CR2.2 | Ice-sheet and climate interactions
EDI
Ice-sheet and climate interactions
Co-organized by CL4/NP3/OS1
Convener: Heiko Goelzer | Co-conveners: Jonas Van BreedamECSECS, Ricarda Winkelmann, Alexander Robinson, Ronja ReeseECSECS
Orals
| Tue, 16 Apr, 08:30–12:30 (CEST)
 
Room L3
Posters on site
| Attendance Mon, 15 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST) | Display Mon, 15 Apr, 08:30–12:30
 
Hall X5
Orals |
Tue, 08:30
Mon, 10:45
Ice sheets play an active role in the climate system by amplifying, pacing, and potentially driving global climate change over a wide range of time scales. The impact of interactions between ice sheets and climate include changes in atmospheric and ocean temperatures and circulation, global biogeochemical cycles, the global hydrological cycle, vegetation, sea level, and land-surface albedo, which in turn cause additional feedbacks in the climate system. This session will present data and modelling results that examine ice sheet interactions with other components of the climate system over several time scales. Among other topics, issues to be addressed in this session include ice sheet-climate interactions from glacial-interglacial to millennial and centennial time scales, the role of ice sheets in Cenozoic global cooling and the mid-Pleistocene transition, reconstructions of past ice sheets and sea level, the current and future evolution of the ice sheets, and the role of ice sheets in abrupt climate change.

Orals: Tue, 16 Apr | Room L3

Chairpersons: Ronja Reese, Jonas Van Breedam, Heiko Goelzer
08:30–08:35
08:35–08:45
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EGU24-1991
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CR2.2
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Clara Burgard, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Christoph Kittel, Cyrille Mosbeux, Justine Caillet, and Pierre Mathiot

The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise in the coming centuries remains very uncertain, due to the possible triggering of instabilities such as the Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) and Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These instabilities are mainly linked to the evolution of the floating ice shelves, which usually buttress the ice flow from the ice-sheet to the ocean. However, these are currently thinning. Better understanding the evolution of ice shelves in the next decades to centuries is therefore important and crucial to better anticipate the evolution of sea-level rise.

In this study, we investigate the viability of ice shelves for a number of climate models and scenarios. This is estimated from the emulation of the surface and basal mass balance of MAR and NEMO respectively, and from high-end dynamical ice flows obtained through Elmer/Ice. We then use a Bayesian calibration to give weight to members closer to observations. We find that large uncertainties remain, mainly because of the uncertainty in basal melt, and that viability limits vary largely depending on the ice-shelf location.

How to cite: Burgard, C., Jourdain, N. C., Kittel, C., Mosbeux, C., Caillet, J., and Mathiot, P.: When will the Antarctic ice shelves not be viable anymore?, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-1991, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-1991, 2024.

08:45–08:55
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EGU24-3666
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Johanna Beckmann, Hélène Seroussi, Lawrence Bird, Justine Caillet, Nicolas Jourdain, Felcity McCormack, and Andrew Mackintosh

The Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) is currently undergoing accelerated mass loss, significantly contributing to rising sea levels (SLR). Despite numerous observations, uncertainties persist in understanding the drivers and dynamic responses of AIS mass loss. Climate variability strongly influences AIS dynamics, but limited observational data hinders precise attribution to climate change or natural variability. This study addresses this gap by employing advanced modeling techniques to assess the extent to which observed and future AIS mass loss can be attributed to climate change versus variability. Utilizing a unique "initialization method" with the ISSM model, we approximate the AIS state circa 1850, a period minimally affected by anthropogenic forces. From this baseline, we project AIS development using UKESM1 forcing, comparing scenarios with and without anthropogenic influence. This investigation aims to enhance our understanding of the impact of climate change on the AIS and its implications for future SLR.

How to cite: Beckmann, J., Seroussi, H., Bird, L., Caillet, J., Jourdain, N., McCormack, F., and Mackintosh, A.: Deciphering Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Loss: A Modeling Approach to Distinguish Climate Change from Natural Variability, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-3666, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-3666, 2024.

08:55–09:05
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EGU24-5525
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Enrico Maiero, Florence Colleoni, Cécile Agosta, Carlo Barbante, and Barbara Stenni

Sublimation is the most important ablation term in the Antarctic Surface Mass Balance (SMB) (Agosta et al., 2019), while it is currently negligible for both Greenland and mountain glaciers (prevailing surface melt). Since simple parameterized SMB models are usually developed for Greenland and Alpine glaciers, they mostly misrepresent sublimation. To face this problem, we developed EBAL, a new parameterized Energy SMB model for Antarctica based on SEMIC (Krapp et al., 2017), which is an Energy SMB model developed for Greenland whose main innovations are a sinusoidal parameterization for the diurnal cycle to assess melt and refreezing and an albedo dependence on snow depth. EBAL was calibrated with both MAR (Kittel et al., 2022) and RACMO (Wessem et al., 2018) outputs for the period 1979-2000 and for the period 2075-2099 under the SSP5-8.5. EBAL can reproduce the statistical properties of MAR and RACMO sublimation time series and spatial distribution even if it uses a coarse time step (1 day). However, our final aim is to use EBAL for paleoclimate simulations, for which the temporal resolution of the inputs is even coarser, as often only monthly data is available. Thus, we have tested the idea of superimposing the present day-to-day variability on the MAR monthly atmospheric forcing of SSP5-8.5. Simulated SMB with EBAL forced with MAR original daily SSP5-8.5 inputs leads to a 210 Gt/yr sublimation, and to a 1425 Gt/yr melt. When forcing EBAL with monthly means only (linearly interpolated), we obtain a 113 Gt/yr sublimation and a 620 Gt/yr melt. When adding present-day variability to linearly interpolated monthly inputs, EBAL computes a 175 Gt/yr sublimation and a 1386 Gt/yr melt. Those latter numbers are very similar to those obtained when forcing with daily inputs. We propose to use this method to test EBAL for paleoclimate applications.

References

  • Agosta, C. et al., (2019). “Estimation of the Antarctic surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR (1979–2015) and identification of dominant processes”. The Cryosphere. 13,  pp. 281-296. 10.5194/tc-13-281-2019. 
  • Kittel, C. et al., (2022). “Clouds drive differences in future surface melt over the Antarctic ice shelves”. The Cryosphere. 16, pp. 2655-2669. 10.5194/tc-16-2655-2022.
  • Krapp, M et al., (July 2017). “SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet”. The Cryosphere 11.4, pp. 1519–1535. 10.5194/tc-11-1519-2017
  • Wessem, J. M. et al., (Apr. 2018). “Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 – Part 2: Antarctica (1979–2016)”. The Cryosphere 12, pp. 1479–1498. 10.5194/tc-12-1479-2018

How to cite: Maiero, E., Colleoni, F., Agosta, C., Barbante, C., and Stenni, B.: Modeling the Antarctic Surface Mass Balance with a coarse temporal resolution, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5525, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5525, 2024.

09:05–09:15
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EGU24-7415
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CR2.2
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Ann Kristin Klose and Ricarda Winkelmann

Earth's climate will likely exceed a warming of 1.5°C in the coming decades. Maintaining such warming levels for a longer period of time may pose a considerable risk of crossing critical thresholds in Antarctica and, thereby, triggering self-sustained, potentially irreversible ice loss, even if the forcing is reduced in a temperature overshoot. Due to the complex interplay of several amplifying and dampening feedbacks at play in Antarctica, the duration and amplitude of such warming overshoots as well as their eventual 'landing' climate will determine the long-term evolution of the ice sheet.

Using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, we systematically test for the reversibility of committed large-scale ice-sheet changes triggered by warming projected over the next centuries, and thereby explore (1) the stability regimes of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and (2) the potential for safe overshoots of critical thresholds in Antarctica.

We demonstrate crucial features of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's stability landscape for its long-term trajectory in response to future human actions: Given ice-sheet inertia, an early reversal of climate may allow for avoiding self-sustained ice loss that would otherwise be irreversible (for the same reduction in warming) due to multistability of the ice sheet at the basin- and continental scale. While we show that such safe overshoots of critical thresholds in Antarctica may be possible, it is also clear that limiting global warming is the only viable option to evade the risk of widespread ice loss in the long term.

How to cite: Klose, A. K. and Winkelmann, R.: Stability regimes and safe overshoots in West and East Antarctica, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-7415, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-7415, 2024.

09:15–09:25
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EGU24-21079
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Mira Berdahl, Gunter Leguy, Eric Steig, William Lipscomb, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Nathan Urban, Ian Miller, and Harriet Morgan

It is virtually certain that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) collapsed during past warm periods in Earth’s history, prompting concerns about the potential recurrence under anthropogenic climate change. Despite observed ice shelf thinning in the region, the combination of climate forcing and ice sheet sensitivity driving these changes remains unclear. Here, we investigate the joint effects of climate forcing and ice sheet sensitivity to evaluate conditions leading to WAIS collapse. We run ensembles of the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM), spun up to a pre-industrial state, and apply climate anomalies from the Last Interglacial (LIG, 129 to 116 yr ago), and the future (SSP2-4.5).  Forcing is derived from Community Earth System Model (CESM2) global simulations. We find that only modest ocean warming is required to cause significant WAIS mass loss, though such loss takes multiple centuries to millennia to manifest.

How to cite: Berdahl, M., Leguy, G., Steig, E., Lipscomb, W., Otto-Bliesner, B., Urban, N., Miller, I., and Morgan, H.: Understanding conditions leading to WAIS collapse, from the Last Interglacial to the modern, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21079, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-21079, 2024.

09:25–09:35
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EGU24-9032
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Torsten Albrecht, Meike Bagge, and Volker Klemann

The dynamics of the ice sheets on glacial-interglacial time scales are highly controlled by interactions with the solid Earth, i.e., glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Particularly at marine ice sheets, competing feedback mechanisms govern the migration of the ice sheet’s grounding line and hence the ice sheet stability.

In this study, we run coupled ice sheet–solid Earth simulations over the last two glacial cycles. For the ice sheet dynamics we apply the Parallel Ice Sheet Model PISM and for the load response of the solid Earth we use the three-dimensional viscoelastic Earth in view of sea-level and vertical displacement changes we apply the Viscoelastic Lithosphere and Mantle Model VILMA.

With our coupling setup we evaluate the relevance of feedback mechanisms for the glaciation anddeglaciation phases in Antarctica considering different 3D Earth structures resulting in a range of load-response time scales. For rather long time scales, in a glacial climate associated with far-field sea level low stand, we find grounding line advance up to the edge of the continental shelf mainly in West Antarctica, dominated by a self-amplifying GIA feedback, which we call the ‘forebulge feedback’. For the much shorter time scale of deglaciation, dominated by the Marine Ice Sheet Instability, our simulations suggest that the stabilizing GIA feedback can significantly slow-down grounding line retreat in the Ross sector, which is dominated by a very weak Earth structure (i.e. low mantle viscosity and thin lithosphere).

The described coupled framework, PISM-VILMA, allows for defining restart states to which to run multiple sensitivity simulations. It can be easily implemented in Earth System Models (ESMs) and provides the tools to gain a better understanding of ice sheet stability on glacial time scales as wellas in a warmer future climate.

How to cite: Albrecht, T., Bagge, M., and Klemann, V.: Feedback mechanisms controlling Antarctic glacial cycle dynamics simulated with a coupled ice sheet–solid Earth model, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-9032, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-9032, 2024.

09:35–09:45
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EGU24-17391
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Lucía Gutiérrez-González, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Marisa Montoya, Ilaria Tabone, and Alexander Robinson

In recent decades the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has undergone accelerating ice-mass loss. The GrIS is thought to be a tipping element of the Earth system due to the existence of positive feedbacks with the climate. Previous work has shown threshold behavior in the system, and its stability has been studied in a range of temperatures of the present to a global warming of +4K. However, there is still no consensus on the values of its critical thresholds for the future. Furthermore,  its stability at  lower temperatures hasn’t been studied yet. Here we use the ice-sheet model Yelmo coupled with the regional climate model REMBO and a parametrization of the ice-ocean interactions to obtain the bifurcation diagram of the GrIS from temperatures representative of the LGM (-12K) to a warmer scenario (+4K). The preindustrial simulated equilibrium volume is larger than the observations, a feature common to many other ice-sheet models. This could indicate model biases, but also that the GrIS could currently not be fully in equilibrium with the preindustrial forcing, with implications for future projections. To investigate this issue, we simulated the transient evolution of the GrIS since the LGM to the present day in the context of the bifurcation diagram, with equilibrium states acting as attractors. 

How to cite: Gutiérrez-González, L., Alvarez-Solas, J., Montoya, M., Tabone, I., and Robinson, A.: Critical thresholds of the Greenland Ice Sheet from the LGM to the future, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17391, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-17391, 2024.

09:45–09:55
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EGU24-5584
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Miren Vizcaino, Thirsza Feenstra, Michele Petrini, Raymond Sellevold, Georgiou Sotiria, Katherine Thayer-Calder, William Lipscomb, and Julia Rudlang

Estimates of future Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) melt are mostly based on regional climate modelling for a fixed GrIS topography or on ice sheet modelling with forcing from climate models. This prevents the modelling of climate and GrIS feedbacks and other types of interaction. Here we examine a set of multi-century simulations with the Community Earth System Model featuring an interactive GrIS to explore future relationship between global climate change and ice sheet change. To this end, we compare a set of coupled CESM-CISM 1% CO2 increase simulations until stabilization at two, two and a half, three and four times pre-industrial CO2 levels to examine the sensitivity of the GrIS to emission mitigation. Here we find a large role of ocean circulation weakening and associated regional climate changes on GrIS melt for moderate emission scenarios and large melt differences between the three times and four times CO2 stabilization scenarios. In addition, we examine the role of feedbacks on ice sheet evolution by comparing a 1% to 4xCO2 coupled simulation with a simulation where the GrIS topography and meltwater fluxes to the ocean are prescribed as pre-industrial. Finally, we explore the effects on GrIS melt rates of a fast 5% CO2 reduction from four times to pre-industrial levels, with a focus on restoration of high latitude climate, GrIS albedo, surface energy fluxes and refreezing capacity.  

How to cite: Vizcaino, M., Feenstra, T., Petrini, M., Sellevold, R., Sotiria, G., Thayer-Calder, K., Lipscomb, W., and Rudlang, J.: Future Greenland melt in coupled ice sheet-climate CESM simulations: feedbacks, thresholds, reversibility, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5584, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5584, 2024.

09:55–10:05
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EGU24-15160
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Dawei Li

Mass loss from ice sheets under the ongoing anthropogenic warming episode is a major source for sea-level rise. Due to the slow responses of ice sheets to changes in atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions, ice sheets are projected to undergo further retreat as the climate reaches a new equilibrium, producing a long-term commitment to future sea-level rise that is fulfilled on multi-millennial scale. Future projections of ice sheets beyond 2100 have routinely employed end-of-the-century atmosphere-ocean conditions from climate model output under specified emission scenarios. This approach, however, does not account for long-term responses of the climate system to external forcings. Here we analyze the long-term atmospheric and oceanic responses to a variety of emission scenarios in several climate models and show that polar climates may see substantial changes after the atmospheric CO2 level stabilizes. With a 3-D ice sheet model, we demonstrate that the long-term climate responses are crucial for evaluating ice sheets' commitment to future sea-level rise.

How to cite: Li, D.: Effects of long-term climate responses on ice sheets' commitment to future sea-level rise, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-15160, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-15160, 2024.

10:05–10:15
Coffee break
Chairpersons: Jonas Van Breedam, Ronja Reese, Heiko Goelzer
10:45–10:55
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EGU24-10162
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Christiaan van Dalum, Willem Jan van de Berg, Srinidhi Nagarada Gadde, and Michiel van den Broeke

Recent progress in parameterizations of surface and atmospheric processes have led to the development of a major update of the polar version of the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2.4.1). Here, we present a new high-resolution climate and surface mass balance product by applying RACMO2.4.1 to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet for the historical period (starting in 1960 and 1945, respectively). In addition, RACMO output is now available for the first time on a pan-Arctic domain, starting in 1980. We assess these products by comparing model output of the surface mass balance and its components and the near-surface climate with in-situ and remote sensing observations, and study differences with the previously operational RACMO iteration, RACMO2.3p2. 

Among other changes, RACMO2.4.1 includes new and updated parameterizations related to surface and atmospheric processes. Most major updates are part of the physics package of cycle 47r1 of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which is embedded in RACMO2.4.1. This includes updates to the cloud, radiation, convection, turbulence, aerosol and lake scheme. Other major changes are directly related to the cryosphere, such as the introduction of a new spectral albedo and radiative transfer scheme for glaciated snow, fixes to the snow drift scheme, a new multilayer snow scheme for seasonal snow and an updated ice mask. These updates lead to changes in the near-surface climate. For example, the horizontal transport of snow that is present in the atmosphere leads to a redistribution of snowfall. Furthermore, the spatial resolution for the Antarctic domain is increased to 11 km, which is also used for the pan-Arctic domain, while 5.5 km is used for Greenland. Here, we also discuss the impact that aforementioned changes have on the climate of the polar regions and the surface mass balance and its components of the ice sheets.

How to cite: van Dalum, C., van de Berg, W. J., Nagarada Gadde, S., and van den Broeke, M.: A new climate and surface mass balance product for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet using RACMO2.4.1, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-10162, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-10162, 2024.

10:55–11:05
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EGU24-12773
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Damien Ringeisen, Patrick Alexander, Lettie Roach, Ken Mankoff, and Igor Aleinov

Representing the interactions between ice sheets and climate is essential for more accurate prediction of climate change and sea level rise. Ice sheets interact with the overlying atmosphere via the accumulation of snow and its compaction into firn, then ice, as well as the melting of surface snow and ice and the creation of runoff water. Getting an adequate representation of heat transfer, compaction, and melting processes is essential for an accurate representation of snow on land ice in global climate models. We are implementing an improved snow model on top of land ice as part of an effort to couple the NASA GISS climate model with the PISM ice sheet model. The new snow model includes additional layers and processes that are not currently incorporated (e.g., liquid water retention, percolation and refreezing, and snow densification), and mass and energy transfer methods that are consistent with both static ice sheets (with implicit iceberg fluxes) and interactive ice sheets (with explicit dynamics). We are tuning the densification scheme of this snow model with temperature and density data from common FirnCover and SumUp observations at locations in the accumulation zone of Greenland, and we compare the resulting density profiles to other SumUp density profiles in Greenland and Antarctica. We will assess the impact of this new snow model in climate model simulations with a static ice sheet compared with the previous (simpler) 2-layer snow model. Finally, we aim to use the non-coupled simulations as a baseline to assess the impact of dynamic coupling with an interactive ice sheet model.

How to cite: Ringeisen, D., Alexander, P., Roach, L., Mankoff, K., and Aleinov, I.: Improved treatment of snow over ice sheets in the NASA GISS climate model: towards ice sheet–climate coupling, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12773, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-12773, 2024.

11:05–11:15
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EGU24-4802
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CR2.2
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On-site presentation
Olga Sergienko, Matthew Harrison, Alexander Huth, and Nicole Schlegel

How to cite: Sergienko, O., Harrison, M., Huth, A., and Schlegel, N.: A synchronously coupled global model iOM4: a new modeling tool for simulations of the ocean-cryosphere interactions , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4802, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4802, 2024.

11:15–11:25
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EGU24-13618
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Matt Osman, Jessica Tierney, and Marcus Lofverstrom

During the Last Interglacial (LIG), approximately 130-118 thousand years ago (ka), the Arctic experienced relative warmth and global sea levels considerably higher than modern.  While this interval is thus considered key for understanding long-term ice–climate feedbacks under warm-state climate conditions, large uncertainties remain surrounding i. the magnitude and spatial expression of LIG global temperature change, ii. the relative contributions of the Antarctic vs. Greenlandic Ice Sheets (GrIS) to LIG sea level rise, and iii. the sensitivity of the GrIS to centennial- to millennial-scale ocean-atmospheric forcing.  Here, we present, to our knowledge, a first attempt at reconstructing the coupled GrIS–climate evolution during the LIG using an internally consistent offline “paleoclimate data assimilation” approach.  Our methodology combines a newly compiled database of nearly 400 chronologically consistent marine geochemical and ice sheet-derived climate-proxy records (spanning 250 sites globally) with recently developed, state-of-the-art transient simulations of the LIG using the coupled Community Earth System Model v2 featuring an interactive Community Ice Sheet Model v2 (CESM2-CISM2).  Our preliminary assimilations suggest LIG peak global mean surface warming of +0.1-0.5˚C (±2 range) above the pre-industrial state, arising from enhanced and widespread (>2-5˚C) high Arctic warming.  Leveraging our CESM2-coupled CISM2 results, we further identify a max GrIS contribution of 2.0 (±0.6) meters of sea level rise equivalent at around 125 ka, nearly ~two millennia after peak LIG climate forcing.  These initial results provide a new proxy-model integration framework for reconciling past GrIS contributions to global sea level rise and benchmark the potential long-term sensitivity of the GrIS to ongoing Arctic warming.

How to cite: Osman, M., Tierney, J., and Lofverstrom, M.: Reconstructing the coupled Greenland Ice Sheet–climate evolution during the Last Interglacial warm period, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-13618, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-13618, 2024.

11:25–11:35
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EGU24-966
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Thi Khanh Dieu Hoang, Aurélien Quiquet, Christophe Dumas, Andreas Born, and Didier M. Roche

The Last Interglacial period (LIG) (130 - 116 kaBP), characterized by higher global mean temperature and sea levels compared to the present-day due to the Earth’s orbit configuration, has been well-studied as a recent example of a climate period warmer than today. There is particular interest in studying the ice sheet-climate interactions in view of our current climate change. However, the extent of the ice sheet and its contribution to the rise of sea levels during the LIG remain debatable as different approaches suggest a wide range of estimations. In order to cover such a long period, some processes are simplified in the modeling approach by using prescribed forcings, simple surface mass balance (SMB) schemes, or equilibrium simulations, which all affect the numerical estimation of ice sheet evolution. 

In our work, to perform transient simulations, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM), which has been widely used to study various long-timescale periods. Additionally, we use a physically-based energy and mass balance model with 15 vertical snow layers BESSI (BErgen Snow Simulator) to account for the effect of insolation changes as well as snow-albedo feedback. The climate forcings of the snow model are obtained by running iLOVECLIM transiently from 135 to 115 kaBP, downscaled over the Northern Polar region. Using the SMB computed by BESSI, we then simulate the ice sheet evolution during the LIG with GRISLI - the ice sheet model in the iLOVECLIM framework. 

To assess the benefits of using a physically-based SMB model in the ice sheets simulation, the outputs of GRISLI-BESSI are compared to the current SMB scheme of iLOVECLIM, a simple parametrization called ITM (Insolation Temperature Melt). The Greenland ice sheet volume simulated by the two SMB models reaches the minimum value at 127.5 kaBP, around 500 years after the peak of global mean temperature. The magnitude of ice sheet retreat and its contribution to the sea level in ITM simulations are significantly higher than in BESSI due to an overestimation of the zones of ablation. 

The findings suggest that, compared to a parameterization, we have more confidence in the ice sheet estimation with a physically-based SMB model. Further works with fully interactive ice sheet modeling that takes into account the melt-elevation feedback can improve the simulation of the ice sheet-climate interactions of long-time scales. 

How to cite: Hoang, T. K. D., Quiquet, A., Dumas, C., Born, A., and Roche, D. M.: Greenland Ice Sheet evolution during the Last Interglacial with an improved surface mass balance modeling approach , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-966, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-966, 2024.

11:35–11:45
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EGU24-10256
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Majbritt Kristin Eckert, Mikkel Lauritzen, Nicholas Rathmann, Anne Solgaard, and Christine Hvidberg

The Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) is used to build up a glacial Greenland ice sheet, simulate the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet through glacial terminations I and II and investigate the evolution during previous warmer climates, the Eemian and the Holocene thermal maximum. During the Holocene, surface elevation changes derived from ice cores suggest a large thinning in the North, suggesting that the Greenland ice sheet was connected to the North American ice sheet in Canada during the last glacial. By including Canada in the modelling domain this thinning in the early Holocene as the connecting ice bridge broke up will be investigated. 

How to cite: Eckert, M. K., Lauritzen, M., Rathmann, N., Solgaard, A., and Hvidberg, C.: Reconstructing the Greenland ice Sheet during the last two deglaciations, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-10256, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-10256, 2024.

11:45–11:55
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EGU24-8333
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CR2.2
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Violet Patterson, Lauren Gregoire, Ruza Ivanovic, Niall Gandy, Stephen Cornford, and Sam Sherriff-Tadano

Coupled climate-ice sheet models can capture important interactions between the ice sheets and the climate that can help us better understand an ice sheet's response to changes in forcings. In this respect, they are a useful tool for simulating future ice sheet and sea level changes as a result of climate change. However, such models have large uncertainties related to the choice of climate and ice sheet parameters used. The same processes that operate today, also occurred in glacial times, and previous work has shown that simulating the North American ice sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 ka BP) provides a strong benchmark for testing coupled climate-ice sheet models and recalibrating uncertain parameters that control surface mass balance and ice flow (Gandy et al., 2023).

Here, we build on this work by performing the first coupled FAMOUS-BISICLES simulations of the last two glacial maxima, including all Northern Hemisphere ice sheets interactively. The ice sheet component of this model is capable of efficiently simulating marine ice sheets, such as the Eurasian ice sheet, despite the high computational cost of higher order physics. We simulate and compare both the LGM and the Penultimate Glacial Maximum (PGM; ~140 ka BP), since both periods displayed major differences in the distribution of ice between Eurasia and North America. Uncertainty is explored by running ensembles of 120 simulations, randomly varying the uncertain parameters controlling ice sheet dynamics and climate through Latin Hypercube Sampling. We also work on improving the representation of ice streams in the model through performing internal ice temperature spin ups and sensitivity tests varying till water drainage properties. The ensemble members are evaluated against empirical data on ice sheet extent and ice stream location to find combinations of parameters that produce reasonable simulations of the North American and Eurasian ice sheets for both periods. We determine the impact of the uncertainty in these parameters on the result and whether both ice sheets show similar sensitivities to the model parameters. These simulations will provide a starting point for analysing some of the interactions between the climate and the ice sheets during glacial periods and how they may have led to different ice sheet evolutions.

How to cite: Patterson, V., Gregoire, L., Ivanovic, R., Gandy, N., Cornford, S., and Sherriff-Tadano, S.: Coupled ensemble simulations of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets at last two glacial maxima , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-8333, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-8333, 2024.

11:55–12:05
|
EGU24-20332
|
CR2.2
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
William J. Dow, Sam Sherriff-Tadano, Lauren J. Gregoire, and Ruza Ivanovic

Surface ocean conditions and atmospheric dynamics can affect the surface mass balance (SMB) of remote ice sheets via their influence on heat and moisture transport. Here, we use the FAMOUS-ice coupled climate-ice sheet model, coupled to a slab ocean, to simulate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The model was run hundreds of times to produce a large ensemble that captures a range of uncertain model inputs (parameter values). We investigate the range of simulated atmospheric circulation patterns in the 16 ‘best’ ensemble members based on constraints, such as global temperature, their relationship to sea surface conditions in the North Pacific and the interactions with the North American ice sheet. We present evidence of upper tropospheric planetary waves that facilitate communication between the tropical Pacific and extratropical Laurentide ice sheet region, yet there are clear differences in upper tropopsheric dynamics when compared to recent historical period. There is limited evidence for this tropical-extra-tropical relationship being directly responsible for regional differences in Laurentide SMB evolution.

How to cite: Dow, W. J., Sherriff-Tadano, S., Gregoire, L. J., and Ivanovic, R.: The effect of Pacific climatology on the North American Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20332, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-20332, 2024.

12:05–12:15
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EGU24-6140
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CR2.2
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Alice Booth, Philip Goodwin, and Bb Cael

Slow climate feedbacks that operate on timescales of more than a century are currently underrepresented in model assessments of climate sensitivity, and this continues to hinder efforts to accurately predict future climate change beyond the end of the 21st Century. As such, the magnitude of multi-centennial and millennial climate feedbacks are still poorly constrained. We utilise recent reconstructions of Earth’s Energy Imbalance (EEI) to estimate both the total climate feedback parameter and the ice-sheet albedo feedback since the Last Glacial Maximum. This new proxy-based record of EEI facilitates the first opportunity to simultaneously calculate both the magnitude and timescale of Earth’s climate feedback over the most recent deglaciation using a purely proxy data-driven approach, and without the need for simulated reconstructions. We find the ice-sheet albedo feedback to have been an amplifying feedback reaching an equilibrium magnitude of 0.55 Wm-2K-1, with a 66% confidence interval of 0.45 Wm-2K-1 to 0.63 Wm-2K-1. The timescale for the ice-sheet albedo feedback to reach equilibrium is estimated as 3.61Kyrs, with a 66% confidence interval of 1.88Kyrs to 5.48Kyrs. These results provide new evidence for the timescale and magnitude of the amplifying ice-sheet albedo feedback that will continue to drive anthropogenic warming for millennia to come, further increasing the urgency for an effective climate change mitigation strategy to avoid serious long-term consequences for our planet and its ecosystems.

How to cite: Booth, A., Goodwin, P., and Cael, B.: Long term ice-sheet albedo feedback constrained by most recent deglaciation, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-6140, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-6140, 2024.

12:15–12:30

Posters on site: Mon, 15 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | Hall X5

Display time: Mon, 15 Apr 08:30–Mon, 15 Apr 12:30
Chairpersons: Heiko Goelzer, Jonas Van Breedam, Ronja Reese
X5.94
|
EGU24-4093
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Louise Abot, Claire Waelbroeck, Aurélien Quiquet, Casimir Delavergne, and Nathaelle Bouttes

During the last glacial period, the climate went through rapid fluctuations together with changes in ocean circulation and ice sheets volume accompanied by iceberg discharges. These rapid climate variations, namely Dansgaard-Oeschger events, are still not fully explained. This study’s aim is to contribute to their better understanding, focusing on interactions between ice sheets and ocean circulation. To this end, we use the iLOVECLIM-GRISLI coupled climate-ice sheet model and run two different perturbation experiments related to the ice sheet and ocean components. Starting from a quasi equilibrium corresponding to 40 ky B.P. greenhouse gas concentration, incoming solar radiation and ice sheet volume, the first experiment consists in imposing either constant or amplified sub-shelf melt rates in comparison with the control simulation. In the second experiment, we focus on the interface between the ice sheets and the bedrock. The basal friction coefficient values are imposed following the same procedure. These two experiments are similar to freshwater hosing experiments but here the water comes directly from the interactively computed ice sheets change. For each experiment, the perturbation is imposed for 500 years before returning to the unperturbed conditions for one thousand years and its impacts on the climate system are investigated. Our results highlight feedbacks that may help to explain the abrupt nature of the climate transitions observed during the last glacial period. 

How to cite: Abot, L., Waelbroeck, C., Quiquet, A., Delavergne, C., and Bouttes, N.: Interactions between ocean circulation and the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets at 40 ky B.P. in an Earth System Model (iLOVECLIM-GRISLI), EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4093, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4093, 2024.

X5.95
|
EGU24-16455
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Ankit Pramanik, Sarah Greenwood, Carl Carl Regnéll, and Richard Gyllencreutz

Ice-dammed lakes expedite glacier retreat, leading to the expansion of lakes and an elevated risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs), and delay the freshwater inflow to the ocean. The escalating number of ice-dammed lakes in Greenland, High Mountain Asia, and Patagonia, driven by the swift retreat of glaciers amid rapid warming, poses a significant threat of natural disasters. In the geological record, evidence indicates the rapid retreat of the Fennoscandian ice sheet, marked by the formation, expansion, and drainage of large (10s-1000s km2 surface area and up to 100s m deep) ice-dammed proglacial lakes along the entire length of the late-deglacial ice margin. The deglaciation and ice-lake interactions of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) provide a valuable analogue for projecting the future retreat of the Greenland ice sheet, where a manifold increase in the number and volume of ice-dammed lakes is anticipated.

Despite extensive research on marine-terminating glaciers, the dynamics of lacustrine-terminating glaciers remain poorly understood. While there are some notable differences in thermo-mechanical processes between marine and lacustrine glaciers, a significant contrast lies in the fact that the calving of lake-terminating glaciers is governed by the stress balance induced by rapidly fluctuating lake levels and thermodynamics inherent of lakes. Our study delves into accessing the impact of critical factors, such as lake size and bathymetry, on the retreat of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, using the Ice-sheet and Sea-level System Model (ISSM). Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the influence of calving, subaqueous melt, and rapidly fluctuating lake levels on the FIS retreat. The model's accuracy will be ensured through calibration and validation against geologically reconstructed ice sheet boundaries and lake levels.

How to cite: Pramanik, A., Greenwood, S., Carl Regnéll, C., and Gyllencreutz, R.: Ice-dammed lake-glacier interactions: Modelling the impact on Fennoscandian Ice Sheet retreat, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16455, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-16455, 2024.

X5.96
|
EGU24-16702
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Vjeran Visnjevic, Julien Bodart, Antoine Hermant, Christian Wirths, Emma Spezia, and Johannes Sutter

To improve the robustness of future simulations of ice flow across the Antarctic continent as well as the projections of sea-level rise accompanying it, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the past evolution of ice dynamics. This is specially the case considering the lack of constraints on climate and basal conditions on the regional scale. To address this, we use high resolution regional ice flow modeling combined with radar obtained repositories of internal reflection horizons and ice core data, to constrain the ice flow evolution of both grounded and floating ice across the Dronning Maud Land during the Last Glacial Period. Combining the modeling results obtained using the ice sheet model PISM with radar and ice core data will enable us to improve our knowledge of conditions at the ice base, but also provide an opportunity to test and compare a range of potential climate reconstructions. The presented workflow will further be expanded to other basins in Antarctica as well as to the interglacial-glacial transition, and the results will be used to improve future simulations of ice flow across Antarctica.

How to cite: Visnjevic, V., Bodart, J., Hermant, A., Wirths, C., Spezia, E., and Sutter, J.: Isochronally constrained ice flow evolution of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica during the Last Glacial Period, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16702, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-16702, 2024.

X5.97
|
EGU24-5104
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CR2.2
|
ECS
|
Christian Wirths, Antoine Hermant, Christian Stepanek, Johannes Sutter, and Thomas Stocker

Unravelling the main drivers of the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT; around 1.2–0.8 million years ago) remains a significant challenge in paleoclimate research. Noteworthy changes that occurred in the climate system during that time include a pronounced shift from 41-kyr to 100-kyr periodicity of glacial cycles and the emergence of much larger ice sheets. While a number of studies have focused on the interplay between the climate system and northern hemispheric ice sheets during the MPT, the role of Antarctica in driving and responding to climate change at that time remains largely unknown. This is particularly relevant as, consequently, the response of Antarctica’s vast ice sheets to a major transition in Quaternary climate, and their potential role in shaping the transition, remain uncertain. 

Here, we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to simulate the transient evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet through the MPT. Computation of the evolution of ice sheets in PISM is enabled by means of a climate index approach that is based on snapshots of climatic conditions at key periods. The climate index approach interpolates between individual climate snapshots based on various paleo-proxy records. Further, we test Antarctica's response to different pre-MPT GCM snapshots of different CO2, orbital, and land-sea mask configurations. Climate snapshots are derived from the Community Earth System Models (COSMOS), a general circulation model that simulates atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land vegetation in dependence of reconstructions of paleogeography, orbital configuration, and greenhouse gas concentrations.  

Our study aims to better understand the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheets during the MPT and to constrain potential dynamical transitions in the climate-cryosphere system. Furthermore, we seek to clarify the influence of different pre-MPT ice sheet configurations on simulated characteristics of this transition.  

The findings from this study will contribute to an improved understanding of cryospheric changes that occurred during the Quaternary. Furthermore, we aim to provide insights into potential future Antarctic trajectories under anthropogenic climate change. 

How to cite: Wirths, C., Hermant, A., Stepanek, C., Sutter, J., and Stocker, T.: Simulating Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution through the mid-Pleistocene transition, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5104, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5104, 2024.

X5.98
|
EGU24-18501
|
CR2.2
Lauren Gregoire, Maxence Menthon, Edward Gasson, and Louise Sime

During the last interglacial, geological records show evidence that the sea level peaked between 6 and 9 m above pre-industrial sea level, with a major contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet. However, ice-sheet models give a very large range of values due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms leading to the Antarctic ice sheet retreat during the Last Interglacial

Here, we propose a protocol to apply systematically to multiple ice-sheet models to better understand the climate and ice-sheet model uncertainties as well as mechanisms leading to a smaller Antarctic ice sheet. We present the climate forcing choices and methodology, ice-sheet model requirements and the group of simulations suggested. The protocol includes transient penultimate deglaciation and last interglacial equilibrium simulations to make it accessible to all types of ice-sheet models. The protocol includes also sensitivity experiments such as hosing.

Inputs from the community are welcome to improve the protocol under development and make it relevant to all ice-sheet modelling groups interested in participating!

How to cite: Gregoire, L., Menthon, M., Gasson, E., and Sime, L.: Protocol for a Last Interglacial Antarctic ice-sheet model inter-comparison, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18501, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-18501, 2024.

X5.99
|
EGU24-15401
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CR2.2
|
Antoine Hermant, Christian Wirths, and Johannes Sutter

The contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) to sea-level rise under future scenarios remains uncertain. Simulations of the AIS covering past-climate periods provide valuable insights into its response to a range of climatological background states and transitions, as well as its past contributions to sea-level change. However, data to constrain the modelled ice-flow and the paleo-climate forcing is often lacking, leading to considerable uncertainties with respect to paleo ice sheet evolution. Here, we implement and test a framework to provide paleo-climate scenarios for continental scale ice sheet models. Our approach involves the use of an improved climate index based on ice-core records to translate paleo forcing snapshots from Earth System Models and regional models into transient paleo-climate scenarios, specifically to simulate the dynamics of the AIS throughout the last glaciation and deglaciation. Additionally, we refine paleo-accumulation scenarios by introducing a regionally-specific and temperature-dependant scaling of accumulation. Our study aims to enhance our understanding of AIS dynamics on glacial-interglacial time-scales and provide improved paleo-informed initializations for AIS projections. 

How to cite: Hermant, A., Wirths, C., and Sutter, J.: Development and implementation of a refined climate index forcing for paleo ice-sheet modeling applications , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-15401, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-15401, 2024.

X5.100
|
EGU24-15323
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Charlotte Rahlves, Heiko Goelzer, and Michele Petrini

Surface mass balance (SMB) forcing for projections of the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet with stand-alone modeling approaches is commonly produced on a fixed ice sheet geometry. As changes of ice sheet geometry become significant over longer time scales, conducting projections for the long-term evolution and stability of the Greenland ice sheet usually requires a coupled climate-ice sheet modeling setup. In this study we use an SMB remapping procedure to capture the first order feedbacks of a coupled climate-ice sheet system with a stand-alone modeling approach. Following a remapping procedure originally developed to apply SMB forcing to a range of initial ice sheet geometries (Goelzer et al., 2020), we produce SMB forcing that adapts to the changing ice sheet geometry as it evolves over time. SMB forcing from a regional climate model is translated from a function of absolute location to a function of surface elevation depending on 25 regional drainage basins, thereby reducing biases that would arise by applying the SMB derived from a fixed ice sheet geometry. We use forcing for different emission scenarios from the CMIP6 archive to compare results from the remapping approach with results from commonly used methods of parameterizing the SMB-height feedback, as well as with results from a semi-coupled climate-ice sheet simulation.

How to cite: Rahlves, C., Goelzer, H., and Petrini, M.: Investigating the evolution and stability of the Greenland ice sheet using remapped surface mass balance forcing, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-15323, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-15323, 2024.

X5.101
|
EGU24-5698
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Mira Adhikari, Daniel Martin, Tamsin Edwards, Antony Payne, James O'Neill, and Peter Irvine

Using the BISICLES ice sheet model, we compare the Antarctic ice sheet’s response over the 22nd century in a scenario where idealised large scale, instantaneous geoengineering is implemented in 2100 or 2050 (geoengineering), with scenarios where the climate forcing is held constant in the same year (stabilisation). Results are highly climate model dependent, with larger differences between models than between geoengineering and stabilisation scenarios, but show that geoengineering cannot prevent significant losses from Antarctica over the next two centuries. If implemented in 2050, sea level contributions under geoengineering are lower than under stabilisation scenarios. If implemented in 2100, under high emissions, geoengineering produces higher sea level than stabilisation scenarios, as increased surface mass balance in the warmer stabilisation scenarios offsets some of the dynamic losses. Despite this, dynamic losses appear to accelerate and may eventually negate this initial offset, indicating that beyond 2200, geoengineering could eventually be more effective.

How to cite: Adhikari, M., Martin, D., Edwards, T., Payne, A., O'Neill, J., and Irvine, P.: Geoengineering's role in reducing future Antarctic mass loss is unclear, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5698, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5698, 2024.

X5.102
|
EGU24-926
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CR2.2
|
ECS
Anna Höse, Moritz Kreuzer, Willem Huiskamp, Torsten Albrecht, Stefan Petri, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Georg Feulner

Many model studies show that a shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) causes reduced northward heat transport into the North Atlantic and a warming Southern Ocean in addition to shifts in large-scale atmospheric circulations. How these changing climate conditions could influence the present-day state of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is little studied even though observational data of AMOC strength show a slowdown trend over the last decades. The ocean current as well as the Antarctic Ice Sheet might reach climate tipping points triggering irreversible processes with consequences already on human time-scales. It's unclear whether increasing Southern Ocean temperatures due to a AMOC shutdown could accelerate basal melting rates, the critical parameter which in turn may induce tipping of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Here, a freshwater hosing that forces the shutdown of the AMOC is applied to the North Atlantic in a global climate model with an interactive ice sheet model for Antarctica. This model framework consists of the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) that is coupled to the CM2Mc global Earth system model via the ice shelf cavity model PICO (Potsdam Ice-shelf Cavity mOdel). PISM is interactively coupled to the ocean module in order to investigate feedbacks at the ice-ocean boundary, while the atmospheric forcing is prescribed. Preliminary results show that an AMOC shutdown results in warming sea surface temperatures in the southern hemisphere along with a small shift in the mid-latitude westerlies due to reduced northward heat transport, which is in line with previous studies. Antarctic marginal temperatures decrease, however, resulting in a reduction of Antarctic mass through increased calving and decreased basal melting.

How to cite: Höse, A., Kreuzer, M., Huiskamp, W., Albrecht, T., Petri, S., Winkelmann, R., and Feulner, G.: Simulating the impact of an AMOC weakening on the Antarctic Ice Sheet using a coupled climate and ice sheet model, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-926, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-926, 2024.

X5.103
|
EGU24-19165
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CR2.2
|
|
Moritz Kreuzer, Torsten Albrecht, Lena Nicola, Ronja Reese, and Ricarda Winkelmann

Relative sea level (local water depth) on the Antarctic continental shelf is changing by the complex interplay of processes associated with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). This involves near-field visco-elastic bedrock displacement and gravitational effects in response to changes in Antarctic ice load, but also far-field interhemispheric effects on the sea-level pattern. On glacial time scales, these changes can be in the order of several hundred meters, potentially affecting the access of ocean water masses at different depths to Antarctic grounding lines and ice sheet margins. Due to strong vertical gradients in ocean temperature and salinity at the continental shelf margin, basal melt rates of ice shelves could change significantly just by variations in relative sea level alone.
Based on a coupled ice sheet – GIA model setup and the analysis of bathymetric features such as troughs and sills that regulate the access of open ocean water masses onto the continental shelf (oceanic gateways), we conduct sensitivity experiments to derive maximum estimates of Antarctic basal melt
rate changes, solely driven by relative sea-level variations.
Under Last Glacial Maximum sea-level conditions, this effect would lead to a substantial decrease of present-day sub-shelf melt rates in East Antarctica, while the strong subsidence of bedrock in West Antarctica can lead up to a doubling of basal melt rates. For a hypothetical globally ice-free sea-level
scenario, which would lead to a global mean (barystatic) sea-level rise of around +70 m, sub-shelf melt rates for a present-day ice sheet geometry can more than double in East Antarctica, but can also decrease substantially, where bedrock uplift dominates. Also for projected sea-level changes at the
year 2300 we find maximum possible changes of ±20 % in sub-shelf melt rates, as a consequence of relative sea-level changes only.

How to cite: Kreuzer, M., Albrecht, T., Nicola, L., Reese, R., and Winkelmann, R.: Oceanic gateways in Antarctica - Impact of relative sea-level change on sub-shelf melt, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-19165, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-19165, 2024.

X5.104
|
EGU24-15987
|
CR2.2
|
ECS
|
Emma Spezia, Fabrice Kenneth Michel Lacroix, Vjeran Visnjevic, Christian Wirths, Antoine Hermant, Thomas Frölicher, and Johannes Sutter

Current projections of Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics during the next centuries are subject to large uncertainties both reflecting the ice sheet model setup as well as the climate pathways taken into consideration. Assessing both we present model projections of the Antarctic Ice Sheet’s response to a range of temporary temperature overshoot and stabilization scenarios until the year 2500 accounting for various ice sheet sensitivities. We employ the ice sheet model PISM at continental scale forced by Earth system model data tailored to specific global temperature scenarios via an adaptive greenhouse gas emissions approach. These scenarios reflect both emission pathways which result in a transient temperature overshoot during the 21st and 22nd century as well as stabilization of global temperatures without overshoot. We contrast these simulations with the well- known CMIP6 scenarios to illustrate the diverse potential pathways of Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics under uncertain future climate trajectories. 

How to cite: Spezia, E., Lacroix, F. K. M., Visnjevic, V., Wirths, C., Hermant, A., Frölicher, T., and Sutter, J.: Assessing Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics under temporary overshoot and long-term temperature stabilization scenarios  , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-15987, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-15987, 2024.

X5.105
|
EGU24-20197
|
CR2.2
|
ECS
Violaine Coulon, Javier Blasco, Qing Qin, Jan De Rydt, and Frank Pattyn

As global temperatures rise, Antarctica's grounded ice sheet and floating ice shelves are experiencing accelerated mass loss, releasing meltwater into the Southern Ocean. This increasing freshwater discharge poses significant implications for global climate change. Despite these consequences, interactive ice sheets and ice shelves have generally not been included in coupled climate model simulations, such as those in CMIP6. Consequently, CMIP6 projections lack a detailed representation of spatiotemporal trends in ice-sheet freshwater fluxes and their impact on the global climate system, introducing major uncertainties in future climate and sea-level projections. To address this, we provide future Antarctic freshwater forcing data and uncertainty estimates for climate models. These are derived from an ensemble of historically calibrated standalone ice sheet model projections, produced with the Kori-ULB ice flow model, under different climate scenarios up to 2300. Here, we analyse spatiotemporal trends in calving rates, ice shelf basal melt and surface mass balance for all Antarctic ice shelves. 

How to cite: Coulon, V., Blasco, J., Qin, Q., De Rydt, J., and Pattyn, F.: Constraining projections of future freshwater fluxes from Antarctica , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20197, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-20197, 2024.