The current atmospheric observing systems fail to provide observations of temperature and humidity in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with satisfactory spatial and temporal resolutions despite their potential positive impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP). This is particularly critical for humidity, which exhibits a very high variability in space and time, and for the vertical profile of temperature, which determines the atmospheric stability. Therefore, the analyzed thermodynamic structure of the PBL can be prone to errors, leading to poor forecasts of warnings for relevant phenomena, such as severe storms due to intense summer convection or winter fog and low stratus.
One approach to improve the model’s representation of the PBL is to include novel, ground-based remote sensing profiler observations in the data assimilation system to improve the forecast initial conditions. This also improves the quality of downstream applications relying on a good representation of the PBL in the model, such as dispersion modelling for emergency response after nuclear, chemical or biological incidents.
In this contribution, we present results of the MeteoSwiss effort to include observations from Raman lidar and microwave radiometers into the 1km mesh-size ensemble data assimilation system KENDA-1. To this end, we have developed a forward operator for water vapor mixing ratio and temperature to assimilate profiles from the Raman lidar. Brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers are assimilated using the RTTOV-gb forward operator. We produced extensive O-B statistics to validate the observations with respect to the model and to derive the error covariance matrices of the observations. Furthermore, we will present results of several data assimilation cycling experiments during summer-time convective situations.
How to cite: Crezee, B., Merker, C., Vural, J., Leuenberger, D., Haefele, A., Hervo, M., Martucci, G., and Arpagaus, M.: Towards operational assimilation of surface based remote sensing temperature and humidity profiler data at MeteoSwiss, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-259, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2021-259, 2021.