TS2.2

Current and past stress in the crust: quantitative techniques, case studies and rheological implications ?

Understanding the current and past state of stress is key to comprehend the rheological behavior of the crust, with numerous implications spanning from geodynamics to microstructure developments, and applications spanning from seismogenesis to resource distribution. The current state of stress is mainly assessed on seismic focal mechanisms, fault monitoring and slip inversion, borehole failure and imaging, and methods such as hydraulic fracturing to determine the magnitude of the applied stress. Paleopiezometry techniques rely on experimental and/or analytical approaches that link a finite deformation to an applied stress magnitude. Such technique allows to reconstruct past stress magnitude, orientation and regime on long time-scales. This session aims at picturing the state-of-the-art of the stress determination in the crust, whether it is the current stress or the past stress. We welcome any contribution that reconstructs regional state of stress in the crust by the mean of current measurement or paleopiezometry techniques, and that uses experimental or analytical/numerical approaches to predict stress distribution in rocks.

Co-organized by EMRP1
Convener: Nicolas Beaudoin | Co-conveners: Olivier Lacombe, Daniel Koehn, Christophe Pascal, Damien Delvaux
Presentations
| Thu, 26 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST)
 
Room K2

Presentations: Thu, 26 May | Room K2

Chairpersons: Nicolas Beaudoin, Damien Delvaux
08:30–08:32
08:32–08:42
|
EGU22-3901
|
solicited
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Erik Rybacki, Lu Niu, and Brian Evans

Semi-brittle flow occurs when crystal plasticity and cataclastic mechanisms operate concurrently and may be common in the middle Earth’s crust. To better constrain the characteristics of semi-brittle deformation, we performed triaxial tests up to 12% strain on dry samples of Carrara marble, spanning a wide range of temperature (T = 20 - 800°C), confining pressures (PC = 30 – 300 MPa), and strain rates (ε'= 10-3 - 10­-6 s-1). The (differential) stress (Δσ = σ1 - PC) and the hardening coefficient (h = ∂Δσ/∂ε ) depend on the applied conditions. At most conditions, Δσ increases with strain, whereas h decreases with increasing strain. At 5% strain, stress and the hardening coefficient increase as T decreases and PC increases: Remarkably, both are relatively insensitive to temperature and to rate in the range of ≈ 200 < T < 400°C. At T ≲ 400°C, the mechanical behavior of the marble is very similar to that exhibited by high-strength, high-ductility, hexagonal metals that deform by processes called twinning induced plasticity (TWIP). Qualitative microstructural observations show that twinning, dislocation motion, and inter- and intra-crystalline micro-fractures are abundant in the deformed samples over the entire range of conditions. The interplay of these deformation mechanisms leads to complex relationships of Δσ and h with the applied ε'  - T ‑ PC  conditions. Models for TWIP behavior suggest that hardening increases with decreasing twin spacing and increasing dislocation density. The low sensitivity of Δσ and h to T at 200 to 400°C may be explained by the relatively low temperature sensitivity of the critical resolved shear stress for twinning and dislocation slip in calcite in this range. None of the existing models for the brittle-ductile transition or the brittle-plastic transition are able to fully predict our experimental results, and micro mechanism-based constitutive laws for semi-brittle deformation are missing so far. Nevertheless, our observations suggest that peak strengths for calcite rocks deforming by semi-brittle processes will occur at PC ‑ T conditions of the middle crust, but that the strengths are probably more strongly influenced by total strain rather than by strain rate.

How to cite: Rybacki, E., Niu, L., and Evans, B.: Semi-brittle Deformation of Carrara Marble: A Complex Interplay of Strength, Hardening and Deformation Mechanisms, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3901, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3901, 2022.

08:42–08:48
|
EGU22-6855
|
Virtual presentation
Hiroaki Yokoyama, Jun Muto, and Hiroyuki Nagahama

Quantifying crustal strength is essential to understanding lithosphere strengths and tectonic processes, such as long-term fault movements caused by plate motions. In this study, we estimated the strength of granitic upper crust using recrystallized grain size piezometer of calcite mylonite intercalated in the Cretaceous granitic Abukuma Mountains. In addition, Raman carbonaceous material thermometer was used to constrain the deformation temperature. Calcite mylonites are originated from Late Carboniferous Tateishi Formation and locate along Shajigami shear zone at eastern margin of Abukuma Mountains, Northeastern Japan. Shajigami shear zone is a strike-slip shear zone active during the Middle Cretaceous. Along Shajigami shear zone, calcite mylonite and granitic cataclasites expose.

Calcite grains are well recrystallized, and the grain size are determined by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping with the step sizes of 2-2.5µm. The mean grain sizes are 17-26 µm. The differential stress estimated by recrystallized grain size piezometer of calcite aggregate (Platt and De Bresser, 2017) is 35-80 MPa. The estimated metamorphic temperature using the Raman carbonaceous material thermometer (Kouketsu et al., 2014) is 340-250 ˚C. The difference in estimated metamorphic temperature is attributed to the thermal effects of the Cretaceous granitoids that penetrated along the calcite mylonite. This is because the estimated metamorphic temperature is higher the closer to the granitoid. Because well dynamically recrystallized calcite grains indicate that the deformation temperature exceeding 200˚C, the estimate by Raman carbonaceous material thermometer is the upper bound for the deformation temperature.

The calcite mylonite and the granitic cataclasite are thought to have formed at the same time in the Shajigami shear zone (Watanuki et al., 2020). Although there is a slight temperature gradient near the granite, widespread deformation has occurred in this area. The deformation temperature obtained in this study is the deformation around the brittle-plastic transition zone of the upper crust. Hence, the collecting flow stress estimated from calcite mylonite intercalated in brittle granitic shear zone may be possible to constrain the stress magnitude of the shear zone data near the brittle-plastic transition at 200-300°C.

 

References

Platt and De Bresser, 2017, J. Struct. Geol., 105, 80-87.

Kouketsu et al., 2014, Island arc, 23, 33-50.

Watanuki et al., 2020, J. Struct. Geol., 137, 104046.

How to cite: Yokoyama, H., Muto, J., and Nagahama, H.: Can the crustal strength in the brittle-plastic transition zone be estimated from the flow stress of calcite mylonite?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6855, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6855, 2022.

08:48–08:54
|
EGU22-2969
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Christophe Pascal, Luís Jaques, and Atsushi Yamaji

The quantification of tectonic forces or, alternatively, stresses represents a significant step towards the understanding of the natural processes governing plate tectonics and deformation at all scales. However, paleostress reconstructions based on the observation and measurement of natural fractures are traditionally limited to the determination of four out of the six parameters of the stress tensor. In the present study, we attempt to reconstruct full paleostress tensors by extending the methodologies advanced by previous authors. We selected Panasqueira Mine, Central Portugal, as natural laboratory, and focused on the measurement of sub-horizontal quartz veins, which are favourably exposed in three dimensions in the underground galleries of the mine. Inversion of the vein data allowed for quantifying the respective orientations of the stress axes and the shape ratio of the stress ellipsoid. In order to reconstruct an additional stress parameter, namely pressure, we extensively sampled vein material and combined fluid inclusion analyses on quartz samples with geothermometric analyses on sulphide minerals. Finally, we adjusted the radius of the obtained Mohr circle with the help of mechanical parameters, and obtained the six parameters of the paleostress tensor that prevailed during vein formation. Our results suggests a NW-SE reverse stress regime with a shape ratio equal to ~0.6, lithostatic pore pressure of ~250 MPa and differential stress between ~40 and ~90 MPa.

How to cite: Pascal, C., Jaques, L., and Yamaji, A.: Determination of the six unknowns of the paleostress tensor from vein data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2969, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2969, 2022.

08:54–09:00
|
EGU22-13201
|
Virtual presentation
Frantz Maerten, Laurent Maerten, Romain Plateaux, and Pauline Cornard
    In volcano-tectonic regions, dyke propagation from shallow magmatic chambers are often controlled by ambient perturbed stress field. The variations of the stress field result from combining factors including, but not exclusively, the regional tectonic stress and the pressurized 3D magma chambers. In this contribution, we describe and apply a new multiparametric inversion technique based on geomechanics that can invert for both the far field stress attributes and the pressure of magma intrusions, such as stocks and magma chambers, constrained by observed dyke orientations. This technique is based on a 3D boundary element method (BEM) for homogeneous elastic half-space where magma chambers are modelled as pressurized cavities. To verify this approach, the BEM solution has been validated against the known 3D analytical solution of a pressurized cylindrical cavity. Then, the effectiveness of this technique and its practical use, in terms of mechanical simulation, is demonstrated through natural examples of dyke network development affected by magma intrusions of two different volcanic systems, the Spanish Peaks (USA) and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Results demonstrate that regional stress characteristics as well as pressure of magma chambers can be recovered from observed radial and circumferential dyke patterns.

 

How to cite: Maerten, F., Maerten, L., Plateaux, R., and Cornard, P.: Joint inversion of tectonic stress and magma pressures using dyke trajectories, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13201, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13201, 2022.

09:00–09:06
|
EGU22-5556
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Lisa Marie Brückner, Fabian Dellefant, and Claudia A. Trepmann

Recrystallized quartz grains are localized along cleavage cracks in coarse original quartz grains within pseudotachylyte-bearing gneisses from the Silvretta basal thrust, Austria, and in shock-vein-bearing gneisses from the Vredefort meteorite impact structure, South Africa.

In the fault rocks of the Silvretta nappe, the recrystallized grains along two sets of {10-11} cleavage cracks at an angle of about 90° occur in rounded quartz clasts with a diameter of several tens of mm to cm embedded within pseudotachylytes. No evidences of shear offset were found in relation to the cleavage cracks. The fine-grained recrystallized grains have diameters of about 10 ± 6 µm or less and are slightly elongated parallel to the cleavage planes. These new grains have similar but also deviating crystallographic orientations to that of the host. As these quartz microstructures occur exclusively in spatial relation to pseudotachylytes, they are interpreted to result from the associated high stress/high strain-rate deformation. Mechanical (-101) twins in amphibole revealed stresses on the order of 400 MPa during formation of the pseudotachylytes. Yet, the new quartz grains do not show evidence of deformation after their growth, i.e., no internal misorientation, no crystallographic preferred orientation related to dislocation glide. Therefore, we suggest that the secondary quartz grains formed during annealing after the pseudotachylyte-forming event localized at the damage zone surrounding the cleavage cracks at quasi-isostatic stress conditions.

Very similar microstructures are found in Archean gneisses of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa. There, the recrystallized grains with diameters of few µm along {10-11} and (0001) cleavage planes occur in shocked quartz grains related to mm-sized shock veins, characterized by Schlieren-microstructure of secondary feldspar. Also here, no major shear offset of the cleavage cracks is obvious and the secondary quartz grains do not show evidence of deformation. The observation that quartz shock effects are spatially related to both, the shock veins and secondary quartz grains, suggests that they formed during shock loading and subsequent pressure release with high strain rates (ca. 106 s-1) but minor shearing. Analogous to the Silvretta fault rocks, growth of quartz grains is suggested to occur restricted to the damage zone of the cleavage cracks at quasi-isostatic stresses during post-shock annealing.

In both, the Silvretta fault rocks and shocked gneisses from the Vredefort dome, quartz grains fractured without major shearing at high stresses and subsequently recrystallized localized to the damage zone of cleavage cracks at quasi-isostatic stress conditions. Damage in the process zone surrounding the cleavage cracks must have been large enough for effective grain boundary migration, i.e., growth of grains in orientations weakly controlled by the host orientation. Recrystallization ceased because of the missing driving force during subsequent quasi-isostatic stress conditions. These microstructures indicate quasi-instantaneous loading to high differential stresses of a few hundred MPa and fast unloading to quasi-isostatic stress conditions.

How to cite: Brückner, L. M., Dellefant, F., and Trepmann, C. A.: Fast stress-loading and -unloading during faulting and shock indicated by recrystallized grains along quartz cleavage cracks, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5556, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5556, 2022.

09:06–09:12
|
EGU22-9170
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Rajiv Ranjan and Kathakali Bhattacharyya

 

Estimating deformation conditions from shear zone rocks is critical in understanding its complex deformation history. However, often the deformation conditions from mylonite provide information on the finite deformed state conditions. On the contrary, if there are veins preserved, they may record incremental strain stages during progressive deformation. Thus, we used veins as incremental strain markers to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation in deformation conditions along the transport direction of a major shear zone. We estimated vein attributes at the microscopic scale, deformation temperature, flow stress, and strain rate from the Pelling-Munsiari thrust in the Sikkim Himalaya. It is a regionally folded thrust that acts as the roof thrust of a complex Lesser Himalayan duplex. The PT zone is exposed as ~938 m and ~188 m thick quartz-mica mylonite zone at the hinterland-most (Mangan) and the frontal exposures (Suntaley) in eastern Sikkim, respectively. The PT zone is subdivided into three domains where the protomylonite domain is surrounded by mylonite domains on both sides.

We recognize three different vein-sets based on the angular relationship to the mylonitic foliation. At both the locations of the PT zone, the low-angle (0-30°) is the dominant vein-set followed by moderate-angle (30-60°) and high-angle (60-90°). Based on the cross-cutting relationship, we find high-angle vein set is the youngest. The low-angle vein-sets are dominant in both these locations. We observed multiple crack-and-sealed events in Mangan, indicating repeated failure and mineral precipitation. In contrast, we do not observe any such texture in the veins that are preserved in the frontal exposure of the PT zone. At both the PT zones, there are higher distribution of veins near the footwall. In the hinterland, veins record coarser grain sizes in the protomylonite domain than in the mylonite domain. However, we observed a different trend in the frontal exposure, where veins from the mylonite domain record coarser grain sizes. In both locations, quartz grains dominantly exhibit the subgrain rotation recrystallization mechanism. We semi-quantitatively estimate a first-order deformation temperature using the recalibrated quartz recrystallization thermometer (Law, 2014). In the hinterland, the low-angle vein-set records the highest deformation temperature. In contrast, high-angle veins record higher deformation temperature in the foreland. Following Stipp et al. (2003) and Twiss (1977), we estimate flow stress from recrystallized quartz grain-size piezometer. The high-angle (~24.71MPa) vein-set records the highest flow stress in the hinterland. In comparison, moderate-angle (~29.55MPa) veins record the highest flow stress in the foreland exposure. Following Hirth et al. (2001), we estimated similar strain rates (~10-15 sec-1) from both locations. The three sets of veins record different deformation conditions in both locations suggesting different incremental strain stages. Interestingly, the high-angle veins record the fastest strain rate (~6*10-15 sec-1) in the hinterland most exposure, whereas, in the frontal part the moderate-angle veins record the fastest strain rate (~9*10-15 sec-1).

How to cite: Ranjan, R. and Bhattacharyya, K.: Estimation of deformation temperature, flow stress, and strain rate from the veins of an internal shear zone: Insights from Pelling-Munsiari thrust, Sikkim Himalaya, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9170, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9170, 2022.

09:12–09:15
09:15–09:21
|
EGU22-8449
|
ECS
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Sandra Borderie, Jon Mosar, Louis Hauvette, Adeline Marro, Anna Sommaruga, and Michel Meyer

The Northern Alpine foreland is divided into two domains: the Molasse Basin and the Jura fold-and-thrust belt (FTB). The Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary cover of this area is deformed by thrust-related folds and strike-slip faults. The main structures root in a basal Triassic décollement. The Geneva Basin, located in western Switzerland, is part of the Plateau Molasse (belonging to the Molasse Basin), and is limited to the NW by the Jura FTB, to the SW by the Vuache fault, and to the SE by the Mont Salève ramp related anticline and the Subalpine Molasse.

If current seismicity indicates that the Geneva Basin is tectonically active, few data regarding the state of stress in the area are currently available. The goal of this study is to densify the knowledge of the state of stress in the Geneva Basin and in the adjacent Jura FTB, by using numerical modelling.

The first part of the study is a regional study. In a 2D section, we study the impact of the friction along the basal décollement, on the localisation of deformation and on the associated stress field. Results indicate that depending on the friction, deformation will localise at the rear of the Mont Salève, in the Geneva Basin or at the frontal part of the Jura FTB. In the range of frictions where deformation localises in the Geneva Basin, the distribution of stress varies. Differential stress is higher and more localised for higher basal frictions.

The second part of the study is more local. The prototype section is based on seismic interpretation of a seismic surveys in the Geneva Basin. We study the impact of friction along the inherited faults on incipient deformation. Results indicate that a decrease in the fault’s friction allows forwards propagation of deformation and allows reactivation of inherited faults. If the friction in the faults is too low, deformation will localise at the first inherited fault (i.e. the Salève thrust in this case study). The stress fields vary depending on the localisation of deformation. Stress magnitudes are lower and more distributed when all faults have the same friction. The more deformation is localised on a structure, the more stress concentration is observed.

These results allow to better constrain the mechanical context of these sections and to populate this part of the Northern Alpine foreland with stress data.

How to cite: Borderie, S., Mosar, J., Hauvette, L., Marro, A., Sommaruga, A., and Meyer, M.: Numerical modelling of current state of stress in the Geneva Basin and adjacent Jura fold-and-thrust belt (Switzerland and France)., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8449, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8449, 2022.

09:21–09:27
|
EGU22-7305
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Sofia Bressan, Olympia Gounari, Valsamis Ntouskos, Noemi Corti, Fabio Luca Bonali, Konstantinos Karantzalos, and Alessandro Tibaldi

The reconstruction of present-day stress and palaeostress trajectories is of paramount importance to study the tectonic regime and its evolution, in a specific area. Its comprehension is crucial also for seismic and volcanic hazard assessment, especially focusing on the shallow crust.

In the framework of the NEANIAS project (https://www.neanias.eu/), EU H2020 RIA, it has been developed the so called ATMO-Stress service (https://docs.neanias.eu/projects/a2-1-service/en/latest/), an open-source cloud service, currently hosted on the GARR Kubernetes platform, which allows to calculate stress trajectories in plain view, based on the concepts from Lee and Angelier (1994). It is designed to run on modern computers for both academics and non-academics purposes, spanning from research activity to oil and gas industries, natural hazard prevention and management.

The service is freely accessible at https://atmo-stress.neanias.eu/ and is designed to calculate the stress trajectories for a specific area, considering as input the same type of stress (e.g. σHmax or σHmin). Data input can be from different sources (e.g. field data, focal mechanism solutions, in-situ geotechnical measures). They must be listed in a homogeneous ASCII text file or Excel file format, including the geographic coordinates, azimuth of the stress and the angular error. The service is capable of processing data from local to regional scale. Following the principles from Lee and Angelier (1994), the trajectory calculation can be done using different parameters and settings. The outputs can be seen directly on the website and can be downloaded with file formats ready to be imported and analyzed in GIS environment and Google Earth.

How to cite: Bressan, S., Gounari, O., Ntouskos, V., Corti, N., Bonali, F. L., Karantzalos, K., and Tibaldi, A.: A new free software to reconstruct stress trajectories: the Atmo-stress service , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7305, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7305, 2022.

09:27–09:33
|
EGU22-6673
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Jack Loveless, Hanna Elston, Michele Cooke, and Scott Marshall

Inversions of interseismic surface velocities alone often struggle to uniquely resolve the 3D fault slip rate distribution along systems with branching or closely spaced faults, such as the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California, USA. Local stress states inferred from microseismic focal mechanisms may provide additional constraints on interseismic deep slip because they contain information about stress at depth and closer to the interseismic deep slip than GPS surface velocities. Here, we invert forward-model generated stressing rate tensors and surface velocities, individually and jointly, to assess how well the inverse approach estimates the distribution of slip rates along both simple and complex fault systems. The inverse approach we present can constrain both the interseismic deep slip rates that reveal fault locking depths and the relative activity of faults. 

We assess the inverse approach by inverting forward model-generated stressing rate tensors and surface velocities to recover fault slip distribution for two models. Forward models that include either a single, planar strike-slip fault or the 3D complex geometry of the southern SAF simulate interseismic loading in a two-step back-slip like approach. The forward models produce surface velocities with a 15 km spacing, which is similar to the GPS station density near the southern SAF, or at GPS station locations in southern California. We utilize the planar fault model to determine the smoothing parameters and stressing rate tensor spacing (>10 km) that minimize the misfit. The 10 km minimum spacing samples crustal volumes that are likely to have >39 focal mechanisms needed to robustly determine a stress tensor. The planar fault model inversions and the availability of focal mechanisms along the southern SAF inform the stressing rate tensor locations that we use to assess the complex model inversion performance. Because focal mechanisms provide normalized deviatoric stress tensors, we invert the full forward-model generated stress tensor as well as the deviatoric and normalized deviatoric stress tensors; this allows us to assess the impact of removing stress magnitude from the inversion.  

The inversions of the forward model-generated stressing rate tensors and surface velocities recover the slip rate distribution well with the exception of the normalized deviatoric stressing rate tensor inversion, which struggles to resolve the fault slip rates in both models. The inversions recover the locking depth with a broader transition zone than prescribed in the forward model due to the smoothing-based regularization within the inversion. The full stressing rate tensor inversion resolves slip rates better than the surface velocity inversions. The deviatoric stressing rate tensor inversion resolves slip rates better than the surface velocity inversion in the complex fault model but not in the planar fault model. Inverting stress and surface velocity information jointly improves the fit to the forward model slip distribution for both models. Joint inversions of both surface velocities and local stress states derived from focal mechanisms may improve constraints on the interseismic deep slip rates and locking depths in regions of complex faulting.

How to cite: Loveless, J., Elston, H., Cooke, M., and Marshall, S.: Using surface velocities and subsurface stressing rate tensors to resolve interseismic deep slip distribution on closely spaced faults, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6673, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6673, 2022.

09:33–09:39
|
EGU22-1324
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Anthony Adwan, Bertrand Maillot, Pauline Souloumiac, Christophe Barnes, and Pascale Leturmy

Knowledge of the in-situ stress state is a key factor for any subsurface site characterization and for safe underground geotechnical exploitations. Despite the huge progress in estimating the stress field, understanding the state of stress is still a tedious and challenging endeavor due to incomplete data and sparse information. Moreover, the cost of performing stress measurements is quite elevated while the procedure is delicate and time consuming. Thus, the importance of utilizing geomechanical models for a wider stress evaluation.

We conduct a sensitivity analysis of the stress field with respect to rheological parameters in a kilometric scale thrust fold using a 3D numerical implementation of the theory of Limit Analysis (LA). LA searches for the exact loading force at the onset of failure by bounding it through optimization using a kinematic (upper bound) and a static (lower bound) approach. Elastic parameters are not required, and we only adopt the Coulomb failure criterion characterized by a friction angle and a cohesion.

The 3D geological prototype created, is inspired from the north eastern Jura setting, northern Switzerland, and corresponds to the lateral termination of a partially buried fault cored anticline. It is formed by five material layers with different Coulomb parameters and two different décollement levels. We perform a parametric study by varying the friction angle of the bulk materials, the faults and the shallow décollement.

Our simulations, show various stress distribution patterns depending on the uncertainties related to fault and decollement friction angles. This implies different model behaviors and distinct rupture geometries. However, we identify in particular a stress shielded layer presenting low stress values independently of the parametric variations. Comparing our results with a 2D approach consolidates our findings and highlights the importance of 3D modeling. Finally, we perform a stress analysis of several boreholes taken at various locations. We represent each borehole by an average stress profile with its respective standard deviation. In doing so, we are transforming the parametric variations into stress logs reflecting our uncertainties. This process reveals in particular a counter-intuitive vertical stress decrease with depth near activated blind faults. We argue that this observation is related to material uplift in a compression regime and is only possible for a restricted blind fault.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of performing real stress data inversion in order to both predict stresses away from the measurements, and determine ranges of compatible rock parameters.

How to cite: Adwan, A., Maillot, B., Souloumiac, P., Barnes, C., and Leturmy, P.: Stochastic mechanical analysis of the stress field in a 3D thrust fold, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1324, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1324, 2022.

09:39–09:45
|
EGU22-2282
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Pom-yong Choi, Minkyung Son, and Jin Hyuck Choi

In November 2017, an Mw 5.4 earthquake with a shallow (~ 4 km) hypocenter occurred in Pohang, South Korea. Seismotectonics of this region is highlighted by ENE-WSW compression, the dominant stress field in the Korean peninsula, belongs to the Himalayan tectonic domain (HTD), and WNW-ESE or NW-SE compression belongs to the Philippine Sea tectonic domain (PSTD). Here we analyzed the aftershocks, involving focal mechanism of 38 events, to understand the characteristics of the earthquake sequence. Our results show that the mainshock sequence occurred on four ruptures showing a NE-SW trend and in February 2018, one another earthquake (or aftershock) occurred on a NNW-SSE trending rupture at 3.5 km west of the epicenter of the mainshock. Note that aftershocks mainly occurred between two NNE-SSW trending faults: Seonggok Fault and Gokgang Fault.

We analyzed the focal mechanism data as done by fault tectonic analysis. We classified them into several clusters following locations and depths and by whether a population shows a strike-slip faulting type or reverse faulting type. They were classified into several different clusters in the central main area, the northeastern area, and the southwestern area. In the central main area, focal mechanism data of strike-slip faulting type show that the WNW-ESE compression prevails in the depth between 2.0 to 4.0 km and 5.6 to 5.8km, while ENE-WSW compression is dominant between 4.3 and 5.0 km. Those of reverse faulting type display the ENE-WSW compression between 4.7 and 5.7 km deep. This implies that the intermediate depth was affected by the HTD and the upper and lower depths by the PSDT, showing a kind of stress layering.

In the northeastern area, roughly E-W compression prevails between 3.7 and 6.5 km deep, and NW-SE compression between 6.0 and 6.7 km deep. In the southwestern area, roughly E-W compressions were induced in the depth of 4.0 to 5.0 km. E-W compression seems to belong to the combinatory stress state of the HTD and PSTD, and NW-SE compression in the lower part might belong to the stress of PSDT.

The phenomenon of stress layering during the Pohang earthquake reveals that the intervention between the HDT and PSDT resulted in the mainshock and aftershocks of 2017 Pohang earthquake, as in the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake.

How to cite: Choi, P., Son, M., and Choi, J. H.: Fault tectonic analysis of focal mechanism data of aftershocks of 2017 Pohang, Korea, earthquake of Mw = 5.4: Stress layering phenomenon between Himalayan and Philippine Sea tectonic domains, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2282, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2282, 2022.

09:45–09:51
|
EGU22-1572
|
ECS
|
Highlight
|
Virtual presentation
Cecile Massiot, Hannu Seebeck, Andrew Nicol, David D. McNamara, Mark J.F. Lawrence, Angela G. Griffin, Glenn P. Thrasher, and G. Paul D. Viskovic

Determining the potential for faults to slip is widely employed for evaluating fault slip potential and associated earthquake hazards, and characterising reservoir properties. Here we use borehole and 3D seismic reflection data to estimate stress orientations and magnitudes, fault geometries and slip tendency in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. We highlight uncertainties in maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) magnitude calculations from borehole breakout width and rock strength. As in other settings, breakout width is uncertain on resistivity images because one of the breakout edges often lies in-between the resistivity imager pads, so only a subset of borehole breakouts can be used with confidence. The main uncertainty on SHmax magnitude is the rock strength at the borehole depth at which breakouts form. Given the rarity of basin-specific rock mechanical data, we rely on equations used to convert downhole acoustic compressional wave slowness into rock strength defined in sandstone and mudstones. However, lithologies in the southern Taranaki Basin are commonly muddy sandstones and sandy mudstone that can be interlayered. In addition, we show an example where breakouts are confined to moderately cemented carbonate units without change in acoustic compressional wave slowness. Using a range of rock strength equations based on sandstones and mudstones provides a possible SHmax magnitude range. With only one focal mechanism available in the study area, constraints on SHmax magnitudes from borehole data remain valuable and inform on stresses in the shallow crust.

Although the southern Taranaki basin is undergoing active deformation at plate tectonic scales, the stress magnitudes appear insufficiently high to reactivate the faults assuming a classic coefficient of friction. SHmax azimuths and SHmax:Sv magnitude ratios vary locally between boreholes and with depth. A borehole that intersects an inactive seismic-scale fault and borehole-scale faults over a 150-m interval shows SHmax to rotate by up to 30° proximal to the faults, which are favourably orientated for slip in both strike-slip and normal regimes. The small borehole-scale faults may, however, be active within the inactive seismic scale fault's damage zone. We highlight changes of slip tendency along faults resulting from local variations in the stress field and non-planar fault geometries that could not be resolved using only seismic reflection data and regional stress tensor.

How to cite: Massiot, C., Seebeck, H., Nicol, A., McNamara, D. D., Lawrence, M. J. F., Griffin, A. G., Thrasher, G. P., and Viskovic, G. P. D.: Effects of regional and local stresses on fault slip tendency in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1572, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1572, 2022.

09:51–09:57
|
EGU22-11676
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Mustapha Meghraoui, Renaud Toussaint, and Murat Ersen Aksoy

The North Anatolian Fault experienced large earthquakes with 250–400 years recurrence time. In the Marmara Sea region,
the 1999 (Mw=7.4) and the 1912 (Mw =7.4) earthquake ruptures bound the Central Marmara Sea fault segment. Using
historical-instrumental seismicity catalogue and paleoseismic results (≃ 2000-year database), the mapped fault segments, fault
kinematic and GPS data, we compute the paleoseismic-seismic moment rate and geodetic moment rate. A clear discrepancy
appears between the moment rates and implies a signifcant delay in the seismic slip along the fault in the Marmara Sea. The
rich database allows us to identify and model the size of the seismic gap and related fault segment and estimate the moment
rate defcit. Our modelling suggest that the locked Central Marmara Sea fault segment (even including a creeping section)
bears a moment rate defcit 6.4 × 1017 N.m./year that corresponds to Mw ≃ 7.4 for a future earthquake with an average
≃ 3.25 m coseismic slip. Taking into account the uncertainty in the strain accumulation along the 130-km-long Central fault
segment, our estimate of the seismic slip defcit being ≃ 10 mm/year implies that the size of the future earthquake ranges
between Mw=7.4 and 7.5.

Reference:

[1] Meghraoui, M., Toussaint, R. & Aksoy, M.E. The slip deficit on the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) in the Marmara Sea: insights from paleoseismicity, seismicity and geodetic data. Med. Geosc. Rev. 3, 45–56 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42990-021-00053-w

How to cite: Meghraoui, M., Toussaint, R., and Aksoy, M. E.: Stress evolution and slip deficit on the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) in the Marmara Sea: insights from paleoseismicity, seismicity and geodetic data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11676, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11676, 2022.

09:57–10:00
Coffee break
Chairpersons: Olivier Lacombe, Christophe Pascal
10:20–10:22
10:22–10:28
|
EGU22-9168
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Ammu Jk and Kathakali Bhattacharyya

Shear zones associated with major thrust faults generally record overprinting of deeper crustal deformation signatures by shallower crustal signatures due to faults climbing up-section along the transport direction. In this study, we investigate the deformation signatures related to the shallow crustal conditions on one such major thrust, the Ramgarh thrust (RT) from Sikkim Himalayan Fold Thrust Belt (FTB). RT is an intermediate crustal thrust that has recorded a translation of ~58-65 km and overprinting of deformation structures. RT acts as the roof thrust of Lesser Himalayan duplex, hence got reactivated several times, and records a long deformation history.

In Sikkim Himalaya, the frontal most exposure of the RT is near Setikhola (N26° 56.178’, E88° 26.607’) as ~57m thick shear zone that exposes the lower Lesser Himalayan Daling quartzite and phyllite in the hanging wall over Gondwana sandstone in the footwall. The mean bedding is oriented ~72°, 298°, and the mean dominant cleavage is ~ 70°, 305°. The outcrop forms the overturned forelimb of a fault-bend antiform. The outcrop is strongly fractured. Based on the angular relationship with respect to the bedding, three sets of fractures were identified. Low angle fractures (< 30° to bedding) constitute ~20.23 %, moderate (30° – 60° to bedding) and high angle fractures (60°- 90° to bedding) constitute ~39.88% of the total fracture population. The fractures are uniformly distributed throughout the stretch of the shear zone. Daling quartzites accommodate more number of fractures than the phyllites. Preliminary investigation indicates that the thicker beds have higher fracture intensity than thinner beds. Few of the fractures were identified as opening mode fractures based on their association with the plumose structures. ~ 17.3% of the total measured fractures records slickenline lineations. These shear fractures reveal two clusters on the stereonet (Set 1: ~90°, 098°; Set 2: ~77°, 331°). They have a dihedral angle of ~54⁰ and set 1 and set 2 are oriented ~ 27⁰ and ~ 32⁰ to the bedding respectively. Based on preliminary analysis, the local maximum principal stress (σ1) is oriented sub-horizontally with a SSW trend. Interestingly, this estimate is in agreement with the current global stress orientations from the Eastern Himalaya, where σ1 is near horizontal and trends NNE – SSW (Larson et al., 1999).

How to cite: Jk, A. and Bhattacharyya, K.: Preliminary fracture analysis from the frontal most exposure of a major roof thrust in the Eastern Himalaya: Insights from the Ramgarh thrust, Sikkim Himalaya., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9168, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9168, 2022.

10:28–10:34
|
EGU22-9169
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Swastik Suman Behera and Kathakali Bhattacharyya

We estimate paleostress orientations (σ1, σ2 and σ3), stress ratios (φ) and driving pressure ratios (R′) from the extension veins exposed within the Buxa dolomite of the frontal Main Boundary thrust (MBT) sheet in the Siang valley, Arunanchal Lesser Himalaya. Based on the angular relationship with the bedding, the fractures and veins were divided into low-angle (<30°), moderate-angle (~30°-60°) and high-angle (>60°) sets. Observations in the field as well as at a microscopic level indicate that the high- and moderate-angle veins overprint the low-angle veins implying that the latter are the oldest. The high-angle veins are the most dominant set (~49%; mean orientation: ~23°, ~141°) followed by the moderate- (~31%; mean orientation: ~70°, ~176°) and the low-angle (~20%; mean orientation: ~58°, ~224°) set. The poles to the low- and high-angle veins define a clustered distribution in the stereoplot indicating that the pore fluid pressure (Pf) was less than the intermediate principal stress (σ2) during the formation of these vein sets. In contrast, the poles to the moderate-angle veins mark a girdled pattern in the stereoplot indicating that the pore fluid pressure (Pf) exceeded the intermediate principal stress (σ2) during their formation. On applying the stress inversion method (Yamaji et al., 2010) to the veins, 5 different generations of veins are revealed. Preliminary microstructural study indicates that the low-angle veins are dominantly quartz-rich, whereas the high-angle veins are dominantly calcite-rich indicating the presence of multiple generations of veins. The study also indicates the presence of blocky texture in the veins with the growth direction of the mineral grains at a high angle to the vein wall. Based on the stress ratio (φ), driving pressure ratio (R′) and the orientation of stress axes associated with each generation, the different generations of veins most likely formed under different stress conditions.

How to cite: Behera, S. S. and Bhattacharyya, K.: Characterization of vein-sets and estimation of stress orientations and stress ratios from the Buxa dolomite, Main Boundary thrust (MBT) sheet, Siang Valley, Arunanchal Lesser Himalaya, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9169, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9169, 2022.

10:34–10:40
|
EGU22-13203
|
On-site presentation
Markos D. Tranos, Konan Roger Assie, Yu Wang, Huimin Ma, Kouamelan Serge Kouamelan, Eric Thompson Brantson, Liyun Zhou, and Yanick Blaise Ketchaya

The Fanshi Basin is one of the NE-SW-striking depocenters formed along the northern segment of the fault-bounded Shanxi rift. In order to understand the crustal driving stresses that led to the basin formation and development, a paleostress analysis of a large number of fault-slip data collected mainly at the boundaries of the basin was accomplished. The stress inversion of these data revealed three stress regimes. The oldest SR1 was a Neogene stress regime giving rise to a strike-slip deformation with NE-SW contraction and NW-SE extension. SR1 activated the large faults trending NNE-NE, i.e., (sub) parallel to the main strike of the Shanxi rift, as right-lateral strike-slip faults. It was subjected to the Shanxi rift before the activation of the Fansi Basin boundary fault, i.e., the Fanshi (or Wutai) fault, as a normal fault. The next is a short-lived NE-SW extensional stress regime SR2 in the Early Pleistocene, which shows the inception of the basin's extension. A strong NW-SE to NNW-SSE extensional stress regime SR3 governed the northern segment of the Shanxi rift since the Late Pleistocene and is the present-day extension. It gives rise to the current half-graben geometry of the Fanshi Basin by activating the Fanshi (or Wutai) fault as a normal fault in the southern part of the graben. Because of the dominance of the NW-SE to NNW-SSE extension, which is perpendicular to the NE-SW extension, mutual permutations between σ3 and σ2 due to inherited fault patterns might occur while the stress regime changed from SR1 to SR3.

How to cite: Tranos, M. D., Assie, K. R., Wang, Y., Ma, H., Kouamelan, K. S., Thompson Brantson, E., Zhou, L., and Blaise Ketchaya, Y.: Late Cenozoic faulting deformation of the Fanshi Basin (Northern Shanxi rift, China), inferred from paleostress analysis of mesoscale fault-slip data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13203, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13203, 2022.

10:40–10:46
|
EGU22-1823
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Elena A. Pavlovskaia, Andrey K. Khudoley, Jonas B. Ruh, Artem N. Moskalenko, Marcel Guillong, and Sergey V. Malyshev

The formation of the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) is traditionally interpreted as a result of Late Mesozoic subduction and consequent closure of the Oimyakon Ocean, followed by the collision of the Kolyma-Omolon microcontinent with the Siberian Craton. In particular, the northern Verkhoyansk FTB reflects the complex tectonic history and interaction of the Arctic and Verkhoyansk orogens. Although previous studies documented several Cretaceous deformation events, the details of the northern Verkhoyansk evolution are still poorly understood.

A combined structural and geochronological study was carried out to identify the tectonic evolution of the northern Verkhoyansk FTB. Fault and fold geometries and kinematics were used for paleostress reconstruction in the central and western parts of the northern Verkhoyansk FTB. The multiple inverse method was used to separate individual stress fields from heterogeneous fault-slip data and three different stress fields (thrust, normal and strike-slip faulting) were identified. Thrust and normal faulting stress fields were found throughout the study area, whereas a strike-slip faulting stress field was only found in Neoproterozoic rocks in the westernmost part of the northern Verkhoyansk FTB. Furthermore, U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of calcite fibers on slickensides was performed to obtain a first-order time constraint on fault activity.

The study reveals the following succession of major deformation events across the northern Verkhoyansk: i) The oldest tectonic event corresponding to the strike-slip faulting stress field with NE-SW-trending compression axis is Early Permian (284±7 Ma) and likely represents a far-field response to the Late Palaeozoic collision of the Kara terrane with the northern margin of the Siberian Craton. ii) A slickenfibrous calcite age of 125±4 Ma is attributed to the most intense Early Cretaceous compression event, when the modern fold and thrust structure developed. Dykes in the eastern part of the northern Verkhoyansk FTB cutting N-S trending folds with 90-85 Ma U-Pb zircon ages mark the end of this event. iii) U-Pb slickenfiber calcite ages of 76-60 Ma estimate the age of a Late Cretaceous–Palaeocene compression event, when thrusts were reactivated. Slickensides related to both (ii) and (iii) compressional tectonic events formed by similar stress fields with W-E trending compression axes. iv) From Palaeocene onwards, extensional tectonics with approximately W-E extension predominated. Within the northern Verkhoyansk FTB, extension settings are supported by the formation of a set of grabens and a clearly recognizable normal faulting stress field.

How to cite: Pavlovskaia, E. A., Khudoley, A. K., Ruh, J. B., Moskalenko, A. N., Guillong, M., and Malyshev, S. V.: Tectonic evolution of the northern Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt based on paleostress analysis and U-Pb calcite dating, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1823, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1823, 2022.

10:46–10:49
10:49–10:55
|
EGU22-669
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Salih Amarir, Mhamed Alaeddine Belfoul, Khalid Amrouch, Yousef Attegue, and Hamza Skikra

The Moroccan Atlas is an intracontinental chain resulted from an aborted rifting during the Mesozoic time, by an uplifting and moderate shortening during the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic period. Several studies have highlighted the role of tectonic inversion in the evolution of the High Atlas Range, where strike-slip faults are commonly been considered as a main component of the alpine signature within the High Atlas belt. However, more recent works have focused on the geodynamic model of the evolution of the Atlas Range using different approaches. The structural history and chronology of events are still matter of debates. To contribute to the later, a combined meso and microstructural study was conducted in the western part of the chain. It provided an attempt to quantify paleo-stresses from structural analysis of the Permo-Triassic extensional phase to the tectonic reversal phases, acting from Cenozoic to present days.
This work highlighted two major tectonic phases: (1) the first represented by an extensive regime, with a sub-horizontal minimal stress σ3 oriented NE-SW and linked to the Central Atlantic occurrence. This stage is characterized by pull apart basins genesis in horst and graben morphology. (2) the second phase represented by a weakly tilted compression with a maximum stress σ1 oriented in set NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE. This compression began in the Tertiary, contemporary with the Africa and Europe collision. the related inversions are printed at the paleozoic basement/mesozoic cover interface from the Eastern area to the Jurassic-Cretaceous and Cenozoic plateaus in the West, passing through the Triassic detrital formations of the Argana corridor.
Keywords: Paleo-stress, Structural analysis, Tectonic inversion, Western high Atlas, Morocco, Alpine orogeny.

How to cite: Amarir, S., Belfoul, M. A., Amrouch, K., Attegue, Y., and Skikra, H.: Structural analysis of the alpine orogeny in the western High Atlas, Morocco: New insights through a multiscale approach , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-669, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-669, 2022.

10:55–11:01
|
EGU22-1008
|
ECS
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Hamza Skikra, Khalid Amrouch, Abderrahmane Soulaimani, Mustapha Hdoufane, and Salih Amarir

Located in the western segment of the intracontinental Atlas system, the Moroccan Central High Atlas is a NE-SW to ENE-WSW-trending Fold-and-Thrust Belt that is formed during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny by a positive inversion of Triassic-Jurassic basin. It is structurally distinguished from the other segments of the Moroccan High Atlas orogenic belt by the occurrence of S-shaped ENE-WSW oriented tight anticlinal ridges bounding wider synclines. The elongated ridges core disordered association of plutonic rocks, Liassic carbonate and Late Triassic arigilites, whilst the wider synclines are filled by thick Jurassic series with minor magmatic manifestations expressed by mafic and felsic dikes. The origin of these structures has been ascribed to pre-inversion wrench tectonics with significant compressive component whereas they have been attached to post-rift rift block tilting and or salt tectonics in an alternative view. Characterizing the paleostress history is thereby a crucial matter to unravel the structural evolution of these structures. In order to bring new insights into the actual understanding of the Central High Atlas post-rift structural history, we reconstruct the paleostress tensors preserved in the folded Jurassic series of Anemzi and Tirrhist regions based on brittle deformation structures together with calcite twins stress inversion. The preliminary results highlight the presence of pre-folding layer parallel maximum horizontal stress during three stages: E-W to ENE-WSW, NNE-SSW and NW-SE compressions. Local extensional stress features are observed essentially near diapiric structures and the exhumed magmatic intrusions. The latest structural stage is featured by a post-folding NW-SR compression likely related to the recent phases of the Alpine orogeny.

How to cite: Skikra, H., Amrouch, K., Soulaimani, A., Hdoufane, M., and Amarir, S.: Deciphering the tectonic complexity of the Central High Atlas Mountains using brittle deformation mesostructures and calcite mechanical twinning analysis, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1008, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1008, 2022.

11:01–11:07
|
EGU22-5040
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Chiara Montemagni and Stefano Zanchetta

Crustal scale low-angle normal faults are typical tectonic features in orogenic post-collisional setting driving the exhumation of deep portions of the orogenic wedge. These extensional structures are commonly active at mid to upper crustal levels within quartz- and feldspar-rich rocks. As deformation localizes along these large-scale shear zones, the understanding of mechanisms controlling their development could provide invaluable insights on the rheology of the continental lithosphere. PT ambient conditions, differential stress, pore fluid pressure and time duration of activity are all factors that could significantly operate on how a shear zones develops in space and time.

We investigated by means of a quantitative approach the evolution of the Simplon Fault Zone (Western Alps, N Italy – Switzerland). We took into account: (i) meso- and microstructures distribution across the shear zone, (ii) its time of activity by 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-shearing micas, (iii) vorticity distribution across the shear zone and its correlation with mylonite ages, (iv) the estimates of magnitude and variation of differential flow stress and strain rates during shear zone evolution obtained through EBSD-assisted quantitative microstructural analysis. All these data have been combined to reconstruct the structural evolution of the shear zone as the result of the rheological response of involved rocks to changing PT and stress conditions.

The Simplon Fault Zone formed as an extensional detachment accommodating E-W directed lateral extrusion after the collision between Adria and Europe. Several tens of kilometres of extension were accommodated by this structure, allowing the exhumation of the deepest portions of the Central Alps. The shear zone evolved from epidote-amphibolite to greenschist facies and then brittle conditions during shearing. A decrease of simple shear component from c. 90% to c. 40% towards the top of the shear zone is observed, with mylonites displaying ages within the 12-8 Ma time interval. Calculated  differential stress (60-80 MPa) and strain rate (10-11-10-12 s-1) estimates are in agreement with values displayed by several others crustal-scale low-angle normal faults developed at medium to shallow crustal levels.

The quantitative approach used at different scales pointed out that the Simplon Fault Zone experienced a complex evolution, with shear strain that was heterogeneously distributed across the fault zone. Despite this heterogeneity, a general decrease of the simple shear component and increase of the differential flow stress toward the top of the shear zone is clearly defined.

How to cite: Montemagni, C. and Zanchetta, S.: How middle and upper continental crust reacts to prolonged extension: some clues from the Simplon Fault Zone (Central Alps), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5040, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5040, 2022.

11:07–11:13
|
EGU22-6001
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Kinematics and geochronological evolution of the Vinschgau Shear Zone (N Italy): Large-scale thrusting within the Austroalpine domain of the central-eastern Alps
(withdrawn)
Stefano Zanchetta, Chiara Montemagni, Martina Rocca, Igor Villa, Corrado Morelli, Volkmar Mair, and Andrea Zanchi
11:13–11:16
11:16–11:22
|
EGU22-8886
|
ECS
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Aurélie Labeur, Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Olivier Lacombe, Lorenzo Petraccini, and Jean-Paul Callot

Picturing the distribution of stress, in term of magnitude and orientation, during the development of a fold-and-thrusts belt is key for many fundamental and applied purposes, e.g., crustal rheology, orogen dynamics, fluid dynamics and prediction of reservoir properties. Specific meso- and micro-structures observed in fold-and-thrust belts and related forelands (i.e., faults, stylolites, veins and calcite twins), on top of being good markers of the deformation sequence that affected the rocks before, during and after folding and thrusting, can be used to access the past stress orientation and/or magnitude. This study reports the result of a paleopiezometric analysis of calcite twins and stylolite roughness documented in Mesozoic carbonates cropping out in the Cingoli anticline, an arcuate fold in the Umbria-Marche Apennine Ridge (UMAR), where a complex fracturing sequence was highlighted in a previously published study. The stylolite roughness inversion technique (SRIT) was applied to tectonic stylolites related to early folding layer-parallel shortening (LPS), and the calcite twin inversion technique (CSIT) was applied to cements from veins related to either foreland flexure or LPS. Both inversion processes require somehow the knowledge of the depth at which deformation occurred, as the vertical stress is an input for SRIT in the case of its application to tectonic stylolites, and as the differential stress magnitudes obtained by CSIT combined to vertical stress magnitude provides access to the absolute principal stress magnitudes. Building on a previously published time-burial path valid for the studied strata at the Cingoli anticline that also predicted the timing of each deformation stage, we quantify differential and principal stress magnitudes at the scale of the anticline. Beyond regional implications, our approach helps improve our knowledge of the past stress magnitudes in folded carbonate reservoirs.

How to cite: Labeur, A., Beaudoin, N. E., Lacombe, O., Petraccini, L., and Callot, J.-P.: Reconstructing stress magnitude evolution in deformed carbonates: a paleopaleopiezometric study of the Cingoli anticline (North-Central Apennines, Italy), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8886, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8886, 2022.

11:22–11:28
|
EGU22-13463
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Petros Neofotistos and Markos Tranos

The NNW-SSE trending Koziakas-Itamos Mts of Western Thessaly, Central Greece, constitute the innermost part of the External Hellenides, i.e., the Hellenic fold-and-thrust belt, formed from the Tertiary orogenic (alpine) processes due to collision between the Apulia and Eurasia plates. Along these mountains, large ophiolite masses have thrust towards WSW over Mesozoic carbonate and clastic rocks, which in turn thrust over the Tertiary flysch rocks of the Pindos Unit. The mountains bound the NW-SE trending late-alpine Mesohellenic Trough to the east, filled with Late Eocene to Miocene molasse-type sediments, and the younger Thessaly basin filled up with Neogene and Quaternary sediments.

 

A detailed paleostress reconstruction based on the fault-slip analysis and the stress inversion through the TR method (TRM) unravels a multi-stage deformation history for the innermost parts of the Hellenic fold-and-thrust belt. More precisely, the late orogenic faulting deformation temporally constrained in Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene was originally driven by stress regimes that define an ENE-WSW ‘real’ compression normal to the orogenic fabric associated with mainly NE-directed back thrusts. The compression shifted to ‘hybrid’ with the activation of oblique- and strike-slip faults. After that stage, the hybrid compression predominates with counterclockwise changes in the trend of the greatest principal stress axis (σ1) from ENE-WSW to NNE-SSW. The last stage of the late-orogenic faulting deformation is an NW-SE orogen parallel extension segmenting and differentiating the NNW-SSE orogenic fabric along its strike.

 

Post-orogenic faulting deformation is driven by extensional stress regimes that caused the basin-and-range topography and the formation of well-established basins filled up with Late Miocene and younger sediments like the Thessaly basin. In particular, an ENE-WSW pure extension normal to the orogenic fabric has been defined. A general counterclockwise rotation of the least principal stress axis (σ3) occurred, initially giving rise to NE-SW  extension-transtension during Late Miocene-Pliocene and NNE-SSW extension-transtension since the Quaternary.

How to cite: Neofotistos, P. and Tranos, M.: Multi-stage late- and post-orogenic deformation history of the innermost Hellenic fold-and-thrust belt from a detailed paleostress reconstruction (Koziakas-Itamos Mts., Western Thessaly, Central Greece) , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13463, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13463, 2022.

11:28–11:34
|
EGU22-13406
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Boubacar Bah, Olivier Lacombe, Nicolas Beaudoin, Jean-Pierre Girard, Claude Gout, and Nicolas Godeau

To construct accurate geological models of reservoirs and better predict their properties, it is critical to have a good understanding of the burial and stress history of the host sedimentary basin over time. Stress and strain are important factors influencing the preservation or reduction of reservoir porosity and permeability. One way to access the orientations and magnitudes of paleostresses is to use paleopiezometers. This study aims at reconstructing the stress and burial history of the syn-rift Barremian (130-125 Ma) Toca Fm in the Lower Congo basin (West African passive margin) using stress inversion of calcite mechanical twins and sedimentary and tectonic, bedding-parallel stylolite. This combined approach was applied to two oriented borehole cores drilled in a poorly deformed oil field, offshore Congo, and provided constraints on both paleostress orientations and magnitudes. The timing of the different paleostress regimes documented was derived from a burial-time model reconstructed by use of TemisFlowTM.

The inversion of calcite twins was performed on a widespread early diagenetic cement (dated 127.4 ± 4.9 to 123.1 ± 7.7 Ma by U-Pb LA-ICPMS) and revealed two types of stress regimes. (1) An extensional stress regime with σ1 vertical and σ3 oriented either N50°±20° or N120°±20°, and mean differential stresses of 45 MPa for (σ1-σ3) and 20 MPa for (σ2-σ3). The NE-SW (N50°±20) extensional direction, which restores to N100° after moving back Africa to its position at Barremian times, marks the syn-rift extension that led to the opening of the South Atlantic. The 120° direction (~N-S after restoration) possibly reflects local perturbation and/or σ2-σ3 permutations during rifting in response to tectonic inheritance. (2) A compressional or strike-slip stress regime with horizontal σ1oriented ~E-W (and associated N-S extension) and mean differential stresses of 40 MPa for (σ1-σ3) and 15 MPa for (σ2-σ3). This suggests that the basin underwent a post-rift compressional history during the continuous burial of the Toca formation possibly related to the Atlantic ridge push effects. For the first time, we also reconstructed paleostress orientations from “tectonic” bedding-parallel stylolites, that developed during a tectonic extensional phase. The results point to a NE-SW extension consistent with the direction of the syn-rift extension revealed by calcite twinning. In order to constrain the sequence of stress evolution, we used the results of sedimentary stylolite roughness inversion paleopiezometry, which documents that the burial-related pressure solution in the Toca Fm occurred in the 400-1700m depth range (dissolution along 90% of stylolites halting between 700 and 1000m). Projection of this depth range onto the TemisFlowTM reconstructed burial-time curve of the Toca Fm indicates that vertical pressure solution was active between 122 and 95 Ma, and therefore that σ1 switched from vertical to horizontal around 95 Ma. Our study reveals that the Toca Fm has undergone a complex polyphase stress history during burial, with stress regimes evolving from extensional to compressional/strike-slip. It also illustrates the great usefulness of combining stress inversion of calcite twins and stylolite roughness with a burial-time model to constrain the stress history of a deeply buried reservoir.

How to cite: Bah, B., Lacombe, O., Beaudoin, N., Girard, J.-P., Gout, C., and Godeau, N.: Paleoburial and paleostress history of a carbonate syn-rift reservoir : constraints from inversion of calcite twins and stylolite roughness in the Toca formation (Lower Congo Basin, South Atlantic) , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13406, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13406, 2022.

11:34–11:40
|
EGU22-7253
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Anies Zeboudj, Boubacar Bah, Olivier Lacombe, Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Claude Gout, Nicolas Godeau, and Jean-Pierre Girard

Our understanding of the temporal variation of past stress in the crust is usually pictured in relation to tectonic contexts, where it helps decipher the evolution of deformation of rocks at different scales. The paucity of paleostress reconstructions in passive margins makes the knowledge of the origin of stress and of its evolution very incomplete, especially in poorly accessible offshore parts. Moreover, in salt-rich passive margins like the offshore Congo margin, one may question whether the state of stress in supra-salt formations is mainly controlled by salt tectonics, since the salt usually acts as a decoupling level that prevents the transmission and record of far-field crustal stresses. This study focuses on the analysis of an offshore wellbore core of the Albian, post-rift carbonates of the Sendji Fm that directly overlies the salt of the Aptian Loeme Fm in the Lower Congo Basin. Paleopiezometry based on stylolite roughness and mechanical twins in calcite was combined with fracture analysis, laser U-Pb dating of calcite cement, and burial modeling to unravel the tectonic and burial evolution of the Sendji Fm over time. The results of bedding-parallel stylolite roughness inversion constrain the range of depth over which the Sendji Fm strata deformed under a vertical principal stress s1 to 650-2800 m (median ~1100m). Projection of this depth range onto the Sendji burial model derived from TemisFlow™ basin modelling indicates that pressure solution was active from 105 to 12 Ma. Inversion of calcite mechanical twins measured within the early diagenetic cement (U-Pb age = 100 +/- 1Ma) yields two main states of stress: (1) an extensional stress regime with a horizontal σ3 trending ~E-W associated with sub-perpendicular N-S compression, and (2) a strike-slip stress regime with a horizontal σ1 trending ~E-W (changing from pure E-W compression to N-S extension through stress permutations). We interpret the former state of stress as local and related to the complex geometric interactions between moving halokinetic normal faults, while the latter presumably reflects the push effect of the Atlantic ridge, which prevailed from 12 Ma until present-day. Our results highlight that the stress history of the studied part of the offshore Lower Congo Basin passive margin has first been mainly dominated by burial and local normal faulting related to late Cretaceous to Miocene post-rift salt tectonics, then by a regional stress presumably originated from the far-field ridge push from ~12Ma onwards, which would indicate some mechanical re-coupling between the crust and the sedimentary cover during the Miocene.

Keywords: stress, paleopiezometry, calcite twins, stylolites, passive margin, salt.

How to cite: Zeboudj, A., Bah, B., Lacombe, O., Beaudoin, N. E., Gout, C., Godeau, N., and Girard, J.-P.: Paleostress and paleoburial history of a post-rift, supra-salt, carbonate reservoir offshore Congo (Atlantic): Insights from calcite twinning and stylolite roughness paleopiezometry., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7253, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7253, 2022.

11:40–11:46
|
EGU22-7401
|
Presentation form not yet defined
Damien Delvaux, Timothée Miyouna, Florent Boudzoumou, and Hardy Nkodia

Reconstructing the brittle structural history of a complex strike-slip fault system remains a challenging process in paleostress reconstructions. Here, we investigated the small-scale brittle structures such as shear fractures and tension joints which are well developed in the Early Paleozoic Inkisi red sandstones in the “Pool” region of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, along the Congo River. The fracture network affects the horizontally bedded sandstones with alternating cross-bedded, horizontally bedded and massive layers. The fractures are particularly dense and of various orientation in the rapids of the Congo River just downstream Kinshasa and Brazzaville. They control the channels of the Congo River in its connection to the Atlantic Coast.

A total of 1150 factures have been measured and assembled into a single data file, processed using the Win-Tensor Program. They contain only a limited number of kinematic indicators for slip sense (displaced pebbles, irregularities on striated surfaces, slickensides) or extension (plume joints). Before interactive fault-slip data separation into subset and stress inversion, a kinematic data analysis evidenced at least three different phases of brittle deformation, each starting by the formation of plume joints and evolving into a strike-slip fault system. We used the principle of progressive saturation of the rock mass by the apparition of new faults or the reactivation of already existing ones during the successive brittle stages. We combined the stress inversion of fault-slip data, fault-slip tendency analysis and data separation in order to obtain well-separated data subsets, each characterized by its own paleostress tensor. The total data set can be explained by the action of 4 different brittle deformation and related paleostress stages, all of strike-slip type. There possible age is estimated from stratigraphic relations and the known geological history of the area.

The oldest stage developed in intact rock under NW-SE horizontal compression, probably before the Jurassic unconformity that affects the entire Congo Basin. It generated dominantly N-160°E striking left-lateral faults. The second stage generated dominantly new N050°E striking right-lateral faults, at a high angle from the ones of the previous stage, under NE-SW horizontal compression. They are estimated to be related to ridge push forces from the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the Oligocene. The third stage, which corresponds to N-S horizontal compression, generated additional N030°E and N340°E conjugated fractures and reactivated the preceding fracture networks. A fourth and relatively minor system was also identified with WNE-ESE horizontal compression but its chronological relation with the other ones is not clear. 

How to cite: Delvaux, D., Miyouna, T., Boudzoumou, F., and Nkodia, H.: Using combined paleostress reconstruction and slip tendency for reconstructing the brittle structural history of a complex strike-slip fault system: Fault-controlled origin and evolution of the “Pool” area between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7401, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7401, 2022.

11:46–11:49
11:49–11:50