PS5 – Techniques and Mission Concepts for Exploration of Planetary Systems
Space Instrumentation, Planetary landers and Rovers
This session will cover instrumentation and measurement techniques for all aspects of space borne scientific sensors. The intention is to encourage a discussion between instrument scientists/engineers across the fields on the one hand and between these people and the data exploiting scientists on the other hand. We welcome contributions discussing new ideas and enabling technologies as well as reviews and presentations of instruments already in space or near launch. In addition, generic talks discussing design principles, miniaturisation, shared use of subsystems, component selection, instrument calibration etc. are most appreciated
New mission concepts, enabling technologies and terrestrial analogue studies for planetary exploration
This session is seeking papers that address new mission concepts, enabling technologies, and terrestrial analogue studies for future planetary science and exploration. In particular, papers describing mission studies proposed for ESA and international space agency programs are encouraged.
Hyperspectral data measurements and analysis to support planetary exploration
The analysis of spectral remote sensing observations from orbiting spacecraft and rovers in the last decades has improved our knowledge about the different bodies in our Solar System. Visible to near infrared as well as thermal infrared spectroscopy enable the mapping of surface compositions of the different planetary surfaces, through the detection of rock-forming minerals as well as secondary mineralogies. Moreover, future explorations will likely involve other spectroscopic techniques (e.g., Raman) and will achieve new scientific goals including high spatial resolution hyperspectral mapping of planetary bodies (e.g. Mercury, asteroids, Phobos, and outer icy moons) and the search for biosignatures (e.g. Mars, Europa, and Enceladus).
Each Solar System object has its specifics, including surface temperature ranges, atmospheric pressure and composition and exposition level to solar and galactic energetic particles. For these reasons, past and future explorations, both from orbit and in-situ, need the support of laboratory activities involving different types of spectroscopic techniques, sample characterization and the integration of those different data sets.
Papers on experimental works and modeling of laboratory data, as well as the integration of data from different experimental techniques applied to planetary missions are solicited to provide the scientific community the opportunity to exchange their expertise and knowledge.
Ground Penetrating Radar: Technology, Methodology, Applications and Case Studies
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a safe, advanced, non-destructive and non-invasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for inspecting the subsurface as well as natural and man-made structures. During GPR surveys, a source is used to send high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground or structure under test; at the boundaries where the electromagnetic properties of media change, the electromagnetic waves may undergo transmission, reflection, refraction and diffraction; the radar sensors measure the amplitudes and travel times of signals returning to the surface.
This session aims at bringing together scientists, engineers, industrial delegates and end-users working in all GPR areas, ranging from fundamental electromagnetics to the numerous fields of applications. With this session, we wish to provide a supportive framework for (1) the delivery of critical updates on the ongoing research activities, (2) fruitful discussions and development of new ideas, (3) community-building through the identification of skill sets and collaboration opportunities, (4) vital exposure of early-career scientists to the GPR research community.
We have identified a series of topics of interest for this session, listed below.
1. Ground Penetrating Radar instrumentation
- Innovative GPR equipment
- Design, realization and optimization of GPR antennas
- Equipment testing and calibration procedures
2. Ground Penetrating Radar methodology
- Survey planning and data acquisition strategies
- Methods and tools for data analysis and interpretation
- Data processing algorithms, electromagnetic modelling, imaging and inversion techniques
- Studying the relationship between GPR sensed quantities and physical properties of inspected subsurface/structures useful for application needs
- Advanced data visualization methods to clearly and efficiently communicate the significance of GPR data
3. Ground Penetrating Radar applications and case studies
- Earth sciences
- Civil engineering
- Environmental engineering
- Archaeology and cultural heritage
- Management of water resources
- Humanitarian mine clearance
- Vital signs detection of trapped people in natural and man-made disasters
- Planetary exploration
4. Contributions on the combined use of Ground Penetrating Radar and other geoscience instrumentation, in all applications fields
5. Communication and education initiatives and methods
This session is organized by Members of TU1208 GPR Association (www.gpradar.eu/tu1208); the association is a follow-up initiative of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 “Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar”.
Planetary analogue research supporting and preparing space exploration missions
Analogue planetary research (APR) describes the development and testing of space exploration strategies including scientific, technical, operational, social and medical aspects in terrestrial environments under simulated space or planetary conditions [Hettrich S. et al. (2015), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15982-9_34]. As such, APR can be performed in analogue planetary simulation, for example Lunar or Martian analogue missions, where future crewed or robotic space exploration missions are simulated and evaluated towards their performance.
With increasing popularity of analogue planetary simulations as test-beds to develop and test technologies, techniques and operational procedures for planetary missions in facilities such as HiSeas, MDRS, LunAres, etc., or campaigns like Pangea, CAVES, or Amadee, this session invites contributions in the field of analogue planetary research including, but not limited to:
- results and lessons-learned from Lunar / Martian analogue missions
- field tests for space exploration hardware, software and techniques
- scientific contributions through analogue research
- geological field work during planetary simulations
- future analogue mission concepts
- transferring APR results into actual space exploration missions
Frontiers in Geomorphometry and Earth Surface Dynamics: Possibilities, Limitations and Perspectives
This session aims to bridge the existing gap between the process-focused fields (hydrology, geomorphology, soil sciences, natural hazards, planetary science, geo-biology, archaeology) and the technical domain (engineering, computer vision, machine learning, and statistics) where terrain analysis approaches are developed.
The rapid growth of survey technologies and computing advances and the increase of data acquisition from various sources (platforms and sensors) has led to a vast data swamp with unprecedented spatio-temporal range, density, and resolution (from submeter to global scale data), which requires efficient data processing to extract suitable information. The challenge is now the interpretation of surface morphology for a better understanding of processes at a variety of scales, from micro, to local, to global.
We aim to foster inter-disciplinarity with a focus on new techniques in digital terrain analysis and production from any discipline which touches on geomorphometry, including but not exclusive to geomorphology (e.g., tectonic/volcanic/climatic/glacial), planetary science, archaeology, geo-biology, natural hazards, computer vision, remote sensing, image processing.
We invite submissions related to the successful application of geomorphometric methods, innovative geomorphometric variables as well as their physical, mathematical and geographical meanings. Submissions related to new techniques in high-resolution terrain or global scale data production and analysis, independent of the subject, as well as studies focused on the associated error and uncertainty analyses, are also welcome. We actively encourage contributors to present work “in development”, as well as established techniques being used in a novel way. We strongly encourage young scientists to contribute and help drive innovation in our community, presenting their work to this session.
We want to foster collaboration and the sharing of ideas across subject-boundaries, between technique developers and users, enabling us as a community to fully exploit the wealth of knowledge inherent in our digital landscape. Just remember, the driver for new ideas and applications often comes from another speciality, discipline or subject: Your solution may already be out there waiting for you!
This session invites contributions on the latest developments and results in lidar remote sensing of the atmosphere, covering
• new lidar techniques as well as applications of lidar data for model verification and assimilation,
• ground-based, airborne, and space-borne lidar systems,
• unique research systems as well as networks of instruments,
• lidar observations of aerosols and clouds, thermodynamic parameters and wind, and trace-gases.
Atmospheric lidar technologies have shown significant progress in recent years. While, some years ago, there were only a few research systems, mostly quite complex and difficult to operate on a longer-term basis because a team of experts was continuously required for their operation, advancements in laser transmitter and receiver technologies have resulted in much more rugged systems nowadays, many of which are already operated routinely in networks and some even being automated and commercially available. Consequently, also more and more data sets with very high resolution in range and time are becoming available for atmospheric science, which makes it attractive to consider lidar data not only for case studies but also for extended model comparison statistics and data assimilation. Here, ceilometers provide not only information on the cloud bottom height but also profiles of aerosol and cloud backscatter signals. Scanning Doppler lidars extend the data to horizontal and vertical wind profiles. Raman lidars and high-spectral resolution lidars provide more details than ceilometers and measure particle extinction and backscatter coefficients at multiple wavelengths. Other Raman lidars measure water vapor mixing ratio and temperature profiles. Differential absorption lidars give profiles of absolute humidity or other trace gases (like ozone, NOx, SO2, CO2, methane etc.). Depolarization lidars provide information on the shapes of aerosol and cloud particles. In addition to instruments on the ground, lidars are operated from airborne platforms in different altitudes. Even the first space-borne missions are now in orbit while more are currently in preparation. All these aspects of lidar remote sensing in the atmosphere will be part of this session.