TRL 4 prototype of a Plasma Brake module that can be used to deorbit a few hundred kilogram satellite or launcher upper stage from Low Earth Orbit. The module deploys ~5 km long tether that is made of four 25-50 micrometre diameter conductive wires. In addition to aluminium wires used previously in Cubesat projects we will also evaluate more advanced carbon fibre composite wires. The redundant multi-wire tether structure is used so that the tether does not break even when micrometeoroids cut some of its wires. The tether is deployed from a storage reel. The tether is kept at -1 kV voltage by an onboard high-voltage source. A ~100 m long metal-coated tape tether is used as an electron-gathering surface that closes the current loop. Alternatively, conducting parts of the debris satellite could be used for electron gathering. The power consumption is a few watts. 

Project Dragliner uses basic Space Plasma Physics to solve a practical and important problem of keeping satellite orbits clean for future generations and preventing a catastrophic Kessler syndrome scenario.

[1] Janhunen, P., Electric sail for spacecraft propulsion, J. Prop. Power, 20, 763-764, 2004.

[2] Janhunen, P. and A. Sandroos, Simulation study of solar wind push on a charged wire: basis of solar wind electric sail propulsion, Ann. Geophys., 25, 755-767, 2007.

[3] Janhunen, P., Electrostatic plasma brake for deorbiting a satellite, J. Prop. Power, 26, 370-372, 2010.

[4] Janhunen, P., Simulation study of the plasma-brake effect, Ann. Geophys., 32, 1207-1216, 2014.

[5] Iakubivskyi, I., et al., Coulomb drag propulsion experiment of ESTCube-2 and FORESAIL-1, Acta Astronautica, 177, 771-783, 2020.

How to cite: Genzer, M., Janhunen, P., Haukka, H., Kestilä, A., Hieta, M., Peitso, P., Yli-Opas, P., Ploskonka, H., Toivanen, P., Sievinen, J., Marques, M., Macieira, D., El Moumen, A., Gholami, F., Olivares-Mendez, M., Yalcin, B. C., and Martinez Luna, C.: Project DragLiner: Harnessing plasma Coulomb drag for satellite deorbiting to keep orbits clean, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14692, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-14692, 2023.

17:35–17:45
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EGU23-14810
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Johannes Z. D. Mieth, Ferdinand Plaschke, Uli Auster, David Fischer, Daniel Heyner, and Werner Magnes

Exploiting the Alfvénic structures of the solar wind is an established method for calibrating spaceborne magnetometers. However, not every statistical property of Alfvén waves follows a uniform distribution, so calibration accuracy in certain sensor directions may be significantly affected by the choice of the data set used. This work examines the statistical properties of Alfvénic disturbances and other structures of the solar wind in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales using data from the current BepiColombo mission, now in the inner solar system, the lunar and Earth-bound satellites of the THEMIS and ARTEMIS missions, and the Earth-bound MMS mission. The influence of the data selection on calibration is characterized and quantified. We benefit from the fact that the magnetometers of the above-mentioned missions have been partially calibrated by independent methods, using the spacecraft spin or alternative observations of the total magnetic field.

How to cite: Mieth, J. Z. D., Plaschke, F., Auster, U., Fischer, D., Heyner, D., and Magnes, W.: Statistics of Alfvénic structures in the Solar Wind and their impact on Magnetometer Calibration, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14810, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-14810, 2023.

17:45–17:55

Posters on site: Thu, 27 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | Hall X4

The posters scheduled for on-site presentation are only visible in the poster hall in Vienna. If authors uploaded their presentation files, these files are linked from the abstracts below, but only on the day of the poster session.
Chairpersons: Serena Crotti, Bernard Foing, Hakan Svedhem
Planetary instrumentation and techniques
X4.176
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EGU23-4051
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On-site presentation
An ion beam system for calibration of space low-energy ion detectors based on Kaufman ion source
(withdrawn)
Yiren Li, Bin Miao, Xinjun Hao, Kai Liu, Zonghao Pan, Tielong Zhang, and Yuming Wang
X4.177
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EGU23-7363
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On-site presentation
Mikhail Rashev

Silicon detectors are widely used for analyses of particles/radiation in space. They show a good response for a wide spectrum of different particles. Via construction of an appropriate shielding, one can select and analyze only a single sort of particles/their energy and suppress detection of particles of all other kinds. It is difficult to find a good solution for shielding only experimentally. A modeling software such as Geant4 allows us to find a solution for the shielding. This software calculates interaction of particles with shielding or detector and the resulting energy deposition.

The current work is based on modeling of aluminum shielding of the RAPID/IES instrument on board of four Cluster spacecrafts. Since 2000 Cluster mission encounters the Earth's radiation belts and measures energetic electrons among other particles, waves and electromagnetic fields. Accurate modeling using Geant4 allows us to filter unwanted particles out of the result and possibly remove some artifacts in space.

The Geant4 code calculates an attenuation of radiation. Preliminary this software does not calculate electrical signal. There is, however, a possibility to extend the code and add other functionalities. We are exploring possibilities to include signal processing in the Geant4 code for the detector, analog and digital processing units.

How to cite: Rashev, M.: On modeling of silicon detector for space applications using Geant4, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7363, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7363, 2023.

X4.178
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EGU23-7966
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Oleksii Kononov, Jiří Pavlů, Tereza Ďurovcová, Jana Šafránková, Zdeněk Němeček, and Lubomír Přech

Importance of solar wind monitoring for space weather applications increases with expansion of power networks and oils or gas pipelines to larger geomagnetic latitudes and development of new communication networks. Instruments based on Faraday cups are an ideal solution for these purposes because they are robust and their light weight and low power consumption facilitate their applications for a small spacecraft. Another important feature of Faraday cups is their capability of detection of impacts of interplanetary dust. Such instruments are currently a part of two planned ESA missions that will be briefly introduced. In the core of contribution, we describe the preliminary instrument design and concentrate on most important technical aspects of their development including a computer modeling of the most important parts of detectors. Among others, we present the effects of the grid geometry on the detector capability to determine the plasma velocity vector and temperature and search for optimum detector configuration for small spacecraft missions. We also discuss the data strategy allowing maximum scientific income with limited spacecraft telemetry.

How to cite: Kononov, O., Pavlů, J., Ďurovcová, T., Šafránková, J., Němeček, Z., and Přech, L.: Faraday cup instruments for solar wind and interplanetary dust monitoring, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7966, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7966, 2023.

X4.179
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EGU23-8161
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Javier Eduardo Suarez Valencia, Angelo Pio Rosi, and Giacomo Nodjourmi

Introduction

The scientific exploration of planetary bodies is enhanced using spectral indexes, and specific band combinations/operations that allow the interpretation of the compositional properties of planetary surfaces. The best hyperspectral sensor for the study of the Moon is M3 onboard Chandrayan-1 (Pieters et al., 2008), it has 86 channels, and covers the range between 450 to 3000 nm, a region that shows the main properties of the rock-forming minerals of the Moon. Although the data of M3 has been widely used with different techniques, there is no unified set of spectral indexes for this instrument, and the ones defined are usually produced in proprietary software. In this work, we compiled spectral indexes from several sources and recreated them in python.

Methods

We compiled spectral indexes from the literature, namely the ones defined by Zambon et al. (2020), Bretzfelder et al. (2020), and Horgan et al. (2014). Before applying the indexes, an M3 cube was processed in ISIS3 (Laura et al., 2022) and filtered in python to reduce the noise. Subsequently, the spectral indexes were replicated according to the procedures described by the authors and compared with the original results. Most of the process was done with common scientific libraries such as rioxarray (Guillies, 2013), OpenCV (Bradski, 2000), specutils (Earl et al., 2022), and NumPy (Harris et al., 2020).

Results

We were able to reproduce fourteen indexes with high fidelity. All of them are formulated to highlight the spectral features around the absorptions in 1000 nm and 2000 nm, which are the location with the major expressions from olivine and pyroxenes. Comparing our results with the ones in the literature, we found that the color ramps are similar in both results and that the surface features showcased in both cases are consistent with each other and their known compositions.

Discussion and conclusions

Small differences between the original indexes and the ones recreated here are expected, due to variations in the internal methods across libraries, the different ways of preprocessing and filtering, and the quality of the original cubes. Further comparison and validation of the procedures is planned.

Nevertheless, we believe that the results are consistent enough to be used as scientific inputs, thus providing an open-source alternative for the analysis of spectral indexes of the surface of the Moon. This work is in progress, and the code is going to be available via EuroPlanet GitHub organization (https://github.com/europlanet-gmap), as well as in the Space Browser of the EXPLORE platform (https://explore-platform.eu/space-browser).

Acknowledgments

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 101004214.

References

Bradski, G. (2000). The OpenCV Library.

Bretzfelder et al., (2020). Identification of Potential Mantle Rocks Around the Lunar Imbrium Basin.

Earl et al., (2022). astropy/specutils: V1.9.1 

Gillies, S. & others. (2013). Rasterio: Geospatial raster I/O for Python programmers. 

Harris et al., (2020). Array programming with NumPy.

Horgan et al., (2014). Near-infrared spectra of ferrous mineral mixtures and methods for their identification in planetary surface spectra.

Laura et al., (2022). Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers 

Zambon et al., (2020). Spectral Index and RGB maps.

How to cite: Suarez Valencia, J. E., Pio Rosi, A., and Nodjourmi, G.: Formulation of spectral indexes from M3 cubes for lunar mineral exploration using python, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8161, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8161, 2023.

X4.180
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EGU23-8918
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Jared Schroeder, Stefano Livi, and Frederic Allegrini

Strofio is a neutral mass spectrometer designed to measure the chemical composition of Mercury’s exosphere. Neutral species enter the instrument through one of two inlets before they are ionized via electron impact. The product ions are then guided by dozens of individually programmed electrodes toward the detector. A rotating electric field determines the time-of-flight (TOF) of each particle before they collide with a microchannel plate (MCP). Upon launch, one of the system’s electrodes (D5) suffered an anomaly that disrupted communications between the commanded value and the value reported in telemetry. This particular electrode is responsible for steering the particles into the MCP. Laboratory tests with the engineering model confirm mission requirements are satisfied regardless of the electrode state with the caveat being a reduced first-order mass range; however, second-order manipulation can extend the mass range to pre-anomaly standards. I will present the latest advances we have made in optimizing the instrument in its current state.

How to cite: Schroeder, J., Livi, S., and Allegrini, F.: Strofio: A Status Update, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8918, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8918, 2023.

X4.181
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EGU23-11555
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On-site presentation
Thomas Cornet, Alan Macfarlane, Elena Racero, Sebastien Besse, and Santa Martinez

The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission is currently en route to Mercury since October 2018. It consists of the ESA Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the JAXA Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) spacecraft which, along with the Mercury Transfer Module (MTM), are stacked all together during the seven years’ cruise phase. This long cruise phase is interspersed by nine planetary flybys used to reach Mercury’s orbit capture. In this configuration, most of the MPO instruments located on the nadir side are obstructed by the MTM and cannot observe. Nevertheless, a subset of “side-looking” instruments can be operated in the stacked-spacecraft configuration during the cruise and gather scientific data. These instruments, mostly dedicated to the study of the Hermean environment (magnetic field, solar wind, exosphere), are operated during the planetary flybys as well as for several cruise science observations. Such events are used to test the BepiColombo Science Ground Segment (SGS) operating systems and processes. The SGS develops the Quick-Look Analysis (QLA) tool that will support the rapid analysis of the instruments’ operational and scientific data acquired during the mission science phase observations, starting in 2026. At present, the tool is used to support cruise and flybys operations, in addition to fostering science collaborations between the BepiColombo instrument teams through its data sharing capabilities. We will present the current status and functionalities.

How to cite: Cornet, T., Macfarlane, A., Racero, E., Besse, S., and Martinez, S.: BepiColombo: Operations and Data Analysis through the Quick-Look Analysis (QLA) tool, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11555, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-11555, 2023.

X4.182
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EGU23-13996
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ECS
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On-site presentation
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William Desprats, Daniel Arnold, Stefano Bertone, Michel Blanc, Adrian Jäggi, Lei Li, Mingtao Li, and Olivier Witasse

Callisto, the outermost of the four Galilean satellites, is identified as a key body to answer present questions about the origin and the formation of the Jovian system. Callisto appears to be the least differentiated and the geologically least evolved of the Galilean satellites, and therefore the one best reflecting the early ages of the Jovian system.

While the ESA JUICE mission plans several flybys of Callisto, an orbiter would allow it to measure geodetic parameters to much higher resolution, as it was suggested by several recent mission proposals,e.g., the Tianwen-4 (China National Space Administration) and MAGIC (Magnetics, Altimetry, Gravity, and Imaging of Callisto) proposals. Recovering parameters such as those describing Callisto’s gravity field, its tidal Love numbers, and its orientation in space would help to significantly constrain Callisto’s interior structure models, including the characterization of a potential subsurface ocean.

We perform a closed-loop simulation of spacecraft tracking, altimetry, and accelerometer data of a high inclination, low altitude orbiter, which we then use for the recovery of its precise orbit and of Callisto’s geodetic parameters. We compare our sensitivity and uncertainty results to previous covariance analyses. We estimate geodetic parameters, such as gravity field, rotation, and orientation parameters and the k2 tidal Love number, based on radio tracking (2-way Doppler) residuals. We consider several ways to mitigate the mismodeling of non-gravitational accelerations, such as using empirical accelerations and pseudo stochastic pulses, and we evaluate the benefits of an on-board accelerometer.

We also investigate the added value of laser altimeter measurements to enable the use of altimetry crossovers to improve orbit determination and gravity-related geodetic parameters, but also to estimate the recovery of surface tidal variations (via the h2 Love number). For our closed-loop analyses, we use both a development version of the Bernese GNSS Software and the open-source pyXover software.

How to cite: Desprats, W., Arnold, D., Bertone, S., Blanc, M., Jäggi, A., Li, L., Li, M., and Witasse, O.: Simulation Study for Precise Orbit Determination of a Callisto Orbiter and Geodetic Parameter Recovery, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13996, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13996, 2023.

X4.183
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EGU23-14760
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ECS
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On-site presentation
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Giacomo Nodjoumi, Sebastian Emanuel Lauro, and Angelo Pio Rossi

Orbital radars, such as the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) [1] or the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) [2] instruments on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Express (MEX) respectively, provide valuable data about the Martian subsurface [3,4].

Common analysis methodologies comprise a direct comparison between the radargram (RDR) and the corresponding Surface Clutter Simulation (SCS) to visually spot any subsurface reflector. The surface time delays converted in the space domain are then compared with the corresponding topographic profile to check if any discrepancy occurred. and thus be mistaken for subsurface reflections. Once confirmed that the subsurface reflector is valid, the proper picking can be performed by looking at the radargram and both the radargram and the simulation power intensities. Finally, it is possible to estimate the real dielectric constant ε', which is the real component of the complex permittivity ε' - iε'' using Equation Eq1 [3]:

where Δt is the two-way travel time between the surface and the subsurface reflector, c is the speed of light in a vacuum and h is the reflector’s depth. Assuming different values for ε' and inverting Eq1, is possible to estimate the depth, thus the thickness of the reflector’s unit. In this work, we present the first pre-release of a user-friendly interface, with which is possible to easily perform the above analysis while granting robustness and reproducibility. Besides, it is possible to implement further custom processing functions to increase the accuracy of the results and/or expand the tool capabilities. We started the development using SHARAD US RDR and SCS, while MARSIS compatibility is under implementation. We provided also additional Jupyter notebooks for data download. This tool is based on the Jupyter lab environment and open-source python packages served as a docker container.

Open Research: The tool presented here is available on GitHub [5]

Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements No 101004214 and No 871149.

References:

[1] Seu, R., et al., SHARAD Sounding Radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter., doi:10.1029/2006JE002745.

[2] Jordan, R., et al., The Mars Express MARSIS Sounder Instrument. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.016.

[3] Shoemaker, E.S., et al., New Insights Into Subsurface Stratigraphy Northwest of Ascraeus Mons, Mars, Using the SHARAD and MARSIS Radar Sounders. doi:10.1029/2022JE007210.

[4] Lauro, S.E., et al., Using MARSIS Signal Attenuation to Assess the Presence of South Polar Layered Deposit Subglacial Brines. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-33389-4.

[5] Nodjoumi, G. MORDOR - Mars Orbital Radar Data Open-Reader 2023.

How to cite: Nodjoumi, G., Lauro, S. E., and Rossi, A. P.: A novel user-friendly Jupyter-based tool for analysing orbital subsurface sounding radar data., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14760, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-14760, 2023.

Posters virtual: Thu, 27 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | vHall ESSI/GI/NP

The posters scheduled for virtual presentation are visible in Gather.Town. Attendees are asked to meet the authors during the scheduled attendance time for live video chats. If authors uploaded their presentation files, these files are also linked from the abstracts below, but only on the day of the poster session. The button to access Gather.Town appears just before the time block starts.
Chairpersons: Serena Crotti, Bernard Foing
vEGN.12
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EGU23-1679
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
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Ian Lee, Robert Hawley, David Collins, and Joshua Elliott

We present a cost-efficient borehole tilt sensor that was developed by our group at Dartmouth College to study ice deformation on Jarvis Glacier in Alaska. We first detail the entire sensor development, deployment, and data collection process, along with showcasing successful use cases of our sensors on Jarvis and other glaciers both by our and other geophysical research groups. For our Jarvis work, we installed our tilt sensor system in two boreholes drilled close to the lateral shear margin of Jarvis Glacier and successfully collected over 16 months of uninterrupted borehole deformation data in a harsh polythermal glacial environment. The data included gravity and magnetic measurements that tracked the orientation of the sensors in the borehole as ice flows, and we used the resultant kinematic measurements to compute borehole deformation that provided insights into the ice flow dynamics on polythermal glaciers. Our tilt sensors can house many types of sensors to accommodate different scientific needs (e.g., temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity), and can be adapted for the different glacial thermal regimes and conditions like Athabasca Glacier in Canada, which is a temperate glacier in contrast to Jarvis’ polythermal regime. There remains a high knowledge and financial barrier to entry for borehole geophysics research for both development and procurement of a tilt sensor system, and our goal is to lower this barrier by supporting production efforts of our tilt sensor system for both research and educational needs. With our established sensor development plan and demonstrated success in the field, our group has collaborated with Polar Research Equipment (PRE), a Dartmouth alumni-founded company specializing in the development of polar research tools, to serve as a commercial resource to help support polar researchers during the development and/or production of an effective and cost-efficient (~80% cheaper than commercial versions) tilt sensor and its associated systems.

How to cite: Lee, I., Hawley, R., Collins, D., and Elliott, J.: Improving the Accessibility of Borehole Geophysics: A Cost-Efficient, Highly Modifiable Borehole Tilt Sensor, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-1679, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-1679, 2023.