Co-development of weather and climate services in developing and emerging countries


Co-development of weather and climate services in developing and emerging countries
Convener: Stefanie Gubler | Co-conveners: Gerard van der Schrier, Jane Strachan, Matti Eerikäinen
Lightning talks
| Tue, 07 Sep, 11:00–12:30 (CEST)

Lightning talks: Tue, 7 Sep

Chairpersons: Stefanie Gubler, Gerard van der Schrier, Jane Strachan
Gerald Mills and Oksana Tarasova

Cities are a spatial nexus for a great number of environmental change issues on all scales from natural disasters like flooding, heat waves to poor air quality and to climate change. These issues are closely linked to the land-cover and land-use changes associated with urbanisation including the urban layout, the local economy, transportation networks and energy systems. The environmental services to deal with the risks associated with climate changes have developed independently with distinct scientific infrastructures for different domains/areas (e.g. observation systems and models to support meteorology, hydrology or air quality are disconnected) and specific audiences associated with stakeholder needs. The result is that the services are fragmented, the infrastructure is not shared, and new audiences/services are not identified. In cities where the drivers and risks associated with climate changes are bundled, integration of services is needed to manage risks and support urban resilience.

The WMO has embarked on a mission to develop integrated urban services (IUS) to bring together different environmental services to share data and tools and develop a common system of communications that support risk management and long-term planning at urban scales. An IUS is envisaged as an evolving system that is co-created with stakeholders to ensure a service that is adaptable to specific urban environmental concerns. The WMO has created guidelines for the creation of an IUS and a report that showcases IUS using demonstration cities. This presentation focuses on the final component of this mission, that of implementing an IUS. As part of this work, the WMO has reached out to a wide spectrum of urban stakeholders to identify needs, which can form a framework for next generation services. In addition, it will evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing IUS in different socioeconomic settings.

How to cite: Mills, G. and Tarasova, O.: Implementing Integrated Urban Services, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-501,, 2021.

Digital public goods and early warning systems
Jelmer Jeuring, Anders Sivle, Håvard Futsæter, Vegard Bønes, Kristine Gjesdal, David Melchior, and Erik Kolstad

The global digitalization of societies is arguably one of the most influential  drivers of change in the development, implementation and dissemination of weather and climate information. From observations and measurements, to communication of weather warnings, the value chain of Weather & Climate Services (WCS) is increasingly characterized by digital interactions. Yet, digitalization occurs at different paces across regions, depending on a wide range of (local) socio-economic factors. Access to digital information is an important indicator of socio-economic development, and as such strongly embedded in the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. Particularly in the context of objectives to provide equal access to information, education and knowledge, open weather data can provide significant benefits in developing countries, and contribute to meeting various SDGs. 

Many NMHSs, including the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, currently provide access to weather data under open access licences. One of its most important open data data services is MET Norway Weather API, a global location based time-series forecast service. Recently this api has formally been recognized as a Digital Public Good. 

Open weather data can provide opportunities to improve the forecasting capacity of African NMHSs and improve the quality of weather and climate information in African countries. With the objective to provide leading examples of the potential of open weather data as Digital Public Good, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute has been funded by NORAD to explore this potential in a pilot project together with African NMHSs. We present insights and experiences from the pilot phase of our collaboration with NMA in Ethiopia, and DCCMS in Malawi. We reflect on the challenges and successes of the first phase of this project. Also, we present an overview of key factors that need consideration when aiming to transform open weather data into value-added services that meet user-oriented criteria of Digital Public Goods. Finally, we provide an overview of next steps to move beyond the pilot phase.

How to cite: Jeuring, J., Sivle, A., Futsæter, H., Bønes, V., Gjesdal, K., Melchior, D., and Kolstad, E.: Weather and Climate Services in Africa as Digital Public Goods, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-474,, 2021.

Vieri Tarchiani, Giovanni Massazza, Maurizio Rosso, Alessandro Pezzoli, Mohamed Housseini Ibrahim, Gaptia Lawan Katiellou, Paolo Tamagnone, Tiziana De Filippis, Leandro Rocchi, Elena Rapisardi, Valentina Marchi, and Maurizio Tiepolo

During the last 20 years, floods have become a major hazard in West Africa, particularly in the Sahelian belt, affecting livelihoods, infrastructure and production systems, and hence heavily impacting on sustainable development. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 recognized Climate Services (CS) as a powerful tool for more effective disaster preparedness. The European research and innovation Roadmap for CS expands their contribution, particularly “hydrometeorological services”, to the Sendai Framework. From this convergence, Hydrometeorological Early Warning Systems (EWS) become a strategic target and a building block of preparedness to hydrometeorological risks in developed and developing countries. In West Africa, EWS for floods are in place only for the main rivers and are conceived mainly top-down and hazard centered, lacking links with exposed communities and expected impacts. These gaps reduce the effectiveness of a flood EWS, while engaging local communities since de beginning through a co-production process can improve the effectiveness and ensure better response in case of alert.

Our study aims to present the lessons learnt from the set-up of a Community and Impact Based Flood EWS on the Sirba River in Niger. The service was developed with stakeholders at different levels, leveraging on existing resources and knowledge, using simple but effective approaches and integrating state-of-the-art hydro-meteorological science in a decisional scheme of Sahelian rural areas. This mechanism can be replicable in different contexts characterized by knowledge and structural deficits, by creating a better capacity to exchange data and information and by directly connecting available technical capabilities with the local level. The participatory approach allowed the beneficiaries to define the rules of the system, which, in any case, needed to be consistent with the national legislation and internationally recognized best practices.

The study suggests that it is not necessary to develop complex forecasting tools, while it can be preferable to enhance those already operating and calibrate them on the local scale through risk thresholds, field observations and potential impacts using flood scenarios. The strength of simplicity also lies in not having to spread complex messages, but simply the reference risk scenario, and finally its color-code (according to the international standards of ISO 22324:2015), which already embeds all other information including potential impacts. The simple and integrated approach illustrated in this case study, bridging the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches, can inspire Governments, local administrations and development partners to invest in the improvement of existing tools and knowledge and in strengthening cooperation, collaboration and coordination to reduce hazards’ impacts and sustain the development of rural and urban areas.

How to cite: Tarchiani, V., Massazza, G., Rosso, M., Pezzoli, A., Housseini Ibrahim, M., Katiellou, G. L., Tamagnone, P., De Filippis, T., Rocchi, L., Rapisardi, E., Marchi, V., and Tiepolo, M.: Setting-up an hydrometeorological early warning service in Niger: lessons learnt on the co-development approach, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-30,, 2021.

Ratna Satyaningsih, Victor Jetten, Janneke Ettema, Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan, Danang Eko Nuryanto, and Yakob Umer

For the last decade, rainfall-triggered landslides have been one of the major hazards in Indonesia. According to the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) reports, from 2010 to 2020, a total of 5822 landslides occurred in Indonesia and caused 1812 casualties, 1627 injured, and 234 missing. More than 75% of those landslides occurred in Java, the most populous island in the region. Settlements alongside agricultural fields often are located in areas that are susceptible to landslides. As relocation would be costly, a landslide early warning system (LEWS) could provide the necessary information for communities susceptible to landslides to prepare for the upcoming hazard. The objective of this study is to map the issues with the existing landslide early warning system in Indonesia and our plan to improve landslide forecasting by tailoring available rainfall forecasts and monitoring.

The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has defined an end-to-end early warning system that essentially comprises knowledge risk, hazard forecasting, alerts dissemination, and community response. In the definition, the UNISDR also highlighted timely and meaningful warning information for appropriate preparedness and action in a sufficient time. Landslide prediction itself is challenging in terms of when and where precisely the landslides occur as different landslide types have different characteristics and trigger mechanisms. Moreover, when rainfall forecast data is used as input for a physically-based hydrological and landslide model, the uncertainty and accuracy of the rainfall will affect the forecast skill.

National LEWS with a longer lead-time is operational, utilizing generic rainfall thresholds derived from 1-day and 3-day cumulative rainfall triggering landslides occurred in Indonesia (mostly in the Java Island) as warning signals. The rainfall thresholds were derived from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates with a spatial resolution of 0.25°×0.25°. Different studies showed that the thresholds derived from that product are lower than those derived from raingauge measurements, potentially leading to more false alerts. These thresholds are applied for all catchments in Indonesia even though the region has different climate regimes and geomorphological characteristics, leading to insufficient accuracy for the local landslide prediction.  As for the forecast, the current LEWS applies rainfall forecast with the same spatial resolution as TRMM, which is not suitable for (sub-)catchment-scale prediction.

This study proposes an approach to tailor rainfall data from various high-resolution sources, like radar, NWP models, and satellite, where historical landslide data are to be used to derive dynamical rainfall thresholds at local scale.

How to cite: Satyaningsih, R., Jetten, V., Ettema, J., Sopaheluwakan, A., Nuryanto, D. E., and Umer, Y.: Landslide Early Warning in Indonesia: A Gap Analysis, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-339,, 2021.

Climate services
Jorge Tamayo, Ernesto Rodriguez-Camino, and Sara Covaleda

The intersectoral workshop held in December 2016 among the Ibero-American networks on water (CODIA), climate change (RIOCC) and meteorology (CIMHET) identified the need to dispose of downscaled climate change scenarios for Central America. Such scenarios would be developed by National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) in the region, based on a common methodology, allowing the assessment of climate change impacts on water resources and extreme hydro-meteorological events.

One final outcome of the project has been a freely accessible web viewer, installed on the Centro Clima webpage (, managed by CRRH-SICA, where all information generated during the project is available for consultation and data downloading by the different sectors of users.

A key element in this project has been to integrate many downscaled projections based on different methods (dynamical and statistical), totalizing 45 different projections, and aiming at estimating the uncertainty coming from different sources in the best possible way.

Another essential element has been the strong involvement of the different user sectors through national workshops, first, at the beginning of the project for the identification and definition of viewer features the project, and then for the presentation of results and planning of its use by prioritized sectors.

In a second phase of the project, a regional working group made up of experts from the NMHSs will be in charge of viewer maintenance and upgrade, including new sectoral parameters, developed in collaboration with interested users, and computation and addition of new downscaled projections from CMIP 6 in collaboration with AEMET.

Finally, following the request of CIMHET, the possibility of replicating this project for other areas of Ibero-America is being evaluated.

How to cite: Tamayo, J., Rodriguez-Camino, E., and Covaleda, S.: Development of downscaled Climate Change Scenarios for Central America. Lessons learned and next steps, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-99,, 2021.

Raul Polato, Grinia Jesús Avalos Roldán, Hugo Armando Saavedra Umba, Luis Reinaldo Barreto Pedraza, Carmen Paulina Vega Riquelme, Juan Jose Nieto Lopez, and Elba Fiallo Pantziou

Significant trends in precipitation and temperature have been observed in South America, including changes in climate variability and extreme events. Such trends are projected to continue in the future due to climate change. Of particular concern is the retreating of the Andean cryosphere which affects the seasonal distribution of streamflow thus affecting water supply for agriculture, cities and hydropower generation, in countries where poverty and socio-economic vulnerability levels are still high.

ENANDES “Enhancing Adaptive Capacity of Andean Communities through Climate Services” project seeks to strengthen the capacity of society and communities in Chile, Colombia and Peru to adapt to climate variability and change. This four years intervention (2021-2025) is funded by the Adaptation Fund and implemented by WMO in partnership with National Meteorology and Hydrology Service of Peru – SENAMHI, the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies of Colombia – IDEAM, the Meteorological Directorate of Chile – DMC and the International Centre for Research on the El Niño Phenomenon – CIIFEN.

The project aims at enhancing the provision of “climate services” at regional and national levels focusing on the full service value chain with activities ranging from service design to participatory user engagement Indeed, the timely production, translation, and delivery of climate information for decision making, will support both climate risk management and adaptation plans, addressing three priority sectors: agriculture and food security, water and energy. ENANDES is structured around four major components that build the climate service value chain with a regional approach: 1) design, production and communication of climate and water information and services, 2) institutional coordination to facilitate the targeting of information, products, and services to user needs, 3) engagement of stakeholders in the co-development and implementation of local plan for adaptation, and 4) regional and global coordination and cooperation for the provision of climate services and adaptation actions. The strategy foresees also the engagement with qualified regional and international experts and partners, such as the National Institute of Space Research of Brazil – INPE, the State Meteorology Agency of Spain- AEMET to and the Swiss Meteorological Service – MeteoSwiss. The last one will capitalize previous experiences in the region and will support the assessment and evaluation of socio-economic benefits generated by the use of climate service at local, national and regional level.

How to cite: Polato, R., Avalos Roldán, G. J., Saavedra Umba, H. A., Barreto Pedraza, L. R., Vega Riquelme, C. P., Nieto Lopez, J. J., and Fiallo Pantziou, E.: Enhancing Adaptive Capacity of Andean Communities through the Implementation of Climate Services Value Chain., EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-378,, 2021.

Mechthild Becker and Thomas Nocke

EPICC (East Africa Peru India Climate Capacities) is a large interdisciplinary project on the co-production of user-oriented climate services in India, Peru and Tanzania, executed by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). It focuses on regional climate and hydrological systems and their interactions with agricultural livelihoods, human migration and security. To bridge the gap between research and its application at various levels of political decision-making or in the private sector, climates services are identified and co-produced with local partners and stakeholders and tailored to their respective needs and priorities.

Capacity building and knowledge transfer are fundamental components of EPICC, with the aim to strengthen resilience against climate impacts. Actions include workshops, seminars and trainings in the partner countries, guest stays at PIK and, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more virtual events. The presentation builds on a rich portfolio of experiences and lessons learned throughout the first project phase (4 years), including an overview of how the team adapted to the new realities in international stakeholder exchange during the pandemic and the challenges that came along with this. The presentation also discusses cultural differences in communication and collaboration the project team has experienced.

As a practical example, the visualization of climate information for Peru, Tanzania and India on the web portal ClimateImpactsOnline / KlimafolgenOnline is presented. Visualization is considered to be a key technology for analysing and communicating climate information in a user-friendly, interactive and accessible way. As a first step, the needs of different types of users of climate information had to be identified, leading to tailor-made visualization solutions for both historic and future climate and climate impacts as well as current year weather conditions compared to historic climatology. In test sessions, the applicability of the visualized information was tested with local experts and feedback was integrated into the visualization portal. The presenters will share the challenges they had to face during the process and how they envision a sustainable use of project results.

The EPICC project is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI: The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) is leading the execution of the project together with its project partners, the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD).

How to cite: Becker, M. and Nocke, T.: Lessons learned from the co-production of climate services in India, Tanzania and Peru: climate capacity building the EPICC way, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-481,, 2021.

Jamie Heath, Kate Salmon, Joseph Daron, and Cathryn Fox

South Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to climate change due to its greater exposure to climate hazards, superimposed on the backdrop of limited institutional capacity to adapt and livelihood dependency on climate-sensitive agriculture. The Asia Regional Resilience to a Changing Climate programme (ARRCC) takes a regional approach to climate change by aiming to strengthen the provision and uptake of weather and climate services in some of the most vulnerable South Asian countries, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan.  As part of the ARRCC programme, the Climate Analysis for Risk Information and Services in South Asia (CARISSA) project has identified that countries within South Asia would particularly benefit from a platform for knowledge exchange on climate science and services. Alongside the Met Office and FCDO, stakeholders in South Asia identified the most effective methods of knowledge exchange being 1) Establishing an online community of practice on climate change science and services, 2) Incorporating climate change information into the regional , climate outlook forum (RCOF) process, and 3) Establishing a dedicated and regular regional forum on climate change in South Asia. Here, we show the process of co-developing a network of key stakeholders in South Asia who are best placed to contribute to and benefit from, promotion of climate services in the region. We share our experience of co-creating an online community of best practice on climate science and services in South Asia and how this will help to establish greater uptake of climate information in decision-making. Finally, we will discuss how to incorporate regular, in-person meetings into the RCOF process to share climate knowledge and nurture collaborations between stakeholders throughout the region.

How to cite: Heath, J., Salmon, K., Daron, J., and Fox, C.: The development of a regional climate change forum in South Asia, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-286,, 2021.

Evolving the way we collaborate
Jane Strachan

The Met Office has developed internationally recognised expertise in delivering scientific collaboration, capacity building, training, user-engagement and service development. However, during the last 18-months, as travel restrictions prevented planned in-country delivery of our climate science to services work, our ways of working were forced to evolve so that we could continue meet objectives across a number of international climate service programmes and projects. Successful remote co-delivery of climate services has been possible because of the necessary ground-work put in place through:

  • A focus on the co-production of climate science and services with a strong stakeholder-led approach;
  • Strong established international partnerships and networks;
  • Previous and current innovative international climate services projects, such as the Future Climate for Africa (FCFA) Future Resilience for Africa Cities and Lands (FRACTAL) project, the Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER) programme, and the Asia Regional Resilience to a Changing Climate (ARRCC) programme.

Delivering international climate science to services work in innovative and thoughtful ways via online platforms, is not just a seen as a temporarily replacement for in-country activity. The examples we showcase will demonstrate how we are evolving our international climate science to services delivery.

During the presentation, we will showcase examples of successful virtual co-delivery of climate services, alongside taking a considered look at the both the opportunities and challenges of virtual collaboration and communication, particularly when working with developing and emerging countries. We will conclude by opening up discussion around others experiences of remote co-delivery of climate services, exploring how a international climate services co-delivery could look in the future.

How to cite: Strachan, J.: Virtual co-delivery of international climate services -evolving the way we work with our international partners, EMS Annual Meeting 2021, online, 6–10 Sep 2021, EMS2021-443,, 2021.


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