Geodiversity, including surface and subsurface phenomena, objects and processes, reflects the current state of abiotic nature on the Earth. For this purpose, various methods of assessing geodiversity are used, from through mapping to simultaneous monitoring of dynamic elements of the geographical environment.
- Traditionally, rich descriptions of single variables and a static image of geodiversity is obtained through mapping, which registers the current face of the Earth.
- Another solution is a simultaneous record and/or multitemporal assessment of geodiversity through monitoring systems of key environmental elements, including satellite monitoring and geomatics techniques. This approach makes it possible to track changes in geodiversity at different time intervals and thus gain information on dynamic geodiversity.
For both static and dynamic geodiversity, it is essential to choose the right variables and approach that will best reflect the nature of both types of geodiversity as well as will be relevant for issues related to the services offered by geodiversity. Identifying these Essential Geodiversity Variables (EGVs, sensu Schrodt et al. 2019) as geoindicators is the main task of this session.
The large amount of available geoindicators makes it difficult to identify those that would comprehensively meet the expectations of specialists from various disciplines involved in the geodiversity assessment. Nevertheless, geodiversity is now recognized as highly relevant to both scientific and management issues related to Earth surface processes and landscape evolution and an effort for improved EGVs selection should be made. Our EGVs perspective is to contribute to the establishment of a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework associated to environmental issues related to global change, ecosystem services and geoheritage.
This session invites scientific oral and poster contributions on geodiversity in context of geoheritage of natural and cultural landscapes.
The joint session is organized by the IAG Working Group on Landform Assessment for Geodiversity and the IAG Working Group on Geomorphological Sites.

Co-organized by EOS6, co-sponsored by IAG and APG
Convener: Zbigniew Zwoliński | Co-conveners: Irene Maria BollatiECSECS, Paola Coratza, Marco Giardino, Franziska SchrodtECSECS
| Attendance Wed, 06 May, 08:30–10:15 (CEST)

Files for download

Session summary Download all presentations (154MB)

Chat time: Wednesday, 6 May 2020, 08:30–10:15

D1094 |
| Highlight
Alex G. Neches

The 21st century has seen a growing interest for the understanding and quantification of geodiversity – i.e. ‘the natural range (diversity) of geological (rocks, minerals, fossils), geomorphological (landform, physical processes) and soil features’ (Gray, 2004). To date, though, most quantification efforts focus on geosites and geoheritage, which are a mere segment of geodiversity, namely that considered relevant or valuable. Quantification of geodiversity as a whole has only emerged within the last few years and has its own limitations.

This presentation addresses some key challenges in the classification and quantification of geodiversity, while considering conceptual, structural and empirical analogies between geodiversity and biodiversity.

From a spectrum view, material geodiversity is both infinite and finite, with infinite being at the low end of the spectrum and finite being at the high end of it; infinite lithospheric matter merges into finite micro-, meso- and macro-scale landforms, which further combine into ‘even more finite’ landform assemblages, land systems and landscapes.

1. Classifying such an exceptional range is a challenge in itself. Older, very specific classifications, based on physical, chemical, etc. criteria, exist for segments of geodiversity: rocks, soils and minerals. More recent, general classifications, based largely on formation processes, were elaborated for geosites and later for all geodiversity features (Ruban, 2010; Bradbury, 2014). These classifications share similarities with the Linnaean classification of living organisms (e.g. a hierarchical structure with analogous groups). The first are descriptive. The latter are genetic.

For quantification purposes, classifications should be established based on characteristics that are least prone to change. Thus, descriptive classifications based on observed attributes rely less on interpretation and are more stable. Genetic classifications are more problematic and may not be very suitable; unlike living organisms, where each individual is associated with a single Species, geodiversity features can be classified, based on formation processes, under multiple Types, Themes and Classes. This makes double (or multiple) counting imminent.

2. For a more realistic picture, geodiversity should, as much as possible, be quantified at low levels, where division of features/units is either impossible or redundant (e.g. infinite geodiversity, micro-scale landforms). The lower we go within the spectrum, the more diversity we encounter. The higher we go, the more likely we are to move from what is essentially a quantification of elements to a quantification of categories; that is, a concrete measurement is at risk of being replaced with an abstract measurement.

Different aspects of geodiversity can be calculated by mathematical functions, but use of metrics should be consistent with scale. Finite geodiversity, unlike biological communities, has well-defined boundaries and is less mobile; quantification is more straightforward and less affected by unknown variables. Infinite geodiversity, like biological individuals, is composed of identical elements; quantification is more complex and may require use of functions/estimators.



Bradbury, J., 2014. A keyed classification of natural geodiversity for land management and nature conservation purposes. PGA, 125(3), 329-349

Gray, M., 2004. Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. John Willey & Sons

Ruban, D. A., 2010. Quantification of geodiversity and its loss. PGA, 121(3), 326-333

How to cite: Neches, A. G.: The Classification and Quantification of Geodiversity: Addressing Conceptual and Empirical Challenges, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11574, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11574, 2020.

D1095 |
| Highlight
Harry Seijmonsbergen, Joe McMeekin, Eline Rentier, Emma Polman, and Kenneth Rijsdijk

Within a few hundred years, mining has changed from a traditional, low impact, local and regional extraction activity to a global industry that is responsible for the conversion of most natural landscapes into man-made (agri)cultural/urban landscapes. The irreversible extraction of specific geological and geomorphological resources has immensely impacted global scale geodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Although geodiversity is vitally important for global sustainability, this is not reflected in international policy, conservation and management, possibly due to a lack of harmonized, transparent and easy to measure science-based geodiversity indicators. We use two case studies on sand and phosphate mining to identify their drivers, pressures, state and impact on the environment to demonstrate how geodiversity variables can be used to raise awareness and to respond adequately. Sand provides society with important benefits, specifically through the provisioning of raw materials for use in construction, although extraction volumes are largely unknown. Phosphate has essential value for global food security as modern agriculture heavily depends upon phosphate fertilizers, but concerns have been raised suggesting potential depletion of rock phosphate in the near future. Sand and phosphate mining are in high demand, have associated scarcity concerns, are unevenly distributed on a global scale, and their extraction has numerous (unexpected) environmental and societal impacts. These examples demonstrate the need for monitoring and management of mining activities on global scales, in order to adequately respond to the effects of extraction of these resources. We provide refinements to the existing geodiversity variables related to geology and geomorphology and present opportunities to monitor their global geodiversity dynamics using remote sensing technology. Such data can support the improvement of global datasets on mining, and provide a pathway towards international recognition of geodiversity variables.

How to cite: Seijmonsbergen, H., McMeekin, J., Rentier, E., Polman, E., and Rijsdijk, K.: Refining geodiversity variables for monitoring global mining, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1699, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1699, 2020.

D1096 |
Luigi Perotti, Manuela Lasagna, Gilda Carraro, Cristina Viani, Federico Tognetto, De Luca Dominico Antonio, Gioachino Roberti, and Marco Giardino

This paper aims at the systematization of knowledge related to geodiversity assessment for water resources and its evaluation within high mountain areas. In this environmental context, geological features, landforms and geomorphological processes, soils and water too are particularly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes, thus giving geodiversity a particularly dynamic character.

A multidimensional (regional, local; present, past) approach was developed for analyzing components of geomorphological and hydrogeological systems, both at superficial and underground level, in order to establish a conceptual model and a specific procedure for the evaluation of geodiversity.

Spatial and temporal dimensions of glaciated mountain landscapes of the Italian Western Alps (Monte Rosa, Maggiore Lake, Sesia Val Grande UNESCO Global Geopark) and the Coast Mountains of Canada (Mount Meager, Lillohet Valley, Sea-to-Sky Corridor) were mapped and interpreted by means of: 1) detailed interpretation of DEM-derived data, 2) proper selection of Geomatics survey and monitoring tools and 3) targeted application of GIS analytical methods. The selection and processing operations of the elements considered for this evaluation led to the identification of areas characterized by greater values of hydrogeodiversity. Here, the link between surface and underground hydrodynamics becomes closer and intense, thus conditioning the local landscape setting and the interactions of its natural and human components.

The conceptual model and related workflow proved to be useful for both a) enhanced accuracy of models of a diversity of geomorphological and hydrogeological elements and processes of mountain regions and b) improved “targeted” knowledge on hydrogeodiversity and increased awareness on related geoheritage.

The proposed GIS and Geomatics framework allowed the hydrogeodiversity assessment going well beyond the limit of classical geomorphological and hydrogeological techniques. Difficulty of quantitative analysis over large areas was overcome, and small landscape features and other “hidden” hydrogeological markers could be taken into account. The results of the research strengthened the possibility of strategic management of geological, geomorphological and hydrological heritages within the study areas. In fact, we identified different landscapes and local peculiarities determined by mutual influences between geology and hydrological dynamics and mapped their possible interaction with human activities and infrastructures within areas of enhanced climate change effects.

How to cite: Perotti, L., Lasagna, M., Carraro, G., Viani, C., Tognetto, F., Dominico Antonio, D. L., Roberti, G., and Giardino, M.: GIS and geomatics for hydrogeodiversity assessment of glaciated mountains: examples from the Western Alps (Italy) and the Coast Mountains (Canada), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20455, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20455, 2020.

D1097 |
| Highlight
Milutin Lješević and Ljiljana Mihajlović

Since the beginning of humanity, geomorphological diversity and relief features some territories, have influenced human settlement and population density. Certainly, the more comfortable conditions of the relief caused the increasing population of the some territory. Thus, there was more intensive settlement on fluvial or marine forms of relief, while on karst, aeolian relief, landslides and areas of escarpment, human settlement was less or completely absent. The only exception is the times of wars, occupations or other disasters, when people settled in unfavorable relief areas (karst, deserts, etc.). The following elements of the relief influenced the construction of residential buildings as well as the industrial activity: the slope of the hillside, surface sunshine, surface geodynamics, water supply, horizontal and vertical terrain distribution, hypsometric features, relief energy. In the paper, the evaluation of individual elements will be presented on examples from the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro.

How to cite: Lješević, M. and Mihajlović, L.: Geomorphological diversity influence on population settlement, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20838, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20838, 2020.

D1098 |


“Geodiversity", may be defined simply as the natural range (diversity) of geological (rocks, minerals, fossils), geomorphological (land form, physical processes) and soil features. It includes their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations and systems (Gray, 2004). Geomorphosites are geomorphological landforms (component of geodiversity)  that have acquired a scientific, cultural/historical, aesthetic and socio-economic value due to human perception or exploitation (Panizza, 2001). The trans-Himalayan region is devoid of most of the technological stimuli that the lesser Himalayan or plains experience and reciprocate in terms of variety of responses. Therefore, in this part of the Himalaya, the abiotic factors play a significant role in generating stimuli and the human response varies accordingly. The trans or the Tethyan Himalayan region of Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, has been chosen as the study area where the  interface (interactive zone/crossing point/edge) is being analyzed and mapped in order to study this specific type of stimuli-response in a unique geoecosystem.

The research focuses upon the study of seasonal economy based on geodiversity and geomorphosites in the trans-Himalayan cold desert of Lahaul and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India. The data has been collected through extensive field work using structured questionnaire survey and field observations at various seasonal dhabas around areas/landforms having unique geomorphic characteristics. The field work has been done in  May-June 2012, October 2013, June 2014, June 2016, June 2017 and June 2018. These dhabas act as the centres for seasonal economy in the region that is regulated by the geotourism activities based on these  geomorphosites and geodiversity. The analysis regarding the human response in terms of seasonal economy, settlement pattern and geotourism have been done through GIS, GPS and SWOT analysis. The resultant theory i.e. "Stimuli-Response Theory of Landscape" has been developed to explain the entire geoecological  process. The study highlights that potential geotourism sites have to be further identified, explored and developed in the region and the existing sites have to be preserved and retained in order to harness the tremendous potential of geotourism and thereby boosting the seasonal economy.

Keywords: Geodiversity, Geomorphosites; Trans-Himalayan Region; Cold Desert; Seasonal economy; Dhabas; Geotourism Sites; Geoecological Process ; Stimuli-Response Theory of Landscape

How to cite: , K.: Geodiversity and Geomorphosites based Seasonal Economy in Cold Deserts of Indian Trans-Himalaya, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-226, 2020.

D1099 |
William Hernández, Javier Dóniz-Páez, Monika Przeor, Nemesio Pérez, and Pedro A. Hernández

The Canary Islands are one of the main “sun and beach” tourist destinations in the world. As an example, Tenerife received in 2018 more than five million tourists. Even so, on the island there are some destinations that are experiencing a decrease in the touristic afflux. With the aim of avoiding the decline of these destinations initiatives have been raised to promote new touristic products and experiences as result of diversify the leisure offer of the island. Within the variety of new products, urban geotourism is one of those new and alternative modalities that may increase the touristic offer of Tenerife. Urban geotourism aims at exploiting the geographical and natural elements (volcanoes, cliffs, beaches, ravines, etc.), that have not been wiped out by the urban growth and transformation processes. Urban geotourism involves also cultural heritage (churches, hermitages, cemeteries, houses, squares, etc.) and the urban layout itself.


The aim of this work is to propose an urban geotourism itinerary through the historical centre of Santiago del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). For this purpose, we selected places and elements that are directly or indirectly associated with the monogenic basaltic eruptions of the Chinyero (1909 AD) and the Bilma Mountain volcano (3,000 years BC). Santiago del Teide is a municipality located at the west of Tenerife with an area of 52.21 km2 and a population of 10,755 inhabitants. The municipality can be divided into two large areas: the coast dedicated to “sun and beach tourism” and mid-elevation areas dedicated mainly to agricultural activities and hiking tourism associated with flowering almond trees. The documented methodology consists of making an inventory of the land forms and processes related to the geomorphological features present in the historical centre and its surroundings. This inventory comprises also natural elements visible in the architecture of the town and allowed classifying and estimating the valuable element of the geoheritage. This identification and selection are based on the variety of inventoried resources, on the possibilities it offers and on its geographical distribution. Twelve places of natural heritage (Way of the Virgin of Lourdes and Mountain Bilma) and cultural relevance (Church of San Francisco Rey, Hermitage of Santiago Apostle, El Calvario, Casona del Patio, CEI Chinyero, Alley of the Virgin, Eras of Rodríguez Guanche Street, Crescent Square, San Francisco Cemetery and Cemetery Road, Queen's Street, Santiago del Teide City Hall, La Grama Quarry, Vicente Febles PR and the Arribas Valley) of the city were selected to design a geotouristic itinerary with a length of about 8 km and requiring about 5 hours walking.

How to cite: Hernández, W., Dóniz-Páez, J., Przeor, M., Pérez, N., and Hernández, P. A.: Geoheritage and Geotourism in the cities: the case of Santiago del Teide (Tenerife, Spain), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-261, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-261, 2020.

D1100 |
| Highlight
Jiun-Chuan Lin

Conserving geo-heritage ---Practical and application at Taiwan geoparks


Lin, Jiun-Chuan, Department of Geography, National Taiwan University

Su, Shew-Jiunn, Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University

Wang, Wen-Cheng, Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University

Liu, Ying-San, Department Natural Resource and Environment, Tongh-Hua University

Jon-Yuan Wang, Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture



Geo-heritage is the combination of geology and physical processes as well as the cultural characters. The awareness of the value of geo-heritage is getting more and more important in Taiwan after designation of geoparks.

The methodology to conserve the geo-heritage is rather unclear before 1985 in Taiwan. However, through designation of geoparks, the conserving geo-heritage in terms of landscape conservation, it became clearer for local people to practice.

This study demonstrates some typical ways of conserving landscapes in Taiwan geoparks. First of all, through environmental education; second, through legislation; third, through local participation on geopark affairs; Fourth, through guided tour by local interpreters.

By Environmental Education Law, everyone including all departments of different level of government works and schools have to take 4 hours’ environmental education course every year. It helps to enhance the awareness of environment conservation including conservation of geo-heritage. By Cultural Heritage Preservation Law, the designation of geoparks and natural monuments are the tools to conserve the landscapes. Local participation as a local guard on geoparks are also the ways to prevent further damages. Through interpretation on the aesthetic/ scientific value by local licensed guides for visitors,

This study demonstrates the such progresses at Taiwan Geoparks.


Key words: geo-heritage, geo-conservation, environmental education, Taiwan geoparks


How to cite: Lin, J.-C.: Conserving geo-heritage ---Practical and application at Taiwan geoparks , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6288, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6288, 2020.

D1101 |
| Highlight
Zbigniew Zwoliński

The existing assessments of geodiversity are based on very different abiotic elements of the natural environment. This makes these assessments incomparable between different areas and obtained by different methods. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to say in comparative studies which area is more or less geodiverse. The search for unambiguous geodiversity assessments is one of the most important challenges in the current era of climate change and environmental exploitation. This presentation aims to indicate those elements of the natural environment and their parameters that are independent of the specificity of the area being assessed. The specificity of the assessed area may vary in many aspects, e.g. genesis and provenance, age and evolution, hypsometry and geomorphometry, geology and lithology, soil and surface sediments, climate zones, groundwater and surface water supply, etc. Is it possible to find such variables that will be universal and objective in assessing geodiversity with such a variety of abiotic elements of the environment? During the presentation, an attempt will be made to answer the above question. The suggestion of this answer should be a contribution to the discussion on the scope of the standard variables influencing geodiversity.

How to cite: Zwoliński, Z.: Standard variables influencing geodiversity, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12318, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12318, 2020.

D1102 |
Alicja Najwer and Zbigniew Zwoliński

Recently, there have been many methods for assessing geodiversity. During comparative studies, not all of these methods allow you to clearly identify which area is more or less geodiverse. We propose the Gd-ratio geoindicator, which defines the ratio of areas with very_low_and_low geodiversity to areas with high_and_very_high geodiversity. The values of this geoindicator can vary from 0 to infinity. However, the key values have values in three ranges: 0-1 –rich geodiversity, 1-2 – moderate geodiversity and above 2 – modest geodiversity. The interpretation possibilities of the Gd-ratio geoindicator were tested in three areas of national parks in Poland, which are located in different morphogenetic zones: mountain, upland and lowland.

The Karkonosze National Park lies in SW Poland, along the border with the Czechia. It consists of the Karkonosze Mountains, the highest mountain range in the Sudetes. The characteristic features of its landscape are the glacial kettles with boulders and ponds hidden inside. Weathered granite rocks shaped like mushrooms or maces can also be found on the mountainsides. It cover an area of 55.76 km2.

The Roztocze National Park is located in the picturesque middle-eastern part of Poland, in the upper Wieprz river valley, close to the Polish-Ukrainian border. It protects Roztocze, a land encompassing a 180-kilometre-long stretch of hills that are several dozen meters high. Its current size is 84.83 km2. Roztocze is a densely forested land filled with natural incisions. Geomorphological, mites is typically upland region in which the main elements of the relief have very close links with geological structure.

The Wolin National Park is situated on the island of Wolin, at the mouth of Oder River, in the far north-west of Poland, close to the Polish-German border. It covers an area of 109.37 km2. The landscape of the Park varies greatly, including its characteristic element: 15 km long and up to 95 m high cliffs. The crown of the cliff goes back about 80 cm per year. Moraine hills predominate in the morphological landscape.

The same spatial and non-spatial data have been completed for these three national parks. Based on this data, seven factor maps were created: relief energy, geomorphological map, map of landform appearance, geological map, soil map, hydrographic map, mesoclimatic map. Automatic classifications (Jenks natural break optimization) and expert classifications were used to reclassify the factor maps into five geodiversity classes. The final geodiversity map for each park was obtained by map algebra using the weighted sum algorithm. Weights for factor maps were assigned based on the AHP method (using Satty's classification).

It turns out that the mountainous Karkonosze National Park is characterized by moderate geodiversity (Gd-ratio = 1.28), while the other two parks have rich geodiversity: the lowland Wolin National Park (Gd-ratio = 0.32) and the upland Roztocze National Park (Gd-ratio = 0.72). The obtained results are so interesting that it would seem that mountain areas have the highest geodiversity, while lowland areas - the lowest geodiversity. But the results show the opposite image. This thesis should be absolutely verified in more test areas.

How to cite: Najwer, A. and Zwoliński, Z.: Gd-ratio as a quantitative geoindicator of geodiversity assessment, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12163, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12163, 2020.

D1103 |
Paolo Magliulo, Filippo Russo, and Alessio Valente

The Matese Regional Park included the northern part of Campania and the southern part of Molise regions. The total area is about 33,000 ha. The institution of the Park was due to its extreme naturalistic and environmental richness, representative of the whole Southern Apennines chain. Unfortunately, the Park institution was not fully understood by local authorities and population as a development opportunity (touristic, agricultural, etc.).

Most of the area consists of an imposing calcareous massif, whose features are still completely natural. In some outcrops of Mesozoic limestone, exceptional fossils were found, among which the dinosaur cub Scipioniyx samntiyicus, popularly known as “Ciro”, is mentioned for importance, as it is recognized and studied all over the world for its excellent state of conservation. In addition to this unique specimen, a myriad of remains of fishes, reptiles, amphibians and rudists were found. To the threat of vandalism perpetrated in early years, the authorities responded by guaranteeing the conservation of the sites and fossils, but also by creating a place to welcome scholars and researchers. Thus, the Paleolab was born, i.e. a multimedial museum of geology and palaeontology with an increasing number of visitors.

The widespread diffusion of karst phenomena, both epigean and hypogean, contributed to fuel an underground water circulation, which is important for both quantity and quality. This resource was exploited over time, not only at the basal springs, but also locally, for domestic, agricultural and livestock uses and even for energy production. Therefore, the pressures on this resource are important and need a care planning. Moreover, contaminations by anthropogenic activities are possible, even if limited to some marginal areas, and are not coherent with the rules of a protected area.

Earthquakes could upset both the beauty of the Matese landscapes and the local activities. In fact, this area is one of the most seismogenetic ones in Southern Apennines. In historical epoch, several seismic events caused casualties and huge damages to the local settlements and even changed the physical features of the territory. However, the answers to these events became an opportunity, as they allowed both reconstructing less vulnerable buildings and the restitution of the typicality of some ancient settlements. A difficulty is nowadays represented by the alert systems, which are weak due to the articulated morphology and the accentuated dispersion of the buildings (residence and working sites).

In this contribution, several indicators were considered to describe the environmental situation of the Matese Park in the framework of a model able to identify the cause-effect relationships and the response that were put in place to obtain a change in the desired direction.

How to cite: Magliulo, P., Russo, F., and Valente, A.: Enhancing geodiversity in the Matese Regional Park (Southern italy) using DPSIR model, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20663, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20663, 2020.

D1104 |
Mauro Soldati, Carlotta Parenti, and Paola Coratza

Soil erosion is one of the most significant land degradation processes worldwide, and has produced diverse geomorphological effects in different environments according to anthropogenetic and climatic forcing. In times of global change, it is of remarkable interest to trace these changes also in terms of landscape geodiversity through time.

This is the case of the badland landscapes that characterize relatively large sectors of the Northern Apennines (Italy) where clayey and marly terrains outcrop. Erosion rates have locally been very high, which caused widespread badland landform development, also accompanied by hazardous processes, such as the retrogression of badland scarps and rapid soil depletion.

This study aimed at understanding the evolution of badlands in selected areas of the Province of Modena (Emilia Apennines) through landform inventory, morphometric analysis and statistical assessment of influencing factors (e.g., slope aspect, climate conditions, land use), accompanied by detailed field surveys aiming at detailed mapping the areas presently affected by badlands. Several sets of aerial photos and satellite images were selected in order to perform multitemporal geomorphological analysis, define the evolution of badlands through time and assess multitemporal geodiversity by monitoring key environmental elements. The morphometric analysis of badlands was performed with the aim of understanding the causes of their development since the 1950s in relation to anthropogenic activities and meteoclimatic trends. The research showed a progressive reduction of active badlands and stabilization of gully features, leading to a substantial diversity of geomorphological landscapes of wide sectors of the investigated area.

This study underlines that the investigation of landscape changes can provide useful elements for the assessment of geodiversity not only in space but also through time. This approach made it possible to outline changes in geodiversity at different period of time and thus gain information on dynamic geodiversity, which is worth to be considered in land management.

How to cite: Soldati, M., Parenti, C., and Coratza, P.: Geodiversity through time: Changing badland landscapes due to anthropogenic and climatic forcing in the Northern Apennines (Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19319, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19319, 2020.

D1105 |
Edmore Kori

Soil diversity is one of the factors considered in geodiversity assessment. Its classification is usually based on expert knowledge of soils. One way of expert classification is through soil erodibility. High erodibility is allocated a high diversity class. Notwithstanding the debate on erodibility computation, soil classification for geodiversity based on erodibility is not a straightforward matter. Empirical evidence from the Soutpansberg range in South Africa reveals that high erodibility does not directly translate to a higher geodiversity. Though other factors may also play a role, river networks and slope angles are directly influenced by soil erodibility. Rivers follow easily erodible terrain while highly erodible soils create plains. Soils with high clay content tend to promote surface runoff. The cementing effect of clay promote strong substrates that can support a bigger angle of repose. Slopes and river channels in the Soutpansberg do not readily conform with this general anticipation. Rivers do not always coincide with high soil erodibility. Steep slopes do not always coincide with low soil erodibility. Neither do they always coincide with low soil erodibility. This leads to the conclusion that the contribution of erodibility to landform development and diversity is contextual rather than generic. Other factors such as aggradation and degradation may have to be considered in soil factor classification.


Key words: soil erosion; geodiversity; erodibility; hydrology; slope.

How to cite: Kori, E.: The soil factor of geodiversity – perspectives on erodibility classification in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-814, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-814, 2020.

D1106 |
Irene Maria Bollati and Andrea Zerboni

Quaternary loess deposits and complex pedosequences developed on wind-blown silt as parent material are very powerful palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental indicators allowing the reconstruction of glacial/interglacial cycles. For this relevant scientific value, loess outcrops are gaining great attention in the framework of geoheritage valorisation. Loess sequences are distributed along wide latitudinal ranges in both the Boreal and Austral Hemispheres, but they are less frequent if compared to other kinds of Quaternary sediments, and often characterized by a hotspot-like distributions. They are, hence, key-points in geodiversity assessment at basin-scale. Strategies balancing geoconservation and promotion are hence required, and they should be based on the assessment of sites specific values and threats sites may undergo. Loess sequences, in fact, are geosites of stratigraphic interest and geomorphosites that may suffer geomorphic processes (e.g., pedogenesis, linear erosion, tectonics, slope deformation and erosion) threatening their existence. The same processes, at the meantime, are generating spectacular landscapes. Besides the most famous Chinese loess plateau, the North and South American loess basins, and the central Eurasian loess belt, several other minor loess basins are distributed in the world. Among these areas, we can consider the Mediterranean loess areas, and especially the Upper Pleistocene Po Plain Loess Basin of Northern Italy. The latter includes several loess/paleosols outcrops displaying complex pedosequences formed under contrasting Pleistocene pedoclimatic settings, recording recent tectonic activity between the foreland of the Alpine and Apennine ranges (i.e., site-scale geodiversity), and preserving open-air Palaeolithic archaeological sites (i.e., cultural value). After examining the global values of and the potential threats to loess geosites, as proposed in the current literature, a detailed analysis on the potentialities (in terms of scientific features, values, threats, geoconservation, and promotion strategies) of a selection of loess sites from the Po Plain Loess Basin is proposed. The quantification of the values of the geosites is performed considering the global value (i.e. scientific and additional values) of loess-bearing sites and the potential for use, according to a methodology based on a database, already tested in similar thematic contexts. In particular, this methodology implies the geodiversity assessment at site-scale, and this is particularly relevant for loess sites. Finally, for each locality, tips for enhancing Italian loess sites through promotion and geoconservation are provided.

How to cite: Bollati, I. M. and Zerboni, A.: The geodiversity of loess sequences in the Po plain (Northern Italy): scientific values, threats, and promotion opportunities, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2656, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2656, 2020.

D1107 |
Verner Brandbyge Ernstsen, Signe Schilling Hansen, Lars Øbro Hansen, Manfred Niederwieser, Ramona Baran, Frank Steinbacher, Zyad Al-Hamdani, and Aart Kroon

Shallow water coastal environments can be highly dynamic and comprise a range of dynamic geodiversity variables as well as a range of benthic habitats. It is challenging to map such dynamic shallow water coastal environments and their geodiversity variables and benthic habitats in high-resolution, high precision and full coverage, which is necessary in order to evaluate impact on the seabed and the benthic habitats from e.g. climate change (e.g. changing wind climate) or human disturbance (e.g. construction of wind parks, pipelines, etc.).

We have conducted successive high-resolution, high-precision airborne topobathymetric lidar surveys in combination with seabed groundtruthing (e.g. seabed sampling and diver observations) along existing monitoring lines in Rødsand lagoon, Denmark, in the western Baltic Sea. The coastal lagoon is a Natura 2000 site, located near the planned fixed connection between Germany and Denmark.

Here, we present high-resolution, high-precision mapping of geodiversity variables with a focus on seabed morphology and seabed sediments that constitute the abiotic structures of the benthic habitats. We demonstrate the role of the interaction between the dynamic coastal processes and the drowned underlying glacial landscape in relation to the spatial distribution of the seabed morphology and sediments as well as the benthic habitats. Finally, we discuss how to optimise the monitoring of dynamic geodiversity variables and abiotic benthic habitat structures in such dynamic shallow water coastal environments.



This work was carried out as part of “WP4 – In situ remote sensing of geodiversity for habitat mapping” within the project “ECOMAP – Baltic Sea environmental assessments by opto-acoustic remote sensing, mapping, and monitoring” funded by the BONUS EEIG and the Innovation Fund Denmark.

How to cite: Ernstsen, V. B., Hansen, S. S., Hansen, L. Ø., Niederwieser, M., Baran, R., Steinbacher, F., Al-Hamdani, Z., and Kroon, A.: On mapping and monitoring geodiversity and benthic habitats in a dynamic shallow water coastal environment: example from Rødsand lagoon, western Baltic Sea, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11352, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11352, 2020.

D1108 |
Lesley Dunlop, Matthew J Westoby, and Michael Lim

The coastline of County Durham and Tyne and Wear, north east of England, is of geological interest as it displays extensive cliff and foreshore exposures of the dolomites and limestones of later Permian age. The coastline is covered by multiple designations ranging from being a Site of Special Scientific Interest for geological factors to other forms of national and international protection. However, the high cliffs and nature of the deposits means that it is subject to much erosion, rockfalls and exposure to storm activity. For this reason, a lengthy monitoring programme using terrestrial laser scanning (Westoby et al, 2018), photogrammetry (Westoby et al, 2012) and geophysical techniques has been taking place in order to characterise the erosion, recognise points of issue and recommend potential action.


The carbonate rocks, also known as the Magnesian Limestone, were deposited in the Zechstein Sea in a relatively shallow landlocked sea. Straddling latitude 30° north during Late Permian times, the Zechstein Sea was subjected to high evaporation rates leading to evaporate sequences being present. The Permian concretionary limestone is most common in the headlands, stacks and arches, whereas the bays are cut into a weaker dolomite. Marsden Bay includes beach, rock and cliff features and is a classic locality for beach process studies (King, 1953). Whitburn was previously a quarry and coal mine, later infilled and now subject to erosion, undercutting and sink hole appearance.


Rockfalls are often characterised as episodic and unpredictable events, leading to uncertainty and risk for infrastructure and people. As a result of the monitoring it is possible to demonstrate that there are lithologically distinct responses to the passage of the largest storm events.  Foreshore morphology is significant for modulating the relative importance of subaerial and marine erosion drivers. The influence of external environmental controls, notably storm activity, is clearly detectable through regression analysis of rockfall descriptors and environmental variables. Increased storminess, associated with increases in offshore wave heights and cumulative precipitation, corresponds with an increase in total and mean rockfall volume rockfalls at the cliff top during these periods.


The study demonstrates that it is possible to quantify links between environmental variables, in this case offshore wave heights, and erosion prediction. From a hazard and geosite management perspective this finding and framework is significant because it represents an effective new tool for quantifying temporal convergence in rockfall dynamics at lithologically complex rocky coasts over timescales that are relevant for hazard assessment.


King, C.A.M. (1953) The relationship between wave incidence, wind direction and beach changes at Marsden Bay, County Durham. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 19, 13–23.

Westoby, M.J., Brasington, J., Glasser, N.F., Hambrey, M.J., and Reynolds, J.M., 2012, ‘Structure-from-Motion’ photogrammetry: A low-cost, effective tool for geoscience applications: Geomorphology, v. 179, p. 300-314, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.08.021 .

Westoby, M.J., Lim, M., Hogg, M., Pound, M.J., Dunlop, L., and Woodward, J., 2018, Cost-effective erosion monitoring of coastal cliffs: Coastal Engineering, v. 138, p. 152-164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.04.008.

How to cite: Dunlop, L., Westoby, M. J., and Lim, M.: Erosion monitoring of coastal cliffs of geoheritage significance – an example from north east England. , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18152, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18152, 2020.

D1109 |
Jana Eichel, Lisa Hauer, and Joseph J. Bailey

Recent research has shown that landforms promote biodiversity (Bailey et al., 2018), making landform distribution an Essential Geodiversity Variable (EGV) (Schrodt et al., 2019). However, the processes and mechanisms underlying these geodiversity-biodiversity relationships are still poorly understood (Alahuhta et al., 2020). In alpine environments, biogeomorphic research showed that feedbacks between plants and geomorphic processes can create landforms and landscape patterns with closely linked geomorphic and ecologic properties (Eichel et al., 2013, 2017). Thus, biogeomorphic feedbacks could be an important driver of geodiversity-biodiversity relationships in alpine environments and could help to refine geomorphic EGVs.

Based on geomorphic and ecological plot data and detailed maps from glacier forelands and turf-banked solifluction lobes in the Swiss Alps and Southern Alps, New Zealand, we investigate alpine geodiversity-biodiversity relationships in time and space. Our initial results show that alpine geodiversity-biodiversity relationships are (i) especially evident at fine, sub-landform scales, (ii) dynamic due to geomorphic and ecological processes; and (iii) can be caused by biogeomorphic feedbacks. In particular, (i) on lateral moraine slopes, species richness is variable due to different degrees of geomorphic activity, while on solifluction lobes, species richness varies between landform elements (tread, riser, ridge) with different microtopography and dynamics. (ii) Geodiversity and species richness in glacier forelands change in time due to linked paraglacial adjustment and vegetation succession following glacier retreat. At solifluction lobes, geodiversity and species richness change with changing solifluction movement and vegetation colonization. (iii) Alpine ecosystem engineering can create solifluction landforms, landform elements and geomorphic-ecologic landscape patterns during biogeomorphic succession. Therefore, biogeomorphic feedbacks can be responsible for small scale, dynamic alpine geodiversity-biodiversity relationships.

Our results suggest that landforms, and their distribution, often considered on a meso scale (hectares), might not sufficiently represent geomorphic geodiversity. Additional geomorphic EGVs, such as landform elements and geomorphic-ecologic properties within landforms (e.g. geomorphic activity) are needed as additional essential variables accounting for geodiversity.


Alahuhta J, Toivanen M, Hjort J. 2020. Geodiversity–biodiversity relationship needs more empirical evidence. Nature Ecology & Evolution 4 : 2–3. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-1051-7

Bailey JJ, Boyd DS, Field R. 2018. Models of upland species’ distributions are improved by accounting for geodiversity. Landscape Ecology 33 : 2071–2087. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-018-0723-z

Eichel J, Draebing D, Klingbeil L, Wieland M, Eling C, Schmidtlein S, Kuhlmann H, Dikau R. 2017. Solifluction meets vegetation: the role of biogeomorphic feedbacks for turf-banked solifluction lobe development. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42 : 1623–1635. DOI: 10.1002/esp.4102

Eichel J, Krautblatter M, Schmidtlein S, Dikau R. 2013. Biogeomorphic interactions in the Turtmann glacier forefield, Switzerland. Geomorphology 201 : 98–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.06.012

Schrodt F et al. 2019. Opinion: To advance sustainable stewardship, we must document not only biodiversity but geodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 : 16155–16158. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1911799116

How to cite: Eichel, J., Hauer, L., and Bailey, J. J.: Geodiversity-biodiversity relationships in alpine environments: a biogeomorphic perspective, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5960, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5960, 2020.

D1110 |
Lucie Kubalíková

In the last decades, the concept of ecosystem services has become important to nature conservation. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) demonstrated the importance of ecosystems for human well-being and identified the services that ecosystems provide to society. Nevertheless, geodiversity (abiotic nature) as an indispensable component of ecosystems was underestimated (Gray 2011). Based on this, the concepts of "abiotic ecosystem services" or “geosystem services” were defined and discussed (Gordon, Barron 2012, Gray 2013, Van Ree, van Beukering 2016).

The role of geodiversity in ecosystem services has been already recognized, but in specific cases with problems and ambiguities (Brilha et al. 2018, Gray 2018). Practical applications combining geodiversity research and the concept of abiotic ecosystem services are still rather scarce, but it is evident that the wider use of this concept can provide a framework for (geo)conservation activities, sustainable use of resources or educational and tourist activities. The application of the abiotic ecosystem services concept can also enable better communication with policymakers and facilitate the “infiltration” of geodiversity’s importance into care plans for protected sites, regional strategic documents or legislation and policies (Brilha et al. 2018, Schrodt et al. 2019).

Abiotic ecosystem services are already included in the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (European Environmental Agency 2018). Nevertheless, there are still several methodological questions regarding the possible practical application.

The case study is focused on the assessment of abiotic ecosystem services at Stránská skála Rock in Brno (Czech Republic). It is a site protected by law (National Natural Monument since 1978) and currently, a new care plan is prepared. The ecosystem services concept is used to assess the abiotic components of the site (limestone outcrops, abandoned quarries, cave systems). Two approaches are applied (Gray 2013 and European Environmental Agency 2018) and their suitability or ambiguities are discussed. Based on the application of the concepts, the value of geodiversity can be fully recognized and the management of the site thus can be more effective.



Brilha J et al. (2018) Geodiversity: An integrative review as a contribution to the sustainable management of the whole of nature. Environmental Science and Policy 86:19–28

European Environmental Agency (2018) Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services V5.1. https://cices.eu/resources/

Gordon JE, Barron HF (2012) Valuing geodiversity and geoconservation: developing a more strategic ecosystem approach. Scottish Geographical Journal, 128:278–297

Gray M (2011) Other nature: geodiversity and geosystem services. Environmental Conservation 38(3):271–274

Gray M (2013) Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. Second Edition. Wiley Blackwell, 495 p

Gray M (2018) The confused position of the geosciences within the “natural capital” and “ecosystem services” approaches. Ecosystem Services 34A:106-112

MEA – Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington DC.

Schrodt F et al. (2019) To advance sustainable stewardship, we must document not only biodiversity but geodiversity. PNAS 116(33):16155–16158

Van Ree CCDF, van Beukering PJH (2016) Geosystem services: A concept in support of sustainable development of the subsurface. Ecosystem Services 20:30–36


How to cite: Kubalíková, L.: Abiotic ecosystem services: an effective tool for geoconservation, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-213, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-213, 2020.

D1111 |
Laura Melelli

The “geological reason” of a city is always a proper starting point to understand the historical evolution of urban areas. However, where the human presence modified and covered the initial natural location is quite difficult to find outcrops for understanding the original geological and geomorphological arrangement. For this reason the underground cities is sometimes the unique opportunity to have meaningful records of the geological history of an area.

To have numerous and well-distributed anthropic underground cavities allows us to understand the palaeogeographic conditions preceding urbanization in an areal extent (spatial correlation). Moreover, if the excavation walls exhibit sufficiently complete and undisturbed vertical stratigraphic structures, the chronological sequence is present (timeline). Thus underground cities are ideal sites to learn the local geodiversity in space and in (past) time.

In addition, considering that in historical cities the most meaningful hidden cavities are focused in the downtowns, it is common to find a strong correlation between the geological value with the archaeological, architectural and historical ones. The union of different aspects increases the capability of these sites to be used as cultural attractors. With the aim to disseminate the concepts of geodiversity and geoheritage toward a wide audience, the underground cities became one of the best tool for scientists, administrators, teachers or touristic guides.

In this paper the Perugia city (Umbria, central Italy) is proposed as the test area, furthermore a conceptual scheme, in order to illustrate the best practice to use geodiversity as connection between urban geology and geoheritage promotion, is proposed.

How to cite: Melelli, L.: Underground city as a record for past geodiversity: a multi-approach for geoheritage promotion in urban areas, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18850, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18850, 2020.

D1112 |
Taha Younes Arrad, Ezzoura Errami, Nasser Ennih, Brahim Ouajhain, El Mostafa Ettachfini, and Mohamed Said Bouaouda

Essaouira Province, as part of both Atlantic margin and Atlasic domain, hosts important and diverse natural attributes. The recognition of its important geological history of more than 250 million years and its tourist vocation based on the promotion of cultural, natural and human heritage are the main criteria to choose this study area. Moreover, since 2001, Essaouira has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has long been a magnet for both national and international visitors.

The present work aims to inventory, assess and promote the major occurrences of geodiversity of Essaouira province, which are still unrecognized, fully unrevealed and unexploited, for conservation and development purposes. The inventory allows us to select the most significant geosites that are assessed through an adaptation of the method proposed by Reynard et al. (2016), based on the scientific and the additional criteria. This new approach that it is being developed and tested by our research group “Equipe de Géodynamique, Géo-éducation et Patrimoine Géologique” of the Faculty of Sciences (El Jadida), consists of the identification of the potential geosites according to a spatial hierarchy (primary, secondary, tertiary and individual geosites), while keeping the original metrics. This procedure has enabled us to assess geosites in terms of their scientific, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values: (i) Jbel Amsittene primary geosite (6 secondary and 15 tertiary geosites); (ii) Tidzi Diapir primary geosite (14 secondary geosites); (iii) Jbel Hadid primary geosite (14 secondary geosites). The remaining geosites in the province have been considered as individual geosites (21 scientific and 16 cultural). A database has been created by GIS-based implementation  and the outcomes that highlights the most relevant geosites are plotted on synthetic maps that integrate all data pertaining to the basic infrastructures.

This work provides a contribution to the Moroccan geoheritage inventory and promotion. therefore, we suggest activities to be developed, mainly in the fields of geotourism and geo-education. Indeed, these activities will allow popularizing Earth Science and catalyzing sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas while keeping and promoting their local identity. Consequently, it is important to integrate the geoheritage in the region's development-related priorities and strategies and to create a geopark in Essaouira Province.

How to cite: Arrad, T. Y., Errami, E., Ennih, N., Ouajhain, B., Ettachfini, E. M., and Bouaouda, M. S.: Inventory, evaluation and promotion of the Essaouira Province geoheritage (Morocco): Toward a local and socio-economic sustainable development, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-806, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-806, 2020.

D1113 |
Rita Melis and Guido Stefano Mariani

In a world where the interaction between humans and the physical landscape is deep and widespread since prehistory, geological and cultural heritage are still very much separate and addressed by experts and professionals coming from very different fields. The scarcity of effective communication channels impairs shared experience and fruitful collaboration in enhancing geosite awareness in the general public. When integrated approaches appear, they often still concentrate on the cultural narration using geological and environmental information only to support a palimpsest very much human-centred. Attention on integrated divulgation of the geological and natural processes surrounding cultural sites is still lacking. In fact, there is the possibility of walking the opposite path: that is, of using cultural heritage in order to inform the public and divulgate past and current geological processes acting on the wider landscape. This is especially true in highly dynamic environments, where geomorphological processes visibly modify cultural landmarks over time. In this sense, coasts are the ideal setting. They have represented one of the preferential places for human settlement since the dawn of civilization. Coastal environments show strong, complex geomorphological dynamics subject to cycles and variations over time which can be recorded in many different archives, some readily understandable by non-experts.

In this contribution we bring examples of how the interaction between cultural heritage and geoheritage can be used to enhance the communication of geomorphological issues. The coastal area of the southwestern portion of Sardinia (Italy) is the location of numerous archaeological settlements, ranging from Mesolithic shelters to wide, majestic Punic and Roman trade ports and cities. Sea level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum has widely interested this territory, and its effect is very well recorded in archaeological contexts. Here, variations in topography and geomorphology are changing the contexts of the sites themselves and sometimes threat their integrity through different geological and geomorphological hazards. The development of narrations focused on explaining these processes, using the archaeological evidence as a tool to convey geological concepts, might raise geological awareness in the general public and spread knowledge about the geomorphological history and features of the local and global landscape.

How to cite: Melis, R. and Mariani, G. S.: The role of archaeological sites in conveying geoheritage awareness: a case from Southwestern Sardinia (Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7612, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7612, 2020.

D1114 |
Yunong Wu, Bin Zhang, Burghard C. Meyer, Duo Xie, Yong Zeng, Wenjie Xu, Yulian Pan, and Guoliang Liu

Abstract: Chinese Traditional Villages (TV) were selected from millions of villages based on their important historical and cultural heritage value. The distribution of TV characterized by spatial differentiation is subject to complex and diverse influencing factors. This study takes 6819 TV in China (as of the end of 2019) as research objects to analyse the distribution density of TV in different provinces; the spatial autocorrelation module in ArcGIS' spatial statistical tool was used to analyse the distribution characteristics; a total of 9 factors were selected from the three indicator groups of climate, geography and humanities, and introduced into the clustering and outlier analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I) module to analyse their spatial relationships with TV distribution. The results show that: 1. The spatial distribution of Chinese TV presents an obvious uneven aggregation state. Among them, the highest distribution density was 10.18 per 10,000 km² in Zhejiang province, while less than 0.5 per 10,000 km² in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Tibet and Xinjiang. The Global Moran's I index of TV distribution is 0.352, and the z-value of normal statistic is 949.76, which has a strong spatial autocorrelation. 2. The distribution of TV is mainly interpreted by humidity index, annual average temperature, elevation, slope, cultural relics, and population. 3. The results of clustering and outlier show that there are significant differences in the effect of the influencing factors on the distribution of TV in different regions. This paper aims to understand the influencing factors that affect the spatial distribution of TV in China and provide more comprehensive research content. This study indicates the importance of further cross-regional analysis of the TV distribution and provides a reference for its environmental management and protective measures and policies.

How to cite: Wu, Y., Zhang, B., Meyer, B. C., Xie, D., Zeng, Y., Xu, W., Pan, Y., and Liu, G.: Spatial Distribution of Chinese Traditional Villages and its Influencing Factors, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5479, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5479, 2020.