ITS3.15/HS12.3 | Achieving water, energy, food and ecosystem security across diverse climatic and socio-economic scales: from stakeholder engagement and gender dimension to digital innovation technologies for WEFE Nexus operationalization and multi-sector collaboration
Achieving water, energy, food and ecosystem security across diverse climatic and socio-economic scales: from stakeholder engagement and gender dimension to digital innovation technologies for WEFE Nexus operationalization and multi-sector collaboration
Convener: Fernando Nardi | Co-conveners: Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas, Enrica Caporali, Antonio AnnisECSECS, Atiyeh ArdakanianECSECS, Nagham Saeed
| Mon, 15 Apr, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)
Room N2
Posters on site
| Attendance Mon, 15 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST) | Display Mon, 15 Apr, 08:30–12:30
Hall A
Posters virtual
| Attendance Mon, 15 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST) | Display Mon, 15 Apr, 08:30–18:00
vHall A
Orals |
Mon, 16:15
Mon, 10:45
Mon, 14:00
Water scarcity, food security, energy transition and environmental protection issues represent challenges of paramount importance. Climatic and demographic change stressors determine further uncertainties. Governors are called to take important decisions to support fair allocation of resources, mitigate conflicts and sustain social cohesion while managing socio-economic pressures and foster climate change adaptation across diverse scales. Science studies validated methods and data for investigating and quantifying the interlinkages of the Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) Nexus components. Nevertheless, WEFE Nexus knowledge and technology transfer is still falling behind.

Stakeholders engagement, ethics and gender dimension represent key topics while mainstreaming WEFE Nexus approaches. Citizens and stakeholders are not adequately informed and involved perceiving to receive Nexus-driven technological and policy advancements as a top-down enforcement, like a burden, rather than understanding their multiple benefits towards a safer and healthier water-energy-food production.

Science-driven WEFE Nexus models, are also approaching a mature stage, but, the knowledge and technological transfer of WEFE Nexus science is facing severe technical and non-technical barriers. Several WEFE Nexus scientific and innovation programs showed that technological innovation shall work in synergy with a behavioural and mindset change while considering social, cultural and historical dimension. To work towards overcoming this gap, this session explores how the capabilities of these technologies can lead to more effective resource allocation, improved sustainability practices, and conflict resolution between competing demands.

This session promotes contributions working on WEFE Nexus approaches with particular focus on research, innovation and case studies working across multiple scales. Transdisciplinary scientific efforts presenting outcomes and challenges are invited to share WEFE Nexus driven scientific models, geospatial solutions, stakeholder engagement, gender dimension, policy and guidelines innovations among further models and methods aiming to foster a cooperative ecosystem where technology aids decision-making in Nexus thinking for addressing WEFE security

Orals: Mon, 15 Apr | Room N2

Chairpersons: Fernando Nardi, Atiyeh Ardakanian, Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas
WEFE nexus: stakeholder engagement and gender dimension to digital innovation
Virtual presentation
Elise Jonsson, Claudia Teutschbein, Malgorzata Blicharska, Andreina Francisco, Andrjiana Todorovic, Janez Sušnik, and Thomas Grabs

The Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) nexus presents many challenges with regards to modelling. While attempts at conceptual modelling of this nexus have been made, increasing data availability due to electrification, smart infrastructure, and digitization of these sectors encourages a data-driven approach to system identification and control. Data-driven methods have had wide success in disciplines dealing with similar challenges as the WEFE nexus, such as the multiplicity of scales, nonlinearity and chaos, high dimensionality, fuzzy and stochastic social dynamics, as well as rare- or extreme event exposure. Here we provide a brief summary of data-driven methods of system identification that may address these challenges by looking at cross-disciplinary applications and its relevance for the WEFE nexus.

How to cite: Jonsson, E., Teutschbein, C., Blicharska, M., Francisco, A., Todorovic, A., Sušnik, J., and Grabs, T.: Data-driven system identification of the WEFE nexus: Challenges and prospects, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20260,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Julian Fleischmann, Werner Platzer, Lars Ribbe, Alexandra Nauditt, and Philipp Blechinger

Addressing climate change, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity while ensuring the 
basic supply of the growing earth population are fundamental global challenges. In this context, 
the integration of water, energy, food, and environment systems for tapping cross-sectoral 
synergies and minimizing trade-offs presents a profound opportunity. However, despite their 
huge potential, integrated water-energy-food-environment systems (iWEFEs) are rarely put 
into practice because of, among others, a lack of site-specific data and open tools to describe, 
model, and plan such integrated infrastructure systems. The project addresses this 
gap through open software developed in a scientific process and applied to respective case studies.
The three main research and software development pillars of the project are the following:
1. Conceptualization of open water, energy, food, and environment modeling framework –
OWEFE enabling the development of an open iWEFEs component database
2. Facilitation and automation of WEFE data collection and analysis - WEFE Site Analyst
3. Development of a software-based configurator for site-tailored iWEFEs – iWEFEs 
The open software tools shall support small communities, end-users, and NGOs to improve local
water, energy, and food security while protecting the climate and the environment.

How to cite: Fleischmann, J., Platzer, W., Ribbe, L., Nauditt, A., and Blechinger, P.: Facilitating the Planning of integrated Water-Energy-Food-Environment Systems through Open Software, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-2309,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Valentina Monico-Gonzalez, Desamparados Martinez-Domingo, and Eulalia Gomez-Martin

Global trends point to a growing challenge to meet the demand for water, energy, and food in the coming years, exacerbated by population growth, economic development, climate change, and environmental degradation. According to reports such as IPCC and EU Environment, this outlook threatens sustainability and equity in using natural resources. Despite the EU's environmental and energy policy efforts, such as the European Green Pact, the Water Framework Directive, and the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), challenges persist in water management and the its alignment of with food production and energy policies.
The UN 2030 Agenda addresses these challenges, recognizing the interdependence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Highlighting the crucial role of water for population and ecosystems, SDG 6 and 15, which intertwines with others. Achieving the 2030 Agenda requires a thorough understanding of the interconnections between the SDGs and coherent water governance policies at different levels and sectors.

The WEFE NEXUS (Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystems) concept has emerged as a promising tool to address these interdependencies and improve policy coordination. However, effectively translating this concept into effective governance practices remains a challenge. The complexity of the NEXUS requires multidisciplinary and holistic approaches, integrating quantitative and qualitative information at various spatio-temporal scales and institutional boundaries. Including stakeholders throughout the process enriches the diversity of perspectives and fosters the conscious and effective adoption of established measures by a significant portion of the population. The proactive participation of stakeholders not only enhances understanding of the interconnections between the SDGs and NEXUS governance but also contributes to creating more effective and sustainable governance practices. This inclusive approach is essential for achieving sustainable and resilient development that reflects the needs and concerns of the community at large.

This work seeks to develop a guide for implementing NEXUS governance practices and policies, co-created with stakeholders and end-users. The objectives include identifying previous challenges the watershed might face, causal relationships among variables, their polarity and weight (importance within the system) with causal loop diagrams, analyzing the influence of different stakeholder perspectives (assuring WEFE representativeness and avoiding power dynamics among them) on the effectiveness of adaptation measures, and assessing the integration of NEXUS into legislative frameworks such as the CAP. A combined literature review methodology, participatory processes, and system dynamics modeling will be used to achieve these objectives.
This study is being carried out in three case studies in Spain: the Júcar, Tagus and Segura River basins. The combination of interviews, group workshops, and participatory modeling activities highlight the active involvement of stakeholders in the co-creation of governance practices. Conceptual and quantitative system dynamics models have been developed, integrating hydrological, climatic, and socio-economic data.
This project will contribute to integrating local knowledge, promoting the co-production of knowledge and fostering more effective and sustainable governance practices. Proactive stakeholder participation will be vital to addressing the complexity of the NEXUS and achieving sustainable and resilient development.

Acknowledgements: This study has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the GoNEXUS project (GA No 101003722).

How to cite: Monico-Gonzalez, V., Martinez-Domingo, D., and Gomez-Martin, E.: Towards sustainable water-energy-food-ecosystems governance: an integrating participatory approach and systems modelling for co-exploring the nexus, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18064,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Yi Huang

Food, energy and water are essential resources for human survival and development, and they are three elements of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Expansion of human activity and climate warming are exacerbating severe risks of water, energy, and food shortages. How to manage the limited resources in an efficient and synergistic manner is essential to achieving sustainable development. Since there are few studies on the Water-energy-food (WEF) nexus for semi-arid regions in northwest China, we took Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) as an example to assess the impacts of climate and policies on the water, energy and food sectors in the context of global warming and identify ways to adapt. Firstly, we developed a non-linear system dynamic model to illustrate the interactions between food, energy and water, then 5 scenarios were set up by mainly change food self-sufficiency rate, clean energy use rate and energy intensity, to figure out the impact of different decisions and strategies on WEF nexus from 2020 to 2060, and provide solutions that are conducive to achieve carbon neutrality goal. Finally, we conducted a multi-objective optimization algorithm to attempt to mitigate the conflict between limited resources, socio-economics and a low-carbon environment. The results showed that: (1) The supply and demand for food and energy resources in XUAR showed an increasing trend between 2000 and 2020, while water resources decrease with greater decline on demand side. (2) For every 10% increase in food self-sufficiency, irrigation water, energy demand and carbon emissions will increase by 3.22%, 0.04% and 0.08%, respectively. And every 10% increase in clean electricity usage will cut down water demand and carbon emissions by 8.21% and 8.84%, respectively. (4) Under future water resources conditions, the feasible scenarios can reduce carbon emissions by 79% and enable a 13% reduction in agricultural water consumption comparing to the baseline scenario. Besides, the water stress will switch from very high to very low, which is a qualitative leap in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG6 (Clean water and sanitation). To conclude, by reducing the area of cereals, improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of clean energy, we can achieve the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, as well as sustainable development.

How to cite: Huang, Y.: Water-energy-food nexus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Combined Impact of Climate change and Policies, and potential adaptation pathways , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5223,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Rania Bou Said, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Roger Moussa

One of the main challenges preventing the sustainable development of the agriculture sector is the lack of a system-thinking approach, which includes economic systems, resource management practices [water and energy], production, and climate change. In Lebanon, the main variables affecting on-farm practices are socio-economic factors and climate change, leading to decreased purchasing power, limiting their access to energy and, thus water for agricultural production. While non-governmental organizations introduced solar power to cut energy costs and enhance water accessibility, they did not account for aquifer depletion resulting from excessive pumping. Additionally, adverse climatic conditions are reducing groundwater recharge, and escalating water demands. Thus, it is crucial to view the agricultural sector as an interconnected system and develop strategic plans for agricultural development where climate, water, energy, and production are collaboratively managed. This paper intertwines the Environmental Nexus and the Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) to study the interlinkages, synergies, and trade-offs between water, energy, food, climate, and livelihood security. To assess on-farm practices and identify farmers' needs, the study employed a bottom-up approach, utilizing surveys, satellite imagery analysis, and interviews. Subsequently, farmers proposed sustainable solutions, which were tested using hydro-climatic models. Analysis of satellite imagery shows a connection between land-use patterns, drought events, and economic shocks. While drought led to economic losses and a subsequent decrease in land cultivation in the following year, the 2021 national economic meltdown in Lebanon had a contrasting effect, leading to an expansion in land cultivation. People sought to secure their food basket or establish a secondary source of income, intensifying competition for natural resources such as water, and increasing market competitiveness. Consequently, there was a substantial decline in farmers’ net revenue by 500-999 USD per dunum, as revealed by survey findings. Many farmers, though receiving aid, remain vulnerable to climate issues, water scarcity, and economic shocks. The modeling exercise, which is based on solutions proposed by farmers and is tested under the SSP3 Climate Change Scenario, indicates transitioning to crops with low water requirements, and high nutritional and economic value—such as 'Triticum turgidum var. durum'—is the most effective approach to reduce vulnerability to climate change and its shocks. While water harvesting and hydropower are considered less effective solutions. Finally, this paper proposes an integration of the Participatory Approach with the Climate-Water-Energy-Food System thinking approach for Socio-economic development.

How to cite: Bou Said, R., Mohtar, R. H., and Moussa, R.: Building Socioeconomic Resilience in a Climate-Pressured Water-Energy-Food System in Underdeveloped Rural Agricultural Farms in Lebanon, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-22390,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Maurits Ertsen, Valeria Martinez Rodriguez, Merle De Kreuk, Schuyler Houser, and Mar Palmeros Parada

Next to the challenges of paramount importance represented by water scarcity, food security, energy transition, and environmental protection issues, the obstacles faced on the matter of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immense. WASH interventions are essential to support human health, prosperity, and dignity, as they provide the base for an adequate standard of living. In many low- and middle- income countries, especially in rural and low-income areas, decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) can offer a solution to convey, treat, and dispose of or reuse wastewater closer to the source and through smaller conveyance networks. In Indonesia, and as such in the Brantas basin on East Java, focus area of this study, the government has recognized DEWATS as their best available option for improving sanitation in dense low-income urban settings. Although the percentage of households with access to proper sanitation in the province of East Java has been increasing steadily, service coverage and the quality of sanitation systems still need to be increased to reach the desired coverage by 2024. Similar to other fields of application, within WASH and concerning DEWATS, stakeholders engagement, ethics and gender dimension are key topics to develop and strengthen integrated approaches. It is challenging to formulate targeted interventions in the watershed since they depend on the willing support of various stakeholders who may have different priorities (even within their own institutions), having diverse (and sometimes conflicting) viewpoints. This may result in stakeholders strongly contesting the appropriateness of various solutions. An exploration of stakeholder priorities is therefore needed to facilitate the application of wastewater treatment technologies. Due to its participatory approach and the type of interpretation that the method allows, Q-methodology was selected to explore this situation. Q-methodology is a set of techniques which allow for the study of ‘subjectivity’, combining statistics with the depth provided by qualitative data. It is composed of the data collection technique (called Q-sorting) and a data analysis step via correlation and factor analysis. In this contribution, we explore the perspectives and priorities of various stakeholders regarding decentralized wastewater treatment solutions to assess the applicability and acceptability of DEWATS in the Brantas river basin. This allows us to identify context-based criteria and challenges to the implementation of DEWATS in the Brantas watershed. As such, we propose the Q-methodology as a strong methodology to further develop the required transdisciplinary scientific efforts to promote relevant insights and solutions through meaningful, pertinent, and effective stakeholder engagement.

How to cite: Ertsen, M., Martinez Rodriguez, V., De Kreuk, M., Houser, S., and Palmeros Parada, M.: Exploring stakeholder priorities regarding decentralized waste-water treatment in the Brantas river basin using Q-methodology, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12610,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Julie Faure, Marc Muller, Leonardo Bertassello, Elizabeth Dolan, Ellis Adams, Rahman Sulaimanov, Diane Desierto, Portia Chigbu, and Jonathan Pabillore

There is growing urgency for actionable and standardized approach to human rights assessments of hydropower dam constructions and operations that incorporates multiple dimensions of the right to water. Yet, the water issues faced by affected communities are determined by local contexts and therefore challenging to map to universal norms like human rights in a way that is both objective and transferrable. Conversely, the human right to water extends beyond the narrow dimensions of water access and availability and also includes cross cutting obligations (e.g, self-determination and non-discrimination) and inter-related rights (e.g., rights to health, healthy environment and livelihood). The nearly universal scope of human rights with respect to water makes them challenging to apply without an operational framework to systematically diagnose challenges to their implementation in practical settings. The framework that we present addresses both challenges with a procedure to systematically diagnose multiple key dimensions of inadequate water access (e.g, green, blue and economic water scarcity or excess) and governance failures (e.g., power asymmetry or threats to hydrosocial relations). The framework then maps the diagnosed issues to specific challenges to implementation of human rights that account for their multi-dimensional nature. This work is a unique transdisciplinary collaboration between water intensive industries and experts from the fields of hydrology, governance, and human rights law. We apply the framework to representative international hydropower cases (e.g., the Lower Sesan 2 Dam in Cambodia, the Muskrat Falls Dam in Canada) to synthesize key insights on the relationship between human rights and the impacts of hydropower projects on water security and governance.

How to cite: Faure, J., Muller, M., Bertassello, L., Dolan, E., Adams, E., Sulaimanov, R., Desierto, D., Chigbu, P., and Pabillore, J.: Hydropower Dams and the Human Right to Water: an Operational Transdisciplinary Assessment Framework, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-6351,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Igor Cavallini Johansen and Emilio F. Moran

Recent hydropower developments in Brazil were accompanied by promises to enhance the quality of life for the local population residing near the construction site of dams. To convince both locals and the broader national and international audience, the argument often centered around the hydropower project being an unparalleled opportunity to elevate deprived populations to a "developed" status, marked by significantly improved living standards. Our study aims to analyze how the residents of the medium-sized town of Altamira in the Brazilian Amazon perceive the impacts of Belo Monte, the country's second-largest hydropower dam built between 2011 and 2015, on fundamental resources—specifically, water, energy, and food. Additionally, we seek to examine how this perception varies based on sociodemographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, civil status, local or migrant status, ethnicity, and education. We will also explore the spatial distribution of these perceptions within the urban area. Our data consist of a survey based on a probabilistic sample of 500 households conducted across 10 census tracts (50 interviews per tract) in July 2022. Interviews were conducted with the head of the household or another household member aged 18 or over. Eligibility for survey participation required residency in the urban area of Altamira during and after the dam construction. Regarding the impact of Belo Monte on water system provision improvements, our findings suggest that over 59% of respondents indicated a negative impact or no impact. Furthermore, 86.8% of households reported a negative impact on energy prices, indicating that the dam did not contribute to increased energy access; in fact, it had the opposite effect. Lastly, 61% of the sample expressed negative impacts on food, citing high prices during construction that persisted even after completion. Our study also revealed that resettled populations in the urban area of Altamira faced more challenges in accessing water provision, experiencing more shortages compared to the rest of the population (χ² = 25.6401, p-value < 0.05). Additionally, resettled populations perceived energy prices more negatively than the population as a whole (χ² = 9.0392, p-value < 0.05). Our study employs statistical modeling and spatial analysis to investigate the disparities in these perceptions, examining how costs and benefits are unevenly distributed across the socio-spatial landscape, potentially exacerbating existing local inequalities. We advocate for essential interventions aimed at alleviating these disparities, such as subsidizing access to water, energy, and food for the residents of Altamira. Additionally, we provide insights into the unintended consequences of hydropower dam construction, especially in the Global South, where there is a substantial surge in the development of this energy source.

How to cite: Cavallini Johansen, I. and F. Moran, E.: Unfulfilled promises? Investigating the impact of the Belo Monte hydropower dam on water, energy, and food access in the Brazilian Amazon, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-13331,, 2024.

Virtual presentation
Xenia Schneider, Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas, Daniel Alberto Segovia Cardozo, Mohamed Bahnassy, Basma Hassank, Sendianah Hamdy Khamis Shahin, Rasha Badereldin, Fethi Abdelli, Rudy Rosetto, and Fernando Nardi

Climate change mitigation is becoming increasingly important for curbing severe hydrological events and at the same time for effectively managing natural resources and ensuring food secutiry. The nexus among water, energy, food, and ecosystem has evolved as a resource-management concept to cope with this interlinked set of resources, their complex interactions, and their effect on the natural, innovation, and social ecosystems. The transitioning towards the Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem (WEFE) Nexus requires awareness among stakeholders, knowledge exchange and mutual learning, before they are able to co-create their WEFE Nexus transition plan and to adopt it for execution. In this respect, the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) and its application through the RRI Roadmap is suitable for facilitating the WEFE-Nexus transition through an action plan. This paper will illustrate the RRI Roadmap application for creating WEFE-Nexus awareness among stakeholders enabling them to co-create their common WEFE-Nexus transition plan. The paper exemplifies the lessons learned for creating stakeholders’ awareness in four Mediterranean countries.

How to cite: Schneider, X., Rodriguez-Sinobas, L., Segovia Cardozo, D. A., Bahnassy, M., Hassank, B., Hamdy Khamis Shahin, S., Badereldin, R., Abdelli, F., Rosetto, R., and Nardi, F.: Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem Nexus Transition through the Responsible Research and Innovation Roadmap - Lessons learned from four Mediterranean countries., EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-363,, 2024.

Virtual presentation
Bianca Maria Rizzo, Tommaso Pacetti, Xenia Theodotou Schneider, Sendianah HamdyKhamis Shahin, Basma Hassank, and Enrica Caporali

Local perspectives provide invaluable insights into the intricate relationships between water, energy, and food systems, ensuring that interventions are aligned with community needs. Empowering local stakeholders fosters ownership, enhances resilience, and promotes equitable resource distribution. Community engagement facilitates the integration of traditional knowledge, optimizing the effectiveness of WEFE Nexus strategies. For this, a structured participatory approach based on the RRI Roadmap©™ is necessary to ensure the  interconnectedness of these vital systems, creating a foundation for holistic, locally adapted WEFE Nexus solutions that address the complex challenges at the intersection of water, energy, food, and ecosystems.

Since women and men often have distinct roles, responsibilities, and knowledge concerning resources use, distribution, and conservation, ignoring these gender dynamics may lead to the marginalization of women and the perpetuation of existing power imbalances, as well as a lack of essential information to support the transition towards a WEFE Nexus approach. Incorporating a gender lens enhances the accuracy and effectiveness of participatory processes, ensuring an effective and lasting WEFE Nexus implementation when these diverse needs and priorities of both genders are considered.

Within the activities of the NEXUS-NESS project, women's contribution to WEFE Nexus transition in Egypt has been investigated, organizing a set of workshops with the community of Wadi Nagamish watershed. The Bedouin community in Wadi Naghamish is characterized by its deep-rooted traditions and resilient way of life. Women play a pivotal role, actively contributing to both the household and community dynamics. Despite the arid surroundings, Bedouin women in Wadi Naghamish are skilled in resourceful practices, such as water conservation and traditional crafts. They are often the guardians of cultural heritage, passing down knowledge through generations. While facing challenges, Bedouin women maintain a strong sense of identity, embodying the community's values. Their roles extend beyond the domestic sphere, influencing decision-making processes and contributing significantly to the social fabric of Wadi Naghamish.

According to Bedouin cultural norms, women cannot share a room with men, who are not strictly related to them, and this prevents them from taking part in the first participatory workshop organized to involve stakeholders in the transition towards the WEFE Nexus.

Hence, for not losing womens knowledge sharing and involvement, the NEXUS-NESS workshops held in Wadi Naghamish were structured to enhance women's engagement. Female experts conducted a tailored capacity-building program in designated spaces, fostering a positive atmosphere for Bedouin women to learn WEFE Nexus concepts and devise solutions for prevailing water challenges.

The workshops’ results provide useful insights on the roles of women concerning resource management and consequently allowing to define a gender sensitive strategy for engaging stakeholders in the transition towards a WEFE Nexus approach.

How to cite: Rizzo, B. M., Pacetti, T., Theodotou Schneider, X., HamdyKhamis Shahin, S., Hassank, B., and Caporali, E.: Inform to involve: women’s contribution to Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystems (WEFE) Nexus transition in Egypt, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18213,, 2024.

Posters on site: Mon, 15 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | Hall A

Display time: Mon, 15 Apr 08:30–Mon, 15 Apr 12:30
Chairpersons: Nagham Saeed, Enrica Caporali, Antonio Annis
Alexander Folz, Anthony Lehmann, and Mario Giampietro

Given current world population, persistence of global diet, and considerable environmental damage related
thereto, food consumption is a major source of concern for environmental sustainability. In relation to these
issues, Greater Geneva agglomeration outlined several legitimate, albeit potentially contrasting set of objectives
for 2050 in its 2022 political commitment for a sustainable transition: preserving and regenerating local
biodiversity, reducing environmental pressures generated by society, while ensuring good health, equity and
inclusion of all its inhabitants, and contributing to the improvement of world population’s well-being. To
arbitrate between these conflicting pledges requires the use of an accounting system able to integrate them
simultaneously. For this purpose, MuSIASEM accounting approach (Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal
and Ecosystem Metabolism) is applied to the Greater Geneva region and Geneva Canton: it relates information
pertaining to (i) the diet, (ii) the techno-economic performance of the agricultural sector, (iii) environmental
pressures generated by agriculture, (iv) the level of dependence on imports. MuSIASEM allowed to characterize
the region’s food metabolism for a current Swiss diet and a more plant-based diet: with a current Swiss diet,
were Greater Geneva region to internalize all food consumption, it would require considerable increases in the
share of agricultural land and agricultural workers in society. Shifting from an animal to a more plant-based diet
would significantly reduce environmental and social pressures. In addition, viewing Greater Geneva region as
reference political boundary for assessing food security would render the former more environmentally feasible:
thereby making an extension of Geneva Canton’s biodiversity strategy 2030 to Greater Geneva – of protecting
30% of territory for ecological infrastructure – in turn more plausible. This study showed the potential of
MuSIASEM approach in characterizing a region’s food metabolism, yet it could be applied in other domains to
assess a society’s water, energy or human activity metabolism.

How to cite: Folz, A., Lehmann, A., and Giampietro, M.: A tool for governance informed deliberation in Greater Geneva region:impossibility of current circular economy food metabolism, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21001,, 2024.

Daniel Alberto Segovia-Cardozo, María Sánchez-Bayo Gonzáles, Mara Vallejos Mihotek, Xenia Schneider, and Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas

Water scarcity and water stress have become a concern for many countries worldwide, especially to Mediterranean countries like Spain. Which, together with the increase in energy prices, have affected food production and degraded ecosystems. Over the last two decades in Spain, irrigated areas have expanded in the interest of modernizing irrigation systems to cope with increased food consumption and to promote economic development and the maintenance of the rural population. At the same time, managing – rising fertilizer and energy prices and water scarcity have become necessities, but also threatening the natural ecosystem. Until now Water, Energy, Food, and Ecosystems (WEFE) challenges have been traditionally managed independently, contrary to the international community recommendation of treating them together in a WEFE Nexus framework to address their interrelationships and achieve a balance. Considering this framework, two workshops took place in the Duero Basin in Spain with the stakeholders, from the different WEFE entities, aiming at promoting and co-defining WEFE-Nexus transition actions for addressing the WEFE-Nexus challenges and for improving the local WEFE-Nexus conditions. As a first step, the WEFE-Nexus transition requires active engagement and building trust among WEFE stakeholders and as a second step to involve them in a co-creation process with knowledge’s exchange and mutual learning. Thus, the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) was applied through the RRI Roadmapãä for co-defining WEFE-Nexus transition actions or plan to improve local WEFE-Nexus conditions and identifying knowledge, technical and scientific gaps and how to bridge them to be successful. The first workshop used storytelling and the participatory method of the World Café to actively engage and motivate the stakeholders. The second workshop was performed from an expert point of view and a NEXUS NESS- Serious Game to foster discussion and create awareness on sustainable management practices; it focused on water-energy resource management, agricultural production, and the impact of climate change.

The methodology and the results from both workshops are presented in this paper.

How to cite: Segovia-Cardozo, D. A., Sánchez-Bayo Gonzáles, M., Vallejos Mihotek, M., Schneider, X., and Rodriguez-Sinobas, L.: First steps into Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystem Nexus Transition in semiarid depopulated regions: A case of study in the Spanish Duero basin. , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-706,, 2024.

Sarata Darboe, Magdeline Vlasimsky, Jonas Van Laere, Gerd Dercon, Maria Heiling, Margit Drapal, Laura Perez, Luis Augusto Becerra, Michael Gomez Selvaraj, and Paul Fraser

The intricate interplay among plant water dynamics, nutritional content, and soil health is pivotal for unravelling the complexities inherent in plant materials, forging a direct link to the intricate web of the water-energy-food nexus. This investigation aims to find more accessible ways of evaluating the interplay between soil characteristics, water use in agriculture, and plant health, contributing crucial insights to sustainable agricultural practices that align with the SDGs 2030 Agenda for zero hunger, better environment, and enhanced human well-being.

Cassava, as a staple crop in many developing countries is the focal point for this study, aiming for proof of a more affordable and accessible way of accessing the impact of water scarcity and nutrient deficiency. This understanding becomes particularly crucial in the development of effective digital technologies tailored to enhance the sustainability of agricultural practices, fostering a balance within the intersection of water, energy, and food systems.

The core objective of this research is to assess the efficacy of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) in predicting Carbon-13 (δ13C) signatures in cassava, establishing correlations between MIR spectral features and reference C-13 data obtained through Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). While Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and IRMS have demonstrated acceptable accuracy in modelling C-13 content in plant material, the underexplored potential of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) holds promise, given its proven prediction potential with soil parameters as well as the small, required sample size which make it even more affordable, accessible, and sustainable. By grounding this investigation in the larger objective of managing the resource use efficiently, the calibration and validation process aims to contribute to the development of a broadly applicable methodology, across geographic boundaries and mediums and enhancing the collective understanding of the interdependencies within the water-energy-food nexus. 

Carbon-13 (δ13C) signatures in cassava offer invaluable insights into water use and transpiration efficiency and with a data-driven decision-making approach, not only informs farmers about optimal irrigation levels but also contributes to the broader discourse on sustainable resource management. Leveraging a dataset comprised of more than 700 cassava plant samples, this study employs Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict δ13C content primarily in leaf material, utilizing Partial Least-Squares Regression (PLSR) to develop a robust model. Preliminary findings indicate that the indirect estimation is possible. The model's prediction performance, assessed through accepted statistical metrics such as R2 and RMSE, sheds light on the potential of MIRS for plant parameter prediction as an indicator of best soil and water management practices.

How to cite: Darboe, S., Vlasimsky, M., Van Laere, J., Dercon, G., Heiling, M., Drapal, M., Perez, L., Augusto Becerra, L., Gomez Selvaraj, M., and Fraser, P.: Predicting  Carbon-13 (δ13C) signatures as a Indicator of Water Use Effciency (WUE) in Cassava using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS), EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5913,, 2024.

Enrico Lucca, Luigi Piemontese, Janez Sušnik, Sara Masia, Giulio Castelli, and Elena Bresci

The simultaneous achievement of multiple societal, environmental, and economic goals is challenged by the interconnectedness of global and local resources systems (e.g., water for food and energy production, energy for water extraction and treatment), and by the rules and actors that determine the allocation of such resources. The Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystems (WEFE) Nexus promotes a systemic approach to the management and governance of intertwined systems focusing on the mutual interdependence between sectors and emphasising trade-offs and synergies across sectoral goals. Despite these premises, however, assessments of WEFE Nexus systems often do not address in an integrated manner the multiple dimensions under which the interconnections among water, energy, food, and ecosystems emerge, i.e., from the flows of resources across sectors to their socio-economic implications and their institutional context. In our study, we develop a methodological framework to characterise the interlinkages among water, energy, food, and ecosystems both at the biophysical and at the governance level. Through consultation with local stakeholders, we build casual loop diagrams to show physical relationships between processes and activities in the four sectors, while we apply the network of action situations (NAS) approach to assess interactions between venues of decision making and policy formulation. We apply this integrated approach to the Torrente Orco mountain catchment in Northern Italy, where the interlinkages between cereal production, energy generation and the preservation of natural ecosystems are becoming more evident due to the impact of climate change and sectoral developments. To inform the analysis, we used different data collection methods, including interviews with stakeholders, observation of stakeholder meetings, review of local news and analysis of regional plans and regulations. The results reveal that the water deficits experienced more frequently in recent years has led to key trade-offs between water uses, such as the abrogation of environmental flow requirement to meet irrigation water demands, but it also created important synergies, such as the multi-purpose use of hydropower reservoirs during droughts, the shift towards more water-efficient crops and the modernization of irrigation systems. Furthermore, three venues of decision making are highlighted as key opportunities to reconcile the water balance at the catchment scale: the renewal of hydropower concessions, the definition of the environmental flow requirement, and the renewal of irrigation permits.  The proposed approach was proven useful to reach a comprehensive overview of Nexus interconnections, a first crucial step for any further assessment that aims at understanding how the system might evolve in the future and what technical and non-technical interventions could help increase its resilience.


We gratefully acknowledge the ‘PON Ricerca e Innovazione 2014-2020: Istruzione e ricerca per il recupero—REACT-EU’ Programme of the Italian Government, through the PhD scholarship Granted to Enrico Lucca (scholarship n. DOT137M5SZ n. 2, 2022–2024)

How to cite: Lucca, E., Piemontese, L., Sušnik, J., Masia, S., Castelli, G., and Bresci, E.: Integrated technical and governance analysis of the water-energy-food-ecosystems Nexus in a mountain catchment in Northern Italy, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12757,, 2024.

Sudeh Dehnavi, Hamideh Nouri, Neda Abbasi, and Marcela Brungnach

While SDGs have become a common ground to address global sustainability systematically, neither the existing synergies and tradeoffs among the different SDGs nor the magnitude of their compound effects at global versus national scales are well understood. Although introducing two indices of Spillover Index and Global Commons Stewardship (GCS) shed light on these issues, the capability of these widely agreed SDGs in fulfilling every nation's needs and dedication to protecting global sustainability is yet questionable. The SDGs' shortcomings are most evident when there are interdependencies and contradictory requirements among SDGs, becoming critical when SDGs at the national level protect one country at the expense of another one. The impact of achieving food security (often in water rich countries) through the import of agricultural products from their trade partner countries (often in water scarce countries) is one of the examples.

Here we aim to understand whether and how lacking a global nexus perspective that takes into account the synergies and tradeoffs among the different SDGs can counteract other nations and SDGs. We investigate the connection between SDG 2 and 6 in the context of water and food security; particularly, the impact of food security strategies of an importing country on the water security of its trade partner countries. The findings present that although neglecting the tight links between SDGs of 2 and 6 may have a positive sectoral effect at a country level, it fails global sustainability as it impacts the involved countries unevenly and often antipodally. it emphasizes the need for a revision of SDG2, as it inadequately captures the perspective of food security from the standpoint of hunger. This study advocates for inclusion of  NEXUS and system thinking in the reformulation of the SDGs, their targets, and the associated indicators.

How to cite: Dehnavi, S., Nouri, H., Abbasi, N., and Brungnach, M.: Assessing the capability of SDGs in achieving sustainable development from Nexus and global perspectives concerning water-food security, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12900,, 2024.

Maite Sanchez-Revuelta, Daniel A. Segovia-Cardozo, Xenia Schneider, and Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas

Water stress, together with rising energy prices, have become a major concern worldwide, especially for food production (the major water consumer) that leads to ecosystem degradation in arid and semiarid countries such as Spain. The Spanish irrigated area ​​ has been continuously expanding and modernizing in response to the food demant increase and to promote economic development and support the rural areas which are aspects generally considered on an individual basis, against the advice of the international community to achieve a balance in  Water, Energy, Food and Ecosystem (WEFE) Nexus. But also, it is crucial to consider stakeholders' perspectives, understand their experiences and opinions to work together and find more realistic and effective solutions. Participatory modeling, such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM), is frequently used, with satisfactory results, within the WEFE Nexus context to understand the perception of stakeholders for decision making.

This work aims to analyze the perceptions of various stakeholders (researchers, policymakers, environmental groups, farmers' associations, food retailers, consumer organizations, water treatment companies, and water reuse experts) regarding interactions in variables related to the four sectors of the WEFE nexus in the Duero River basin. Understanding the perception of the stakeholders about these topics can help to improve policy, decision making and to enhance scientific research, innovation, and knowledge transfer in the fields related to the WEFE Nexus.

To identify the concepts, three workshops were conducted with 14 participants from different sectors related to WEFE NEXUS areas.  The workshop accomplished  different activities with the purpose of highlighting the main ideas about WEFE in a participative way, that were reinforced in the following workshop, to make sure that we gather the real perception of the stakeholders without leaving any of them aside. As a result, 30 concepts have been identified, simplified and used to develop a FCM, in which stakeholders will identify relations between them, assigning weights to these relationships correlations based on their own perception. Then, the final FCM will be analyzed by Metal Modeler program, which will allow to understand interconnections among variables according to the stakeholders´ perception and study future scenarios obtained as a result of performed workshops. Scenario analysis allows to explore the intricate relationships that exist within a system, and to examine how changes in one variable can influence the dynamics of the entire system. Creating narrative pathways from plausible future developments helps decision-makers assess the potential impact of policies from the perspective of multidisciplinary stakeholders.

How to cite: Sanchez-Revuelta, M., A. Segovia-Cardozo, D., Schneider, X., and Rodriguez-Sinobas, L.: A Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping approach to support WEFE NEXUS policies and decision-making, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12977,, 2024.

Maite Jimenez-Aguirre, Carmen Galea, Sofía Garde-Cabellos, David Ribas-Tabares, Barbara Soriano, Paloma Esteve-Bengoechea, Irene Blanco-Gutierrez, Jon Lisazo, Carlos H Díaz-Ambrona, David Pérez, Leonor Rodriguez-Sinobas, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Isabel Bardají, and Ana M Tarquis

Given the decrease in water availability for agriculture caused by climate change (CC) in Mediterranean environments, it is necessary to use water efficiently in food production. As stated in the PNACC (National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change), knowing the water demand for agricultural use before and after adaptation to CC is essential. In turn, for this, it is necessary to optimize the monitoring of the basins. To this end, AGUAGRADA proposes a monitoring and modeling system at the sub-basin scale and scalable to higher order basins, capable of quantifying the water demand for agricultural use under different climate, management scenarios (compatible with the CAP), and socio-economic and economic conditions of policies. The results of present and future water demands are expressed in PNACC indicators since the project aims to contribute directly to its implementation.
The general objective of this project is to develop and apply a method for evaluating water demand for agricultural use applicable at the sub-basin and basin scale before and after adaptation to climate change (CC). To achieve this, the following specific objectives are defined:

  • Design an optimal methodology for monitoring water demand for agricultural use applicable at the sub-basin and basin scale using PNACC indicators, replicable and scalable to other regions and even at the national level.
  • Co-create with stakeholders/farmers the selection of agricultural practices and CC adaptation measures to optimize water demand for agricultural use at the sub-basin and basin scale and ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Analyze possible incentives for their inclusion in eco-regimes or CAP agri-environmental programs and study the best implementation routes (multidisciplinary approach).
  • Analyze water demand for agricultural use in the future without and with climate change adaptation.
    The actions as the advances achieved in this project will be explained.

Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico, a través de la Convocatoria de subvenciones para la realización de proyectos que contribuyan a implementar el Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático (2021-2030) (CBIO230220C063)

How to cite: Jimenez-Aguirre, M., Galea, C., Garde-Cabellos, S., Ribas-Tabares, D., Soriano, B., Esteve-Bengoechea, P., Blanco-Gutierrez, I., Lisazo, J., Díaz-Ambrona, C. H., Pérez, D., Rodriguez-Sinobas, L., Ruiz-Ramos, M., Bardají, I., and Tarquis, A. M.: Evaluating the demand for water for agricultural use for adaptation to climate change at the subbasin level (AGUAGRADA), EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17756,, 2024.

Fernando Nardi and the NEXUS-NESS Consortium

Economic, societal and environmental security are interdependently related to the availability and fair access to natural resources, water, land, food and energy. All four elements (water, food, energy and ecosystems) are 1) highly dependent on each other, 2) crucial for human well-being, and 3) impacting social cohesion and source of geopolitical conflicts. In the Mediterranean region the water scarcity and land degradation do not match sound and sustainable agricultural practices and often the protection of ecosystems is in conflict with economic growth instead of being safeguarded for improving water sources. NEXUS-NESS interlinks consolidated Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus data, knowledge and tools and a three-fold Ecosystem component value (i.e. Environment, Economy and Engagement) to produce a comprehensive WEFE Nexus Service (NNS). State of the art biophysical models, WATNEEDS and FREEWAT, are employed to provide quantitative metrics and geospatial distribution of WEFE nexus parameters and resource-risk scenarios with varying climate, land, crop, energy and socio-environmental variables. The NNS is an analytical geo-service supporting the transferring to Nexus stakeholders and operators of WEFE Nexus models, scenarios and indicators for understanding the benefits of Nexus best practices. The NEXUS-NESS project, funded by Horizon 2020 PRIMA programme, started in 2021 and is ending in 2024, is achieving the following three main objectives:
1) Co-Produce WEFE Nexus management plans for fair and sustainable allocation of resources by applying the NNS into real case conditions through the four Multi-Actor diverse NEXUS Ecosystem Labs (NELs);
2) Operationalize the adoption of the WEFE Nexus by co-defining short to long-term resource management plans and hands-on guidance through application, validation and demonstration actions in the four NELs
3) Enable mindset change for the effective adoption of WEFE Nexus through the implementation of Innovation Ecosystems of private sector, academic, public authorities and citizens in the 4 NELs through the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) Roadmap and the six RRI dimensions (public engagement, open science, science education, gender issues, ethics and institutional change through governance).
To achieve these three main objectives, the NEXUS-NESS consortium has specified 4 NELs where multi-actors (stakeholders, private sector, public authorities, academia and citizens) will be engaged in a Living Lab setting by applying the RRI Roadmap. The multi-actors will be identified, motivated and engaged to frame a new WEFE-Nexus vision for their common socio-economic-ecosystem situation, co-design and co-construct WEFE-Nexus management plans and solutions, apply these, measure them, adjust them and intensify them. The NEXUS-NESS 4 NELS are:
1) Coastal Tuscany, Italy: focusing on minimization of groundwater extraction and salinization through non-conventional irrigation via consortia and natural ponds as bioreactors; 2)Rio Daja, Spain: improve agroecosystem and rural life of viticulture and agriculture with improved water-energy use during irrigation. 3) Matrouh Coastal area, Egypt: reduce saline brackish groundwater, increase cultivation through responsible irrigation and apply the WEFE Nexus approach for increasing crop yields.
4) Oued Jir Watershed of Gabes, Tunisia: intensify sustainable agriculture by balancing efficient use of natural resources through novel irrigation and land management by educating the local population of the highly arid area.

How to cite: Nardi, F. and the NEXUS-NESS Consortium: PRIMA NEXUS-NESS: Operationalizing transdisciplinary, stakeholder engagement and biophysical models for co-demonstrating the multiple social, economic and environmental benefits of WEFE Nexus approaches in four Euromed Nexus Ecosystem Labs, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-22567,, 2024.

Atiyeh Ardakanian, Nagham Saeed, Hloniphani Moyo, and Rabelani Mudzielwana

The study on Digital Twins (DT) in South Africa emphasizes DT's role in enhancing the efficiency of management and governance within the Water-Energy-Food nexus. By integrating data across energy, agriculture, and water sectors, DT provides a more cohesive and informed approach to decision-making where various stakeholders with multiple interests are involved. This integration enables streamlined governance processes and optimal resource utilization. Currently, governance in South Africa's water, energy, and food sectors is characterized by a mix of state and private involvement. The energy sector is overseen by the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy and includes state-owned entities, alongside private independent power producers and regulatory bodies. In agriculture, the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development plays a key role, with additional input from various agricultural bodies and NGOs. Water rights are state-owned, managed by the Department of Water and Sanitation, and regulated through licenses, with local management by water boards and municipalities. The land is a mix of private and state ownership, with a focus on agricultural development and reform. By understanding the priorities and influences of different groups, anticipating conflicts, and fostering cooperation, through DTs, we can ensure that initiatives for environmental conservation are more widely successful. 

How to cite: Ardakanian, A., Saeed, N., Moyo, H., and Mudzielwana, R.: The study on Digital Twins in Managing Water-Energy-Food Sectors in South Africa , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-10280,, 2024.

Zhipin Ai, Naota Hanasaki, Fadong Li, and Xin Zhao

Irrigation causes serious water stress in a wide range of areas around the world. It remains unknown whether and to what extent global water stress can be alleviated by the sustainable use of water resources for irrigation. Here, we delineated a new distribution of global irrigated croplands via strict conservation of available water resources for crop irrigation using an internally consistent model framework. Then, we compared the differences in global water stress under the conditions of current and re-delineated irrigated croplands, respectively. We demonstrated that irrigation on the re-delineated irrigated croplands can largely alleviate global water stress, particularly for areas currently facing high or very high water stress. The results also indicated that irrigated cropland re-delineation would have a limited negative impact on the production of 4 major crops of maize, wheat, rice, and soybean. Our findings highlight importance of sustainable irrigation water management for food production and its potential benefits for alleviating water stress.

How to cite: Ai, Z., Hanasaki, N., Li, F., and Zhao, X.: Sustainable Irrigation is Promising for Alleviating Global Water Stress, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-2345,, 2024.

Lucia Piazza, Francesco Pietro Colelli, Enrica De Cian, and Wilmer Pasut

This paper aims to provide insights on potential strategies for a sustainable energy transition amidst market fluctuations. We analyze the impact of PV adoption on electricity consumption during a volatile price time span, leveraging high-frequency consumption data of over 10,000 households in Northern Italy during the period of the 2022 energy crisis. Our findings reveal that PV adoption reduces electricity consumption responsiveness during extreme price and temperature events, enhancing energy security and affordability. Also, PV uptake effectively reduces greenhouse gas emissions deriving from electricity consumption in the residential sector. Based on estimated demand, we measure changes in consumer surplus loss, highlighting substantial benefits from PV adoption: the change in the annual consumer welfare due to the 2022 price increase is around minus 300 euros for the median consumer with no PV and minus 133 euros when PV is adopted by a comparable median household. 

This study exploits high-frequency data of households residing in the municipality of Brescia between 2021-2022 to infer the impact of PV adoption and the influence of temperatures on grid electricity consumption, as well as to detect potential differences in price elasticity among different consumption groups and seasons. We find that adopting PV systems significantly reduces grid consumption: by 75% on average and by as much as 100% during sunny hours and warmer seasons. Exploiting the exogenous Russia-Ukraine price shock, we find that households who adopt solar PV are more likely to better manage increased temperatures at higher electricity price levels and price fluctuations. Furthermore, we find that "small" consumers can cope worse with high temperatures and are more sensitive to electricity-prices compared to "medium" and "large" consumers, highlighting electricity as a relevant source of inequality.

How to cite: Piazza, L., Colelli, F. P., De Cian, E., and Pasut, W.: Toward Net Zero in the midst of the Energy and Climate Crises: the Response of Residential Photovoltaic Systems , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4312,, 2024.

Javier Sigro, Mercè Cisneros, Jon Olano, Anna Boqué-Ciurana, Caterina Cimolai, Júlia Pastor-Diaz-de-Mera, and Clara Vidal-Bibiloni

Gender inequality and climate change are two major challenges currently confronting the human species. This collaborative project between the Red Cross in Catalonia in collaboration with the Catalan Agency for Development Cooperation and the Center for Climate Change (C3) at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Spain, presents a comprehensive summary of the analysis of climate change impacts in diverse intervention countries. The study offers a global perspective on climate change trends, focusing on temperature variations, greenhouse gas concentrations, oceanic changes, cryosphere dynamics, precipitation patterns and, extreme climatic events.

Moving from the global to the regional scale, the report highlights the specific impacts on ecosystems, food systems, hydrological systems, sea levels, and public health. Special attention is given to localized effects in Catalonia, such as wildfires, floods, and water resource challenges.

 The project then explores the nuanced intersection of gender and climate change, emphasizing differentiated impacts and vulnerabilities across demographic groups. An analysis of climate vulnerability evolution with a gender lens includes an examination of international, national, and regional policies and reports.

 Differentiated gender impacts are illustrated through case studies in Guatemala, Colombia, Sahara (Africa), Mozambique (Africa), Afghanistan (Asia), and Iran (Asia). Each case study provides insights into the general context, the intersection of climate change and gender, energy poverty challenges, and the governance and participation of women in climate-related initiatives.

 To ground the analysis in empirical data, the study incorporates an in-depth analysis of the "En Moviment" program's data, covering socio-demographic aspects, climate change perceptions, governance structures, extreme weather events, and access to energy. The abstract concludes with comprehensive insights and recommendations, offering a nuanced understanding of the gendered dimensions of climate change impacts and responses in diverse geographical contexts, suitable for presentation at a congress.

The study delves into the intricate relationship between climate change and gender inequality, underscoring their global significance. The research emphasizes the urgent need for an interdisciplinary approach, exploring how human-induced climate change has escalated atmospheric CO2 levels, altered temperature patterns, and impacted ecosystems. Women, constituting the majority in vulnerable populations, face disproportionate vulnerabilities, exacerbated by gender-based disparities in decision-making, access to resources, and climate-induced poverty. Specific case studies in Catalonia and diverse global regions reveal nuanced gendered impacts, highlighting the crucial role of women in adaptation and mitigation efforts. The study concludes that addressing climate change requires a profound understanding of gender dynamics, advocating for inclusive responses that prioritize gender equality as a cornerstone for building a sustainable and just future.

How to cite: Sigro, J., Cisneros, M., Olano, J., Boqué-Ciurana, A., Cimolai, C., Pastor-Diaz-de-Mera, J., and Vidal-Bibiloni, C.: Gender and Climate Change, Analysis in Various Red Cross Intervention Countries, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17304,, 2024.

Ziwen Liu, Deqi Zheng, Xiaoyu Duan, Qingxu Huang, and Shiyu Zhang

Natural resources are fundamental for socioeconomic development and sustainable development. However, our understanding on the dynamic connections of water resources, energy and cropland still remains unclear. This study developed a framework covering multi-sectoral and multi-product water-carbon-cropland nexus, identifying key areas for water, energy and cropland conservation by considering both the resource utilization efficiency and connections between provinces. The new framework revealed that the utilization efficiencies of the three resources improved from 2007 to 2017 in China, with the average values of the direct, indirect, and total coefficients of virtual water consumption, embodied carbon emmisions and virtual cropland use decreasing by 63.3%, 40.6% and 59.2%, respectively. Meanwhile, the inter-provincial connections of water-carbon-cropland nexus have weakened, with a downward trend of pull coefficients. Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang were typical regions with high consumption in water, energy and cropland, with the average value of the total coefficients of the three resources nearly twice the national average. Xinjiang, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia were regions with weak water-energy-cropland connections, and their average pulling coefficient was about 36% of national average. Under the "dual circulation" development pattern of China, it’s necessary to improve resource utilization efficiency in the future by promoting economic cooperation between regions with strong connections and weak connections, and promoting the efficient utilization of resources for regions (e.g., Xinjiang and Gansu) under the help of developed regions (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai). This framework can further capture the food-energy-water nexus (FEW nexus) at urban, provincial and even global scales, and can be used as an important tool to identify the process of multiple sustainable development goals (SDGs 2, 6, 7 and 12).

How to cite: Liu, Z., Zheng, D., Duan, X., Huang, Q., and Zhang, S.: Dynamics of the water-energy-cropland nexus in China from 2007 to 2017: Implications for the Dual Circulation Strategy, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4559,, 2024.

Nagham Saeed, Atiyeh Ardakanian, Leo Choe Peng, and Goh Hui Weng

In our research, we investigate the integration of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus into a unified system and claim it is a critical step in achieving food security, while minimizing environmental degradation. This approach recognizes the interconnectedness of these essential resources and highlights the importance of a holistic and modern strategy in addressing global sustainability challenges. We facilitate this integration through Digital Twins (DTs), offering a virtual representation of this nexus. A critical step in developing a WEF Nexus DT is the collection of relevant data. Our project demonstrates that a hybrid approach is essential to gather comprehensive data for an effective WEF DT model. While traditional methods remain invaluable, they need to be combined with state-of-the-art technology. For instance, water quality, a key parameter in the WEF DT, is currently best assessed through direct sampling rather than IoT sensors or satellite data. Equally, energy parameters can be effectively monitored via satellite, and food production data can be accurately collected using IoT sensors. This hybrid data collection framework underscores the need for a multi-faceted approach, integrating both conventional and advanced technologies, to build a robust and reliable WEF Nexus DT.

How to cite: Saeed, N., Ardakanian, A., Choe Peng, L., and Hui Weng, G.: Hybrid Framework for Water-Energy-Food Nexus Digital Twin Data Collection , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-9934,, 2024.

Marloes Penning de Vries, Timothy Dube, Finn Münch, Mgcini Ncube, Carmen Anthonj, Lisette De Senerpont Domis, Piet Lens, Thomas Marambanyika, Ntandokamlimu Nondo, Frank Osei, Cletah Shoko, and Daphne van der Wal

Lakes in tropical regions around the world suffer from the infestation of water hyacinth. Its proliferation is attributable to the influx of nutrient-rich waters, as rivers feeding the lakes are polluted with wastewater and run-off of fertilizer and manure from surrounding agricultural fields and husbandry within the catchment. The weed clogs waterways and intakes and affects aquatic life, water availability, transportation, fishing, irrigation, and tourism. Water hyacinth infestation has implications for human health, as it may facilitate the spread of water-related diseases. While water hyacinth may pose health risks, they have the potential to benefit human livelihoods when exploited for wastewater treatment, as fertilizer, for biofuel production or, when made into handicrafts, as a source of income.

A sustainable solution to these issues tackles both water quality deterioration and water hyacinth infestation, and “uses” water hyacinth instead of only attempting to “lose” them.  We present a research project that identifies such solutions, applicable and appropriate within the local and cultural context of our study region, Lake Chivero, the main source of drinking water to Harare. The project consists of three main pillars: (1) performing systematic studies of causes and effects of water hyacinth spread based on satellite and empirical data; (2) scientifically investigating water hyacinth exploitation methods, and (3) engaging with stakeholders to co-develop strategies to address the challenges of water quality and water hyacinth. The project’s impacts will be a more healthy and resilient lake ecosystem, improved wellbeing of people depending on the lake, and more resilient communities at Lake Chivero and other lakes in Sub-Saharan Africa. It will thereby contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) related to health (SDG 3), drinking water (SDG 6), and sustainable communities (SDG 11). Moreover, the project is in line with the South African National Development Plan 2030 and the African Union Agenda 2063.

How to cite: Penning de Vries, M., Dube, T., Münch, F., Ncube, M., Anthonj, C., De Senerpont Domis, L., Lens, P., Marambanyika, T., Nondo, N., Osei, F., Shoko, C., and van der Wal, D.: Water hyacinths: Use them or lose them? A holistic approach to a multi-faceted problem, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-7799,, 2024.

Posters virtual: Mon, 15 Apr, 14:00–15:45 | vHall A

Display time: Mon, 15 Apr 08:30–Mon, 15 Apr 18:00
Chairpersons: Antonio Annis, Nagham Saeed, Fernando Nardi
maryam siamaki, mohamad Gheibi, Atiyeh Ardakanian, Stanislaw Waclawek, and Kourosh Behzadian

This study presents an integrated water-energy nexus analysis through the dynamic simulation of a combined hydro-thermal power plant, focusing on a case study within the water-scarce region of Iran. The investigation aims to assess the mutual interactions between water resources and energy production, providing valuable insights for sustainable water and energy management practices. The simulation model incorporates system dynamics to capture the complex feedback loops between water availability, energy demand, and the operation of the power plant. The power plant is modeled as a combined hydro-thermal system, where water availability influences both hydroelectric and thermal power generation. The system's response to water availability is further modulated by feedback loops that consider the dynamics of water and energy demand. In the context of the Iranian water plant case study, the simulation is executed over 100-time steps to analyze the dynamic behavior of the system. The water supply response to water availability is characterized by a multiplier, and the energy supply response is modulated by a similar multiplier, reflecting the inherent connection between water and energy in the power generation process. Additionally, the thermal efficiency of the power plant is considered in the simulation to account for the impact of water availability on thermal power generation. The results of the simulation are visually represented through a heat map, providing a comprehensive overview of the temporal evolution of water demand, water supply, and energy supply. The custom colormap enhances visualization, enabling a clear interpretation of the interdependencies within the water-energy nexus [1]. The numerical results derived from the simulation offer valuable insights into the sustainable operation of the combined hydro-thermal power plant. The analysis highlights the importance of considering water availability in energy production decisions, showcasing the impact on both hydroelectric and thermal power generation. Furthermore, the simulation provides quantitative assessments of water shortage and energy shortfall, aiding in the identification of critical time periods and informing strategies for resource allocation and infrastructure planning [2]. By focusing on the Iranian context, where water scarcity is a prevalent concern, this study contributes to the development of region-specific water and energy policies. The findings underscore the need for integrated water and energy management strategies to address the challenges posed by changing water availability patterns and growing energy demands [3]. The presented simulation framework can serve as a valuable tool for policymakers and researchers in optimizing the operation of similar water-energy systems in arid regions, fostering sustainable development in the face of increasing water and energy challenges.

Keywords: Water-Energy Nexus; Power Plants; Programming; Sustainability; Performance assessment

How to cite: siamaki, M., Gheibi, M., Ardakanian, A., Waclawek, S., and Behzadian, K.: Integrated Water-Energy Nexus Analysis: Dynamic Simulation of a Combined Hydro-Thermal Power Plant , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-22126,, 2024.

Understanding and Addressing Multifaceted Factors Influencing Refugee Food Security: A Comparative Study in Ukraine and Switzerland amid Global Forced Displacement
Olha Nimko, Rachael Garrett, and Katrina Powell