In recent years an increasing number of research projects focused on natural hazards (NH) and climate change impacts, providing a variety of information to end user or to scientists working on related topics.

The session aims at promoting new and innovative studies, experiences and models to improve risk management and communication about natural hazards to different end users.

End users such as decision and policy makers or the general public, need information to be easy and quickly interpretable, properly contextualized, and therefore specifically tailored to their needs. On the other hand, scientists coming from different disciplines related to natural hazards and climate change (e.g., economists, sociologists), need more complete dataset to be integrated in their analysis. By facilitating data access and evaluation, as well as promoting open access to create a level playing field for non-funded scientists, data can be more readily used for scientific discovery and societal benefits. However, the new scientific advancements are not only represented by big/comprehensive dataset, geo-information and earth-observation architectures and services or new IT communication technologies (location-based tools, games, virtual and augmented reality technologies, and so on), but also by methods in order to communicate risk uncertainty as well as associated spatio-temporal dynamic and involve stakeholders in risk management processes.

However, data and approaches are often fragmented across literature and among geospatial/natural hazard communities, with an evident lack of coherence. Furthermore, there is not a unique approach of communicating information to the different audiences. Rather, several interdisciplinary techniques and efforts can be applied in order to simplify access, evaluation, and exploration to data.

This session encourages critical reflection on natural risk mitigation and communication practices and provides an opportunity for geoscience communicators to share best methods and tools in this field. Contributions – especially from Early Career Scientists – are solicited that address these issues, and which have a clear objective and research methodology. Case studies, and other experiences are also welcome as long as they are rigorously presented and evaluated.

In cooperation with NhET (Natural hazard Early career scientists Team

Co-organized by GM2
Convener: Raffaele AlbanoECSECS | Co-conveners: Valeria CigalaECSECS, Emanuela Toto, Veronica Casartelli, Jonathan RizziECSECS
| Attendance Fri, 08 May, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)

Files for download

Session materials Download all presentations (51MB)

Chat time: Friday, 8 May 2020, 10:45–12:30

Chairperson: Raffaele Albano, Valeria Cigala, Jonathan Rizzi
D1772 |
Alberto Michelini, Gavin Iley, Öcal Necmioğlu, Gerhard Wotawa, Delia Arnold-Arias, and Giovanna Forlenza and the ARISTOTLE-ENHSP Team

Disaster risk managers need to react rapidly in case of catastrophic events, often trans-boundary, that can result in many casualties and threatening the lives of many others. This all has become of paramount importance given the growing exposure and vulnerability of people and societies.

In Europe, the revisited Union Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM) is aimed at strengthening the international cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Member States (MS) in the field of civil protection through the entire disaster risk management cycle. Under this framework, EU require scientific and evidence based-information to be able to take preparedness and response decisions in support to the MS. For such a purpose, the Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) has been established as the operational coordination hub for the EU's emergency management and operates in the Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (DG ECHO).

The ARISTOTLE-ENHSP Consortium was awarded in 2016 the European Commission’s DG ECHO two-year “Pilot project in the area of Early Warning System for natural disasters” and, in 2018, the ongoing “European Natural Hazard Scientific Partnership” (ENHSP) contracts.  ARISTOTLE-ENHSP provides to ERCC a 24*7 operational service at pan-european and global level with the main aims of i.) filling the gap in knowledge that exists in the first 3 hours immediately after an event that has the potential to require a country to call on international help, ii.) providing longer term advice following an emergency and iii.) providing  advice when a potential so-called ‘forecastable’ hazardous event is starting to form (e.g., severe weather and flooding events and when possible to volcanic events). This operational service is supported by and based upon the scientific and innovation underlying activities of the developmental aspect of ARISTOTLE-ENHSP. 

ARISTOTLE-ENHSP (http://aristotle.ingv.it) is a multi-hazard partnership comprising 15 partner institutions  (12 from EU Countries; 1 from non-EU countries and  2 European organizations) that combine operational and scientific expertise of a total of 6 inter-related hazard groups (Severe Weather, Floods, Volcanos, Earthquakes and earthquake-generated Tsunamis worldwide).

 Exploiting the scalable approach of the ENHSP, in 2018 Forest Fires hazard has been added for the Pan-European domain. Each of these Hazard Groups brings together experts from the particular hazard domain to deliver a ‘collective multi-hazard analysis’ to the ERCC. During the “pilot project” (1-year), ARISTOTLE was activated 43 times with an almost even subdivision of events amongst meteo and geo hazards. A similar number of activations has occurred in the 1st year of the ongoing ARISTOTLE-ENHSP project. The presentation will illustrate the unique governance structure - modular and scalable in terms of hazards and partners -, the different modes of operation envisaged and the status and the solutions found by the project consortium to respond to the ERCC requirements.

How to cite: Michelini, A., Iley, G., Necmioğlu, Ö., Wotawa, G., Arnold-Arias, D., and Forlenza, G. and the ARISTOTLE-ENHSP Team: ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards The hoListic Early- warning)- European Natural Hazard Scientific Partnership, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20016, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20016, 2020

D1773 |
Sohee Lee

Recently, drones have been widely used in public areas such as disaster relief and rescue, information collection and monitoring of disaster affected areas. In particular, drones are highly useful as a means to quickly identify the extent of disaster damages in the broader range. However specialized skills for drone’s operation are required that means it takes effort and time to train human resources, and also need a budget to preparing equipment. Moreover it is difficult to monitor the disaster situation with government office’s own personnel and equipment if the event were happened in a wide-scale disaster. In this regard, we believe that the cooperation system with activating private drone experts in local area is meaningful way, because they already have expertise and well trained – top level of drone’s operation skills – to monitor the disaster situation in case of necessity. According to consciousness survey for civilian drone experts about the public-private cooperation, they are ready for action with a sense of duty to protect their family and neighbor’s property and human life, and also well known the geographical feature and vulnerable area. Not only do those things help to disaster management, but those make an encouraging their active participation. In this perspective, the research aims at providing a new public-private cooperation model in order to support disaster response based on the expertise and initiative of private sector. We established the operation process with public-private cooperation, in this bottom line drone emergency operation team is effectively organized and activated to support disaster response for 19th Typhoon of Soulik in August 2018. In this presentation, we would like to share our experience and efforts about activating a model of public-private cooperation.

How to cite: Lee, S.: Establishing a Disaster Response Support System based on Activities of Public-private Partnerships: , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13320, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13320, 2020

D1774 |
Federica Zambrini, Christian Ambrosi, Daniele F. Bignami, Ilaria Boschini, Dorota Czerski, Alessandro De Pedrini, Giovanni Menduni, Maurizio Pozzoni, and Tommaso L. Sansone

Each country has its own way to manage the civil protection issue and to define hazard and risk. However, in case of transboundary events, it is crucial that people in charge of the emergency management can quickly understand the other nation instruments, for an effective comprehension, communication and optimal collaboration.

The GESTISCO project (Gestione delle emergenze Senza Confini – emergencies’ management without borders), funded in the framework of the “INTERREG Italia – Svizzera” initiative, aims to promote the capability of Lombardy Region (Italy) and the Ticino Canton (Switzerland) to manage risk scenarios involving both countries together. With this work, we present results of one of the project activities: to compare methods to define natural hazard and risk, understand and underline the differences in the mapping method and visualization, and find ways to help the operators and technicians of both countries in reading and interpreting the representations concerning flood and mass movements hazard.

The activity began with a wide phase of comparison, undertaken from a legislative point of view, to understand the origin and purpose of the maps in both countries’ regulations. From a technical perspective, it was important to be aware of the differences in methods and to understand the reasons behind the inconsistencies. Finally, the data visualization on the maps was also compared, in order to understand the possible reading difficulties for people involved in the risk management and to identify strategies to overcome them.

The next step of the project is the translation of the results of the performed analysis into some practical digital instruments that can easily allow to manage transboundary events, helping the operators in reading and understanding the scenario occurring across the border.

How to cite: Zambrini, F., Ambrosi, C., Bignami, D. F., Boschini, I., Czerski, D., De Pedrini, A., Menduni, G., Pozzoni, M., and Sansone, T. L.: Comparing natural hazard and risk representations in a transboundary area to enhance civil protection international cooperation, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22429, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22429, 2020

D1775 |
Luca Piciullo and Unni Eidsvig

The number of natural disasters and the economic damage have dramatically increased in the last three decades. The reason can be ascribed to the increase in number and intensity of events due to climate change and continuous urbanization in areas often exposed to natural hazards. Roads and railways are important infrastructures ensuring social and commercial exchanges within and among nations. In our changing environment, infrastructures are more often exposed to different types of natural hazard, such as: floods, landslides, heatwaves, earthquakes and wildfires. The impacts generated may encompass accidents, damages to infrastructure assets, delays and malfunctioning of the transportation network, resulting in economic and social consequences. Climate changes can lead to an escalation of such negative impacts of natural hazards if no counter-measures are taken.

The first step in risk reduction of natural and weather-related adverse events is to identify the infrastructures exposed and the different natural hazards threatening them. A review of the available natural hazards databases at European scale has been carried out. An increased number of universities, governmental and research institutions have focused their attention, in the last decade, on natural hazards analysis and mapping. Numerous EU projects have also been founded on this topic and, several databases dealing with different natural hazards have been produced, so far. A review analysis of all open source databases available through internet has been carried out at a European level. The review gathered maps that allow the visualization of weather parameters and natural hazards in a GIS environment. The main natural hazards investigated were: floods, landslides, earthquakes, wildfires and heatwaves. Moreover, a specific focus has been payed to the following demonstration sites in the SAFEWAY project: Andalucia and Murcia regions in Spain; and Santarem, Leiria, Coimbra regions in Portugal. For each of them, the most critical hazards have been considered: floods and wildfires in Portugal; and floods, wildfires and heatwaves in Spain. For these location and hazard types, the availability of national and regional databases was investigated. If those databases were not available, the one at European scale was considered for the analyses. The most exposed parts of the transportation system were mapped by overlapping hazard maps with the railway and road tracks in a GIS environment. The information on the different infrastructures (railways and primary, secondary and tertiary roads) are provided by Open Street Map for each nation. The overlapping highlights the infrastructures "hot-spots" for different natural hazards.

The research leading to these and future results receives funding from the European Community’s H2020 Programme MG-7-1-2017 Resilience to extreme (natural and man-made) events, under Grant Agreement number: 769255 - "GIS-based infrastructure management system for optimized response to extreme events of terrestrial transport networks (SAFEWAY, https://www.safeway-project.eu/en)".

How to cite: Piciullo, L. and Eidsvig, U.: Identification of infrastructures prone to natural hazards with open source databases, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13253, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13253, 2020

D1776 |
Francesca Poratelli, Cristopher D'Amboise, Michael Neuhauser, Cristian Accastello, and Filippo Brun

The last decades have seen a higher attention payed to natural hazards due to the increasing losses and economic damages caused by them. Researchers, practitioners and local administrations studied the best way to mitigate and prevent them, using both structural and non-structural  defense techniques. Even though there are now several possible solutions to be used, it is not always easy for decision makers to choose the best option from both a technical and an economical point of view.

With the FAT tool we aimed at providing a useful mean for practitioners to help them choose between various protection options. The FAT tool is an online platform where the user, inserting a limited number of input data (e.g. slope profile, slope width, forest cover), is provided with an easily understandable output, that being a comparison of the costs and the benefits generated by different protection solutions.

The tool is built on an empirical, profile-based hazard model and deals with avalanches, rockfall and shallow landslides. The outputs of the hazard models are used to dimension and calculate the costs and benefits of several protection options and the damages avoided by those. The possible solutions considered are: ecosystem based solutions (e.g. protection forest), technical measures (e.g. snow fences, catching dams, rockfall nets), avoidance measures (e.g. road closure, building evacuation) and a combination of these. The most innovative part of the tool is the importance given to the role of the forest, and generally to the Eco-DRR solutions, on the hazard track, where a forest protection effect indicator is calculated to assess the effectiveness of a stand in mitigating the risk on the chosen profile. The outputs of the FAT tool, consisting in the index and the economic values of different alternative protection measures, can help the user identify the areas where the forests have the highest mitigation effect and choose where to allocate forest management resources.

How to cite: Poratelli, F., D'Amboise, C., Neuhauser, M., Accastello, C., and Brun, F.: FAT tool: A decision support tool for disaster risk reduction in the Alpine Space, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7784, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7784, 2020

D1777 |
Bjørn Kalsnes, Anders Solheim, Kjetil Sverdrup-Thygeson, Carl B. Harbitz, Unni Eidsvig, Farrokh Nadim, Mats Ruge Holte, Fredrik Dingsør-Dehlin, Kai Fjelstad, Hans Olav Hygen, and Amund Søvde Haslerud

On contract from a newly established road company in Norway, Nye Veier AS, a consortium of natural scientists and social scientists have carried out an early planning stage risk analysis from natural hazards for a series of new roads in Norway. An aim of the study was to establish methods and tools that the client could use relatively easily in their own premises and that could serve as a useful tool in design of the roads, including final selection of the route.

Firstly, a GIS-based tool was developed to perform a first screening of corridors around the proposed road. Hazards analysed included snow avalanches, rock falls, debris flows- and slides, landslides in sensitive ('quick') clays, floods, storm surges, strong winds and snow drift. In this phase we mainly used susceptibility maps and other data available on the internet. However, some of these are very conservative, and various methods of optimization have been performed in the analyses. After ground truthing of selected results of the GIS analyses, by field work, and by comparing with hazard maps based on previous field work, the GIS tool was installed in the client's premises and is currently being used by them.

Secondly, field work was carried out based on the results from the GIS screening. Identified higher-hazard segments were inspected, and key parameters, such as probability, length of closure in case of an event, type and cost of mitigation measure, and suggestions for potential re-routing were recorded in the field. Some of the hazard segments identified by the GIS analyses could also be called off from the field work. Results from the field work were standardized to the degree possible, e.g. in cost classes for mitigation measures, duration classes for closure time, etc.

Consequence and risk analyses were carried out based on the results of the combined GIS screening and field work. The consequences were estimated in two classes; a) Indirect Economic Consequence of a closed road, based on traffic density and type, the probable duration of closure, and the re-routing possibilities, and b) the consequences regarding emergency actions, i.e. the location of critical infrastructure (hospitals, fire stations, etc.) and the possibility for emergency vehicles to pass.

Climate change was considered mostly for the hazards that are directly connected to precipitation. For these a 'climate factor' was added based on the regional scenarios for 2100.

To ensure optimal communication of results to the client, the main delivery is a digital, GIS-based product. Hazard, consequence, and risk are marked in colours along the planned roads. By clicking on individual hazard segments, a comprehensive fact sheet appears with all available information, comments and numbers collected through the whole process. This includes also field comments, and a risk diagram, where also the estimated risk at year 2100 is indicated.

The work has been done in close interaction with the client, to ensure the most readily usable tool for them in present and future road projects.

How to cite: Kalsnes, B., Solheim, A., Sverdrup-Thygeson, K., Harbitz, C. B., Eidsvig, U., Nadim, F., Holte, M. R., Dingsør-Dehlin, F., Fjelstad, K., Hygen, H. O., and Haslerud, A. S.: Analyses of risk from natural hazards for early planning of new highways in Norway , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8917, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8917, 2020

D1778 |
Per Danielsson, Dominika Nordh, and Anette Björlin


The County Administrative Boards in Skåne and Halland, together with the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), and Swedish Geological Survey (SGU), have taken the initiative to start a Regional Coastal Cooperation. Both counties’ municipalities and individuals are currently facing problems managing rising sea levels, erosion and flooding.

Regional cooperation is important for Skåne and Halland as they are the two counties in southern Sweden that are most likely to be exposed to the combined effects of rising sea levels, flooding and erosion. Strategic and coordinated efforts at local level are needed to deal with these challenges in coastal areas, where guidance and support are also provided from regional and national levels. Today's governance system where the responsibility for dealing with these challenges falls on municipalities and individual home owners, presents difficulties in solving complex issues. Various actors feel that they are affected in a way that is not fair. Implementing appropriate measures requires extensive coordination, collaboration, a clear division of responsibilities and financial resources. Regional Coastal Cooperation aims, among other things, to inform national decision-makers in close dialogue with the coastal municipalities in Skåne and Halland that there is a need to strengthen the state's responsibility for these issues.

Regional Coastal Cooperation also to highlights the need to develop knowledge and planning in order to deal with the difficult issues associated with rising sea level which may affect the development, infrastructure and other values ​​on the coast. Today, there is no comprehensive information on how coastal processes affect different coastal sections in Skåne and Halland. Knowledge about different types of measures and how well they work also needs to be increased. Increased knowledge and consensus are necessary to achieve measures that involve sustainable development in accordance with Agenda 2030 and the global goals.

The overall goal of Regional Coastal Cooperation is to find concrete solutions to address the challenges posed by rising sea levels, erosion and flooding in coastal areas in Skåne and Halland in ways that are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable.

In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and potentials of how five identified project groups within Regional Coastal Cooperation project work to implement solutions in coastal areas. Thus, we present how coastal municipalities and the property owners concerned gain knowledge of coastal processes, potential risks and possible measures. We evaluate how coastal municipalities develop and implement strategies for planning and managing the coast that ensure long-term sustainable solutions; manage erosion and flood on the basis of good knowledge, long-term visibility, flexibility, transparency and a holistic perspective. And we highlight how Regional Coastal Cooperation works to ensure that there is a sustainable and fair distribution of responsibilities and financing model for the undertaken measures. Finally, we assess the need for continued and strengthened cooperation in these coastal regions.

How to cite: Danielsson, P., Nordh, D., and Björlin, A.: Regional Coastal Cooperation in southern Sweden as a method for coastal management and communication. , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21604, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21604, 2020

D1779 |
Corina Todea and Olimpiu Pop

In high mountainous areas worldwide, snow avalanches represent one of the main morphodynamic processes which influence the morphology of steep slopes. They usually disturb the forests, and represent a significant natural hazard that may endanger the safety of tourists exposed along the hiking trails crossing the avalanche-prone slopes. In the context of the growing tourism activities in the area where tourist become exposed to snow avalanche hazard, there is need for detailed analysis for documenting the past activity of this geomorphic process, especially in remote areas where historical data is lacking. Such mountainous area without snow avalanche monitoring and archival records is in Parâng Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania). On forested slopes, trees disturbed by snow-avalanches may record in their growth rings information about the past event occurrence. The main aim of this study is to improve the knowledge about the past snow avalanche history using tree-rings approach. To this end, 57 disturbed spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees growing along an avalanche path located on the western slopes of the Parâng Mountains were sampled and their growth disturbances (scars, traumatic resin ducts, compression wood and growth suppression sequences) served to reconstruct the snow-avalanche history back to 1950. Tree-ring analyses allowed reconstructing a minimum of 14 snow avalanche events which occurred in the past along the investigated path. The tree-ring approach presented in this study proved to be a valuable tool in reconstructing snow avalanche history and compliting the snow avalanche database in Parâng Mountains. The number and spatial extent of documented snow avalanches evidence the potential snow avalanche hazards in the study area. The tree-ring data from the present study, together with those presented by the previous studies in the study area may further contribute to the snow avalanche hazard assessment. 

How to cite: Todea, C. and Pop, O.: Tree-ring dating of snow avalanche history in Parâng Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-587, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-587, 2019

D1780 |
Tolga Gorum and Seckin Fidan

Landslides are one of the destructive geomorphological hazards that cause substantial socio-economic and environmental damages on a global scale. Knowing the precise number of deaths caused by landslides and their spatial and temporal distributions will facilitate a better understanding of the losses and damages, and further to prevent and minimize the damages caused by this type of disasters. Thus, reliable historical inventories, including past landslide events, are crucial in understanding the future landslide hazards and risks.

Turkey, similar to mountainous countries suffering from landslides, is also high-elevated (average altitude of >1100 m) and tectonically active country located where the Europe and Asia continents meet. In the years between 1995-2014, 335 of the total 1375 fatalities caused by landslides in European countries have occurred in Turkey. This reported number not only shows that Turkey is the first country in Europe in terms of deaths caused by landslides but also implies that the landslide related problems are overwhelming than expected in Turkey. Although many studies have been carried out on individual landslides and landslide inventories in Turkey, we have limited information about the landslides that cause death. However, there are many landslide events that resulted in the deaths of tens of people every year in Turkey. Therefore, neglecting fatal landslides and their consequences resulted in an unrealistic comprehension of landslide risk. In this respect, we contribute to filling this data gap by presenting the first country-scale archive inventory of fatal landslides, their spatio-temporal distribution, and the triggering mechanism characteristics for Turkey, which is Europe's topmost deadly country.

The fatal landslide events in Turkey for the period from 1929 to 2019 were compiled from various sources comprising national and local printed and digital media reports with pre-determined keywords in Turkish, academic papers, disaster, and city annual reports, and government and aid agency reports. According to the new database, 1343 people lost their lives as a result of 389 landslide events in Turkey between 1929 and 2018. In total 197 fatal landslide events, which resulted in 301 deaths, were identified due to anthropogenic triggers (i.e., construction, infrastructure, and mining activities). On the other hand, 147 landslides occurred, and 883 people lost their lives due to natural triggering factors. The natural trigger origin of the fatal landslides is concentrated in the Eastern Black Sea and is generally shallow landslides corresponding to regolithic zones where chemical weathering is severe. On the contrary, the trigger factor of 45 landslide events cannot be assigned to the FATALDOT database due to a lack of detailed information in incidence reports. The database, which is planned to be transformed into an information system with a semi-automatic update feature, is thought to be an underlying data source for future research works to prevent hazard and risk studies and landslide-related deaths in the country scale.

How to cite: Gorum, T. and Fidan, S.: Fatal Landslide Database of Turkey (FATALDOT), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-870, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-870, 2019

D1781 |
Giovanni Di Trapani, Renato Somma, Antonio Coviello, Giuseppe De Natale, Claudia Troise, and Alfredo Trocciola

Recent calamities in Italy caused by natural disasters encouraged scientists and politicians to assess the need to find instruments for limiting risks. Risk Management suggests methods of adopting various options. A successful approach, thanks to the inexorable growth of digital technology, involves the use of the information infers from the decoding of Big Data. The radical technological advances generated by digital technologies require the application of appropriate statistical tools. The adoption of more flexible and interactive tools and strategies to analyses the natural phenomena (e.g. floods and landslides) as well as possible disasters like eruptions and earthquakes could ensure an optimal response to risk transfer and management.

How to cite: Di Trapani, G., Somma, R., Coviello, A., De Natale, G., Troise, C., and Trocciola, A.: Risk management and risk assignment: from digital distruption to statistical tools for natural events’ Risk, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2633, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2633, 2020

D1782 |
Susana Pereira, Pedro P. Santos, José L. Zêzere, Alexandre O. Tavares, Ricardo A.C. Garcia, and Sérgio C. Oliveira

Nowadays it is essential to develop new methodologies to quantify landslide risk, which contribute to the landslide risk management at the municipal level. In this work, a Landslide Risk Index (LRI) is computed for the 278 Portuguese municipalities, which are ranked and characterized according the landslide risk drivers. Landslide risk index was assessed as the product of hazard, exposure and physical vulnerability of buildings scores.

The landslide hazard includes the landslide susceptibility evaluated at the national scale using the Information Value method and further validated with prediction-rate curves (Zêzere et al., 2018). Additionally, a weather and climate events index (WCE) was computed using a multicriteria analysis that included the annual frequency of circulation weather types associated to damaging landslides and an extreme precipitation susceptibility index (Santos et al., 2020). Exposure  was evaluated for each municipality using the population density (inhabitants/km2) and the road density (km/km2). The physical vulnerability of the buildings was computed using four statistical variables obtained from the official Census: (i) construction technique and construction materials, (ii) reinforced structure, (iii) number of floors and (iv) conservation status. Variable classes were empirically weighted.

Exposure is the main driving force of LRI in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto, whereas the hazard is more relevant in the NW municipalities and the physical vulnerability is the major driving force in the south of the country.

For each municipality a landslide risk profile was built, based on the combination of the three driving forces, which can be compared and ranked. Therefore, the landslide risk management strategies at the municipal level must be adjusted to the corresponding dominant drivers in order to reduce landslide impacts.

Municipalities with high values of hazard are sensitive to changes on the other risk components, which should draw additional efforts concerning land use management and emergency planning. On the exposure, planning instruments should consider the negative effects on LRI from measures that promote the expansion of people and economic activities towards hazardous zones. On the physical vulnerability, public policies should be aware of the increasing physical vulnerability of buildings in time due to age and lack of maintenance and to public works involving embankments and earthworks.

This work contributes to context-oriented strategies of landslide risk management that still lacks in most of the national and regional levels of risk governance processes.



This work was financed by national funds through FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the framework of the project BeSafeSlide—Landslide Early Warning soft technology prototype to improve community resilience and adaptation to environmental change (PTDC/GES-AMB/30052/2017) and by the Research Unit UIDB/00295/2020. Pedro Pinto Santos is funded by FCT (project reference CEEIND/00268/2017).



Santos, P.P.; Pereira, S.; Zêzere, J.L.; Tavares, A.O.; Reis, E.; Garcia, R.A.C.; Oliveira, S.C. (2020) A comprehensive approach to understanding flood risk drivers at the municipal level. Journal of Environmental Management (in press).

Zêzere, J.L., Oliveira, S.C., Pereira, S., Garcia, R.A.C., Melo, R., Vaz, T., Tavares, A.O., Bateira, C., Santos, P.P., Meneses, B., Quaresma, I. (2018) Construction of a National Landslide Susceptibility Map for Portugal. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 20, EGU2018-4541.

How to cite: Pereira, S., Santos, P. P., Zêzere, J. L., Tavares, A. O., Garcia, R. A. C., and Oliveira, S. C.: Evaluation of landslide risk drivers to define risk management strategies at the municipal level, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19801, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19801, 2020

D1783 |
Jouni Pihlaja

Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) provides data on assessing risks related to soil geochemical baselines and acid sulfate soils. The results are published as map services and they can be used for example to aid land use planning, environmental impact assessments, evaluation of soil contamination and soil remediation actions. Acid sulfate soil data can also be utilized in water protection planning.

Geochemical baseline samples are gathered from the most common minerogenic soil parent materials in urban areas, industrial environments and in the surroundings of mine sites. In the map service data 17 elements are presented in total and it is possible to calculate the regional soil baseline values from a desired area.

The acid sulfate soil map service contains survey data on the properties of acid sulfate soils in the coastal regions of Finland. It is possible to study the general maps of the probable presence of acid sulfate soils and survey-point specific information based on drilling and analysis results.

Both map services mentioned above are free to view at the GTK web pages.

How to cite: Pihlaja, J.: Geological map services as a tool for natural risk management in Finland: Geochemical baselines and acid sulfate soils, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6632, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6632, 2020

D1784 |
Yi Shiuan Chen

     "Climate Justice" explains "climate change as the source of a double inequality with an inverse distribution of risk and responsibility around the regions.” It is also represents a “disproportionate disaster risk burden” between regions, and focus on the limit of the living conditions in climate change. Recently, the issue of "climate justice" has been highly valued internationally. Before the start of the “United Nations Climate Change Conference”(COP24) in 2018, there were 130 countries and 403 nonprofit organization signed a statement and required that all governments needed to pay attention to climate justice and should include in “Paris Agreetment”.
     In recent years, there has been a correlation between climate justice research and “disaster resilience”, but it can be found that the research of climate justice is not much different from the general disaster resilience research, and the analysis of the research is less included in the inequality of climate justice. In addition, the meanings and theories of "climate justice" have not been systematically generalized in the past literature.
Therefore, in addition to thoroughly understanding the theory and contents of "climate justice" this research will identify areas with "climate injustice" characteristics through quantitative research methods (Spatial Autocorrelation e.g.). Besides, climate change is a " long-term impact ", it is not easy to calculate from a single timing, so this research will join the time factors to analyze the "time lag effect."  
     This research will choose Taiwan as the research area and focus on flooding data because of the unfairness between water management budget and the flooding condition of the extreme rainfall. Then the above research results will be incorporated into the “Climate Justice ” theory as a basis for diagnosing regional disaster resilience and give advice on policy and planning in response to climate justice.

How to cite: Chen, Y. S.: Examining Climate Justice with Regional Disaster Resilience, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6616, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6616, 2020

D1785 |
Iliana Guadalupe Hernández López, Enrique González Sosa, María de la Luz Pérez Rea, and Dora Celia Carreón Freyre

In recent years, there have appeared sinkholes of various dimensions in urban areas in different parts of the world. This phenomenon represents a serious social, economic and environmental danger, since it causes alarm among the population, and considerable damage in the infrastructure. The sinkholes are generated mainly by two causes: karstic geology (common in calcic sedimentary rocks) or by the presence of excess water generated by cracks in the pipe water and sewage systems.

The excess of water is the most frequent case in highly urban centres, where the lack of maintenance or the age of the drainage systems, generate internal erosion and dissolution of the finest particles, producing the abrupt vertical collapse of the soil, which develops an hole in the ground. From experimental studies, the mechanism of soils that generate internal erosion; soil stratification, soil types and their hydrodynamic properties, is well known.

In Mexico, sinkholes are a very common problem in the center of the country, mainly in states like Aguascalientes, Mexico City, San Luis Potosi, State of Mexico and Queretaro. In particular, in the city of Queretaro, there have been sinkholes, which have affected the traffic and movility of this city.

Documentary analysis and mapping indicate that this type of sinkholes show a tendency to be generated in the periphery of the capital of Queretaro, because these are areas of potential urban growth, as well as exceeding the service capacity of the sewage and potable water systems, regardless of the construction process of this type of work. The results show that in 2018, at least seven significant sinkholes were generated in the urban area, while in 2019, more than 15 sinkholes, most of which have been ruled to be caused by a rupture in potable water and sewage pipes, were reported.  In this first evaluation we can observe a double increase in the appeareance of sinkholes, therefore, it is necessary to carry out constant field and experimental studies, to understand the mechanism of these phenomena that occur in highly urbanized areas.

How to cite: Hernández López, I. G., González Sosa, E., Pérez Rea, M. D. L. L., and Carreón Freyre, D. C.: Mapping of sinkholes in highly urbanized areas: Queretaro, Mexico., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11832, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11832, 2020

D1786 |
Ying Li

Under the background of global changes, the frequency and intensity of various meteorological disasters are increasing, which poses a great challenge to the risk management worldwide. The Sendai Framework was put forward by the third world conference on disaster reduction, providing a roadmap for the international community to respond to disaster risks. In recent years, China has stepped up its implementation of disaster risk reduction actions, but there has been no systematic platform to supply professional services of meteorological disaster risk reduction for decision makers. In order to effectively reduce the risk of meteorological disasters and meet the urgent need in service, Beijing Climate Center of China developed a Meteorological disaster risk management platform (MDRMP), which integrates the technology of big data management, scientific achievements transformation and spatiotemporal multidimensional visualization, under a unified highly-intensified framework. Through three years of hard work, MDRMP was initially built and has been put into operation, providing professional services for decision makers and other stakeholders with real-time disaster monitoring, early warning, impact analysis and risk assessment. The main functions of MDRIMP include hazard identification, risk prediction, risk regionalization, warning service, information inquiry, online analysis, etc.
MDRMP contains four subsystems, namely, Big Data Application Center, Model and Algorithm Center, Online Analysis Center and Operation Center. Big Data Application Center include 12 major categories, more than 600 million various pieces of information. Based on the Cloud-terminal and GIS technology, the multi-source and heterogeneous data is jointed in horizontal direction and correlated in vertical direction with its spatial attributes, forming the core database of the whole system. Model and Algorithm Center integrated more than 100 models of the algorithm related to disaster risk analysis. The algorithm library realizes the unified scheduling, management and real-time monitoring through registration, classification and execution monitoring technologies.
MDRMP has already been applied nationwide based on a Cloud-terminal, and support unified access, personalized configuration and service customization of users in provinces, cities and counties in China. This paper provides an overview, functions and the current status of the MDRMP. It will also describe how services are made available to the end user via various channels in addition to the productions of MDRMP in routine operations.

How to cite: Li, Y.: An Integrated GIS and Big Data Platform for Meteorological Disaster Risk Management and its Application, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22394, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22394, 2020

D1787 |
Pedro Pinto Santos, Susana Pereira, José Luís Zêzere, Alexandre Oliveira Tavares, Eusébio Reis, Ricardo A. C. Garcia, and Sérgio Cruz Oliveira

This work aims to compute a flood risk index (FRI) for the 278 Portuguese municipalities, designed to rank and characterize the drivers of fluvial flooding-related disasters (Santos et al., 2020). FRI is the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability scores, where each factor is raised to 1/3, a solution also applied by the INFORM risk index to increase the dispersion of index values.

Hazard considers two variables: flood susceptibility (SUSCF), and the weather and climate events index (WCE) translating the frequency of the rainfall events that may generate peak flows. SUSCF is the product of stream flood susceptibility (SFS) (Santos et al., 2019) and the main flood-prone areas (MFPA). SFS considers flow accumulation, slope angle and relative permeability, accounting for the cumulative effect of these factors along the entire basins’ area. MPFA results from overlaying areas with slope angle ≤ 2º and areas with Height Above Nearest Drainage ≤ 2, only when they were topologically connected to streams with SFS > 5.

Exposure considers three variables: population density (PD), road density (RD) and the average degree of imperviousness (ADI). PD (inhab./km2) is based on the 2011 Census. RD (km/km2) is calculated from the OpenStreetMap© data. ADI is the municipal average value of the layer “IMD - Imperviousness Degree 2012 – 20 m resolution”, from the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service.

Vulnerability (V) is the product of criticality and support capability, where the latter acts by attenuating criticality, according to the methodology presented by Tavares et al. (2018) to assess social vulnerability.

The six core variables were scaled to the range [0, 1] following the max-min method. The respective weights were tested and selected according to the scientific literature, correlation and reliability tests.

Ward’s clustering classification was used to define seven clusters of municipalities, differing in the scores of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. While it is suggested that municipalities in some clusters would require interventions to reduce hazard, others should invest on medium to long-term measures that address high exposure and vulnerability. The results obtained with this methodological approach contribute to the diversification of flood risk management strategies.



This work was financed by national funds through FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the framework of the project BeSafeSlide‑Landslide Early Warning soft technology prototype to improve community resilience and adaptation to environmental change (PTDC/GES-AMB/30052/2017) and by the Research Unit UIDB/00295/2020. Pedro Pinto Santos is funded by FCT through the project with the reference CEEIND/00268/2017.



Santos, P.P., Pereira, S., Zêzere, J.L., Tavares, A.O., Reis, E., Garcia, R.A.C., Oliveira, S.C., 2019. A comprehensive approach to understanding flood risk drivers at the municipal level. J. Environ. Manage. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110127

Santos, P.P., Reis, E., Pereira, S., Santos, M., 2019. A flood susceptibility model at the national scale based on multicriteria analysis. Sci. Total Environ. 667, 325–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.328

Tavares, A.O., Barros, J.L., Mendes, J.M., Santos, P.P., Pereira, S., 2018. Decennial comparison of changes in social vulnerability: A municipal analysis in support of risk management. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 31, 679–690. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJDRR.2018.07.009

How to cite: Santos, P. P., Pereira, S., Zêzere, J. L., Tavares, A. O., Reis, E., Garcia, R. A. C., and Oliveira, S. C.: Evaluation of flood risk drivers as a tool to define municipal risk profiles, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19330, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19330, 2020

D1788 |
Evelina Kotsi, Spyridon Mavroulis, Michalis Diakakis, Emmanuel Vassilakis, and Efthymios Lekkas

The Ionian Islands are located in the northwestern part of the Hellenic Arc and constitute one of the most seismically active areas in the Mediterranean. Building a geospatial database including all the available geo-information layers was the initial step for identifying and delineating the earthquake-related environmental effects by using various mapping algebra techniques and algorithms. Landslide, liquefaction and tsunami related inventories were created. Real time recording network of sensors such as meteorological instruments, seismographs, accelerometers etc was designed to trans pond data telemetrically and feed a dynamically interactive geodatabase, which in turn act as a smart tool for declaring an area as vulnerable to a specific hazard. The abovementioned approach can contribute to the reduction of the consequences after a disastrous event, as it will provide useful information to the civil protection authorities for increased alertness during an ongoing threat.

The identification of the risk areas by using various methods has become significant in recent years due to the fact that among others it serves as a valuable tool for revealing and highlighting sites of significant hazards. In this study we present a smart tool, specially developed for recording and taking under consideration any changing parameters that affect the susceptibility of an area to any of the studied geo-hazards and highlight it on a digital real time updateable map.

How to cite: Kotsi, E., Mavroulis, S., Diakakis, M., Vassilakis, E., and Lekkas, E.: Smart Geospatial System Design for Real-Time Risk Assessment at the Highly Active Area of the Ionian Islands, Greece, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18981, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18981, 2020

D1789 |
Hang Wu, Mark Trigg, and William Murphy

Landslide dams are a common hazard reported in mountainous areas around the world, where the dams block the normal flow of the river and can cause catastrophic flooding downstream when the temporary dam subsequently fails. Most of the research that couples landslide dams and fluvial systems have been concentrated on a site-specific scale and thus little is known about where these hazards are clustered and how they connect to climate and geology. A detailed and comprehensive dataset of landslide dams is not currently available at the global scale, since most global landslide dam datasets contain very little precise spatial information, which makes it harder to explore and to analyze the impacts on floods by modelling over larger scales. 

To narrow this data gap, we are developing a new global landslide dam dataset, recording: spatial coordinates, time information, dam materials, geomorphic characteristics of catchments, landslides, landslide dams and impounded lakes, and hydrographic characteristics of subsequent flood events and their consequent damage. This has been collated from bibliographic works in a number of languages. In the process of building the database we have encountered several obstacles including language barriers, indistinct naming standards, vague and patchy spatial information, and the diversity of data access in different countries. So far, we have data from over 700 individual events that have been synthesized into the same data format with consistent units and spatial references.

The spatial distribution of landslide dam shows hazard hot spot areas concentrated around mountainous areas. The number of landslide dams reported increases exponentially during the past 1000 years, with the highest peak in the last 20 years. This increase is most likely due to better records in more recent years. Some extreme large-scale events, including earthquakes, floods, typhoons and volcanic eruptions have contributed to other peaks in the record. Initial analysis of the data will be used to explore distribution differences of dimension data, such as height, length and volume, of landslide dams that are induced by different triggers, to explore the triggers effect on landslide dam formation.

The summary information of the dataset and the characteristic analysis result will be presented with a comparison to existing landslide dam datasets. A spatial distribution map of landslide dams and hazard hot spot areas will also be presented. This extensive global landslide dam dataset will allow researchers to understand the spatial distribution, geomorphic characteristics of landslide dams, and the connections among the dimensions of landslide sources, landslide dams, impounded lakes and upstream catchments. We will continue to develop this current landslide dam dataset and welcome feedback and additional datasets to supplement the database. Upon completion, the dataset will be made open access for wider research purposes and collaborations.

How to cite: Wu, H., Trigg, M., and Murphy, W.: A global scale geospatially located landslide dam dataset, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5881, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5881, 2020

D1790 |
| solicited
Jin Yi Park, Ok Ju Kim, Sohee Lee, and Junwoo Lee

The patterns of recent disasters in Korea such as typhoons, mountain fires and earthquakes are becoming increasingly complex and extensive. It is important to look at the disaster from a unified perspective in order to reduce the damage that will occur from the disaster and promote recovery. The integration between including work systems and information among government agencies that manage disaster situations is one of the important parts in order to respond quickly and reduce damage. But most of the information used to cope with disaster situations is temporarily consumed and volatile. Also there is a lack of periodic updates or management systems. In this study, the information system was established through analysis of the status of the utilization system of static and dynamic data among disaster information used in the Republic of Korea when disaster management. In the event of a typhoon situation, the system operation and on-site survey are to derive the deficiencies to support the assessment of the situation in government agencies and local governments.

How to cite: Park, J. Y., Kim, O. J., Lee, S., and Lee, J.: Development and application system based on static and dynamic data for disaster management, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20816, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20816, 2020