AS3.9 | Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change
EDI PICO
Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change
Co-organized by BG1/CL4/CR7/GM7/SSP3, co-sponsored by ISAR
Convener: Martina Klose | Co-conveners: Claire Ryder, Jan-Berend Stuut, Adolfo Gonzalez Romero, Pavla Dagsson WaldhauserovaECSECS, Outi MeinanderECSECS
PICO
| Thu, 18 Apr, 08:30–12:30 (CEST), 16:15–18:00 (CEST)
 
PICO spot 5
Thu, 08:30
The interactions between aerosols, climate, weather, and society are among the large uncertainties of current atmospheric research. Mineral dust is an important natural source of aerosol with significant implications on radiation, cloud microphysics, atmospheric chemistry, and the carbon cycle via the fertilization of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Together with other light-absorbing particles, dust
impacts snow and ice albedo and can accelerate glacier melt. In addition, properties of dust deposited in sediments and ice cores are important (paleo-)climate indicators.

This interdivisional session -- building bridges between the EGU divisions AS, CL, CR, SSP, BG and GM -- had its first edition in 2004 and it is open to contributions dealing with:

(1) measurements of all aspects of the dust cycle (emission, transport, deposition, size distribution, particle characteristics) with in situ and remote sensing techniques,
(2) numerical simulations of dust on global, regional, and local scales,
(3) meteorological conditions for dust storms, dust transport and deposition,
(4) interactions of dust with clouds and radiation,
(5) influence of dust on atmospheric chemistry,
(6) fertilization of ecosystems through dust deposition,
(7) interactions with the cryosphere, including also aerosols other than dust,
(8) any study using dust as a (paleo-)climate indicator, including sediment archives in loess, ice cores, lake sediments, ocean sediments and dunes,
(9) impacts of dust on climate and climate change, and associated feedbacks and uncertainties,
(10) implications of dust for health, transport, energy systems, agriculture, infrastructure, etc.

We especially encourage the submission of papers that integrate different disciplines and/or address the modelling of past, present, and future climates.

Solicited speaker: Keri Nicoll, University of Reading, "Recent developments in dust electrification research"

PICO: Thu, 18 Apr | PICO spot 5

Chairpersons: Martina Klose, Claire Ryder
08:30–08:35
Dust emission, transport, deposition, and interaction processes
08:35–08:45
|
PICO5.1
|
EGU24-4749
|
solicited
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Keri Nicoll and R. Giles Harrison

Electrification of dust in the atmosphere is abundant, observed by helicopter blades glowing from corona discharge in dusty environments, and sparks from barbed wire fences during the US Dust Bowl.  Electrification of particles in blowing sand, dust devils and dust storms can result from contact charging/triboelectrification during dust generation or through its atmospheric transport, causing particles to accumulate large amounts of charge on their surface.  Strong electrostatic forces can affect the lofting of dust particles from the ground, as well as the transport of dust particles, however the details of such effects are still largely unexplored.  The charging of dust particles, and separation of the charge by mechanical processes yields large electric fields (E-fields, up to tens of kV m1).  Satellite remote sensing of dust is based on measurements of electromagnetic wave propagation, which can be attenuated by large electric fields, thereby the accuracy of dust measurements can be affected by electric fields arising from charge separation in dusty environments. Such E-fields are also expected to alter the orientation of dust particles, changing the effective optical depth of dust layers, existing calculations for which assume randomly oriented particles.

Although the existence of dust electrification has been known about for over a century, the details of the electrification mechanisms, and impact of dust electrification on particle behaviour are not yet fully understood.  This is partly due to a lack of observations of coincident space charge, E-field and particle measurements in dusty regions, particularly at altitudes above the surface.  This presentation will discuss recent research in understanding dust electrification processes, including surface observations of dust electrification in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and measurements of charge in high altitude dust layers above the surface.

How to cite: Nicoll, K. and Harrison, R. G.: Recent developments in dust electrification research , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4749, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4749, 2024.

08:45–08:47
|
PICO5.2
|
EGU24-14539
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Andrea Baccarini, Carolina Molina, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Katerina Seitanide, Maria Georgopoulou, Ali Waseem, Georgia Argyropoulou, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Xavier Querol, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Dimitrios Papoulis, Satoshi Takahama, Kalliopi Violaki, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes

Mineral dust aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; they contribute to more than half of the total atmospheric aerosol burden and have far-reaching impacts on biogeochemical cycles, air quality and Earth’s radiative budget. Much of the impact of dust is linked to its mild alkalinity and metal content, which directly influence atmospheric reactivity. However, metals and other trace nutrients (TN), such as phosphorous, are largely insoluble in freshly emitted dust and exhibit limited bioavailability for ecosystems upon deposition. The same metals can induce considerable oxidative stress upon inhalation, but mostly if in soluble form. Previous studies have found that atmospheric processing and, in particular, acidification of dust (caused by reactions with sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric and organic acids) can promote TN solubility and increase the adverse health effects of population exposure to dust. Atmospheric processing also influences dust hygroscopicity and cloud-forming ability, directly affecting Earth’s radiative budget and deposition patterns.

Previous experiments investigating the effect of atmospheric processing on mineral dust properties were mainly conducted in bulk materials and samples. The dissolution kinetics of metals and TN remains poorly constrained under real atmospheric conditions. To address this issue, we have developed an atmospheric simulation chamber facility where mineral dust particles from a wide range of soils can be generated and aged by any mechanisms relevant to the atmosphere (e.g., acidification through photooxidation and/or nocturnal chemistry).

This study provides a detailed characterization of the chamber facility and explores how acidification alters the properties of mineral dust. In particular, we examine the effect of nitrate and sulfate aging on the solubility of TN and the oxidative potential (measured with a DTT assay) of the dust, under atmospherically relevant conditions. We conclude by relating these findings to field observations and discussing the implications for biogeochemical cycles and air quality.

How to cite: Baccarini, A., Molina, C., Kaltsonoudis, C., Seitanide, K., Georgopoulou, M., Waseem, A., Argyropoulou, G., Gonzalez-Romero, A., Querol, X., Pérez García-Pando, C., Papoulis, D., Takahama, S., Violaki, K., N. Pandis, S., and Nenes, A.: Exploring the effects of mineral dust acidification on oxidative potential and limiting nutrient solubility, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-14539, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-14539, 2024.

08:47–08:49
|
PICO5.3
|
EGU24-8628
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Silke Gross, Martin Wirth, and Florian Ewald

Mineral dust contributes strongly to the global aerosol load. The largest source region of mineral dust is the Sahara. But mineral dust cannot be treated as a regional phenomenon. Once lifted in the air, it can be transported thousands of kilometers over several days. The main transport pathway spans over the Atlantic Ocean from Africa towards the Caribbean; with its peak season during the summer months. But transatlantic dust transport can also happen during wintertime, however with less frequency. In addition, the dust particles can be transported northward over the Mediterranean and Europe. In rare events, it can even reach the Arctic region. All the way during transport the dust layer has an impact on the Earth’s radiation budget, by direct interaction with the incoming and outgoing radiation by scattering and absorption, and by indirect interaction as dust can impact cloud formation and cloud properties.

To study long-range transported Saharan dust as well as the dust’s impact on cloud formation and properties, airborne lidar measurements with the WALES lidar system onboard the German research aircraft HALO have been performed over the western sub-tropical North-Atlantic Ocean during NARVAL-II in August 2016 and EUREC4A in January/February 2020. We observed dust transport during the summertime in the clearly separated and well-defined Saharan Air Layer (SAL) as well as during wintertime, when dust transport happens at lower altitudes and the SAL is less separated. In addition, we were also able to capture an event of dust long-range transport into the Arctic during the HALO-(AC)3 campaign in spring 2022. From our measurements we could show, that small amount of water vapor embedded in the SAL has a strong impact on the atmospheric stability and thus also impacts the formation and properties of clouds during long-range transport. Additionally, dust particles are known to act as ice nuclei and with that lead to ice formation at different environmental conditions, changing the ice cloud’s microphysical properties.

In our presentation we will give an overview of the performed WALES measurements. We use these measurements to study dust long-range transport and its impact on the atmospheric stability, cloud formation and cloud properties.

How to cite: Gross, S., Wirth, M., and Ewald, F.: Impact of Saharan mineral dust layers on cloud formation and cloud properties, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-8628, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-8628, 2024.

08:49–08:51
|
PICO5.4
|
EGU24-11544
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Hannah Meyer, Andres Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Vicken Etyemezian, Jessica Girdwood, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo González-Romero, Tareq Hussein, Mark Irvine, Konrad Kandler, Peter Knippertz, Ottmar Möhler, George Nikolich, Xavier Querol, Chris Stopford, Franziska Vogel, Frederik Weis, Andreas Wieser, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, and Martina Klose

Gaining a precise understanding of the particle size distribution (PSD) of mineral dust at emission is critical to assess its climate impacts. Despite its importance, comprehensive measurements at dust sources remain scarce and usually neglect part of the super-coarse (particle diameter d between 10 and 62.5 μm) and the entire giant (d > 62.5 μm) particle size ranges. Measurements in those size ranges are particularly challenging due to expected relatively low number concentrations and low sampling efficiencies of instrument inlets.

This study aims to better constrain the abundance of super-coarse and giant dust at emission as part of the Jordan Wind erosion And Dust Investigation (J-WADI, https://www.imk-tro.kit.edu/11800.php) field campaign conducted north of Wadi Rum in Jordan in September 2022. The goal of J-WADI is to improve our fundamental understanding of the emission of desert dust, in particular its full-range size distribution and mineralogical composition.

To capture the dust PSD across the entire size spectrum, we deployed multiple aerosol spectrometers, including active, passive, and open-path devices, such that in combination, a size range from approximately 0.4 to 200 μm was covered. Here we investigate the variability of the PSD in the super-coarse and giant ranges from observed dust events, address instrumental uncertainties and the impact of different inlets on the resulting PSDs. Our preliminary results reveal a mass concentration peak at around 30 μm, potentially limited toward larger sizes by substantially reduced inlet efficiencies. Giant dust particles were generally detected during active dust emission starting from friction velocities larger than around 0.2 m s-1.

Based on our results, we will investigate the mechanisms facilitating super-coarse and giant dust particle emission and transport. Quantifying the conditions for and the amount of super-coarse and giant dust at emission will lay the foundation to incorporate its impacts in weather and climate models.

How to cite: Meyer, H., Alastuey, A., Dupont, S., Etyemezian, V., Girdwood, J., González-Flórez, C., González-Romero, A., Hussein, T., Irvine, M., Kandler, K., Knippertz, P., Möhler, O., Nikolich, G., Querol, X., Stopford, C., Vogel, F., Weis, F., Wieser, A., Pérez García-Pando, C., and Klose, M.: Abundance of giant mineral dust particles: Insights from measured emitted dust size distributions during the J-WADI campaign, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-11544, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-11544, 2024.

08:51–08:53
|
PICO5.5
|
EGU24-18893
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Rizewana Marécar, Béatrice Marticorena, Gilles Bergametti, Jean Louis Rajot, Christel Bouet, Servanne Chevaillier, Anais Féron, Bouthaina Khalfallah, Stéphane Alfaro, Mohamed Taieb Labiadh, Thierry Henry des Tureaux, Saad Sekrafi, and Mohsen Lifti

The particle size segregation processes occurring between the soil, the saltation layer and the dust layer close to the surface are not well described while they are key steps for a precise assessment of dust emission. Improving our understanding and quantifying the role of the processes acting in these three compartments should significantly enhance the consistency of dust emission models.

Data obtained during the WIND-O-V (WIND erOsion in presence of sparse Vegetation) field campaign that took place in spring 2017 in southern Tunisia have been analyzed. Eight saltation events of durations from 1 to 4 hours were sampled and corresponded to a range of wind friction velocities between 0.28 and 0.46 m s-1. The dispersed and non-dispersed size distributions of the soil and of the saltation fluxes were characterized and the micrometeorological conditions were also analyzed. Simultaneous measurements of size resolved saltation fluxes and size-resolved vertical dust fluxes were carried out. The combined analysis of size distributions of the parent-soil and of the horizontal and vertical fluxes reveals an enrichment of fine particles that increases with height. A consistent behavior is observed when comparing the particle size distribution of the saltation and of the vertical dust fluxes. Moreover, we observe changes in the size distributions from one event to another that are similar for the saltation and the dust fluxes. This strongly suggests that the processes controlling the saltation significantly affect the dust size distribution. The roles of the vertical transfer and of the micrometeorological conditions on the size distributions are also discussed.

How to cite: Marécar, R., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Rajot, J. L., Bouet, C., Chevaillier, S., Féron, A., Khalfallah, B., Alfaro, S., Labiadh, M. T., Henry des Tureaux, T., Sekrafi, S., and Lifti, M.: Size segregation process along the soil-saltation-dust continuum: observations in southern Tunisia , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18893, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-18893, 2024.

08:53–08:55
|
PICO5.6
|
EGU24-18556
|
On-site presentation
Carlos Pérez García-Pando and the EMIT Team

Soil dust aerosols, comprised of diverse minerals with varying relative abundances, particle size distribution (PSD), shape, surface topography, and mixing state, exert a significant influence on climate. Despite this complexity, conventional Earth System Models tend to assume a globally uniform dust aerosol composition, overlooking well-documented regional variations in the mineralogy of their sources. Existing models addressing dust mineralogical variations often rely on mineral abundance maps extrapolated from an insufficient and non-uniform set of soil sample analyses, especially scarce in arid and semiarid regions.

This study introduces the first version of a series of global dust source and emission mineral abundance maps for dust and climate modelling built upon data from the Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) imaging spectrometer that is currently operational on the International Space Station (ISS). EMIT measures the spectral range from 0.38 to 2.50 microns through 285 contiguous spectral channels at a high spatial resolution of approximately 60 meters per pixel and ~77 km swath width. The EMIT ground system, utilizing Tetracorder, enables material identification and mapping on mineral spectra. EMIT provides quantitative maps for 10 critical minerals over dust sources pivotal for understanding interactions with the Earth System, with a specific emphasis on mapping iron oxides (hematite and goethite) to constrain the dust direct radiative effect.

Our study offers a comprehensive overview of the diverse methods explored, challenges faced, and key assumptions made to provide quantitative dust source mineralogy. Notably, addressing the absence of information on quartz and feldspar, whose absorption features extend beyond the measured spectral range, poses a significant challenge. Methodologies range from a model that linearly relates mineral abundance to absorption-feature band depth, to more advanced models solving the non-linear multiple scattering radiative transfer problem, providing abundances across a broader range of conditions.

Furthermore, the study provides insights into key assumptions guiding the derivation of mineral abundance maps for both clay and silt fractions of the soil. It also details methods rooted in brittle fragmentation theory, essential for estimating emitted size-resolved mineralogy, which is the critical input for Earth System Models.

This research contributes to advancing our understanding of soil dust aerosols, laying the foundation for improved climate models that account for nuanced regional variations in mineralogical composition.

How to cite: Pérez García-Pando, C. and the EMIT Team: EMIT Global Dust Source and Emission Mineral Abundance Maps for Dust and Climate Modeling, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18556, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-18556, 2024.

08:55–08:57
|
PICO5.7
|
EGU24-17044
|
On-site presentation
María Gonçalves Ageitos and the EMIT team

Minerals in dust shape the interaction of this ubiquitous aerosol with relevant components of the Earth system. Iron oxides absorb short-wave radiation, while quartz or k-feldspars act as efficient ice nuclei, contributing to the formation of mixed-phase clouds. In addition, iron and phosphorus containing minerals transport nutrients to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Other minerals, like calcite, affect aerosols’ pH and intervene in atmospheric chemistry processes. Incorporating these complex effects into Earth System Models (ESM) has proven challenging due to our limited knowledge about the mineralogy of dust sources and its particle size distribution at emission.

The ongoing NASA Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source investigation (EMIT) project has produced a first version of a global mineral abundance map at an unprecedented resolution based on spaceborne imaging spectroscopy observations from the International Space Station. Using this new product, we have conducted multi-annual simulations with several ESMs that explicitly represent dust mineralogy. Our study characterizes the relevance of the new map in the ESM results by comparison with our previous baseline simulations. We conduct a thorough evaluation against a global mineral fraction compilation derived from concentration and deposition measurements. Our results are also compared against single scattering albedo (SSA) retrievals from dusty AERONET sites. Our focus is primarily iron oxides, hematite and goethite, which, together with particle size, control the dust SSA in the short-wave.

By providing a first set of simulations with the new EMIT mineral abundance maps and their evaluation, our work contributes to advancing the representation of this key aerosol within ESMs and to further assessing its significance within the global climate system.

How to cite: Gonçalves Ageitos, M. and the EMIT team: Inaugural dust and climate model simulations with the new EMIT global mineral abundance maps, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17044, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-17044, 2024.

08:57–08:59
|
PICO5.8
|
EGU24-6384
|
On-site presentation
Paul Ginoux, Qianqian Song, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando

The intensity and direction of dust impacts on Earth’s climate systems depend on mineral composition. For example, the presence or absence of a few percent of iron oxides in dust will determine if dust is warming or cooling the atmosphere. Similarly, feldspar will enhance ice cloud formation, while acid gases in the atmosphere will react on the surface of dust calcite limiting acid rain. Still, most climate models use a simplified representation of dust mineralogy. They assume a fixed composition at emission which stays invariant during transport and removal. Such simplification assumes spatially and temporally constant physical and chemical properties of dust, and appears to provide satisfactory results when comparing some properties with observations. The trade-off is their lack of spatial gradients, which will fail to induce circulation, cloud and precipitation changes. The two reasons to omit mineral variations are the uncertainty of current atlases of soil mineral composition in arid regions, and, more practically, an improved runtime efficiency. The former reason is losing ground with the recent launch (July 2022) of a dedicated mission (NASA/JPL EMIT) to retrieve global soil mineralogy of dust sources at high spatial resolution.

While the EMIT science team is finalizing a satisfactory global map of mineral composition of dust sources, we analyzed the interaction of dust mineralogy on radiation and its impact on the fast temperature response using different representations of mineral composition from detailed and spatially varying to simplified and globally uniform, assuming different hematite contents and methods to calculate optical properties.  

Our results show that resolving dust mineralogy reduces dust absorption, and results in improved agreement with observation-based single scattering albedo (SSA), radiative fluxes from CERES (the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System), and land surface temperature from CRU (Climatic Research Unit), compared to the baseline bulk dust model version. It also results in distinct radiative impacts on Earth’s climate over North Africa. From our 19-year simulation, we will show that it leads to a reduction of over 50% in net downward radiation at top of atmosphere (TOA) across the Sahara and an approximately 20% reduction over the Sahel. We will explain how the surface temperature response affects the monsoon flow from the Gulf of Guinea.

Interestingly, we find similar results by simply fixing the hematite content of dust to a globally uniform value of 0.9% by volume. We will discuss the underlying reasons for such results and show that they may be unrelated to the distribution of soil mineralogy. Still, an accurate representation of soil mineralogy is necessary to better understand dust impacts on the Earth’s climate systems.

How to cite: Ginoux, P., Song, Q., Gonçalves Ageitos, M., Miller, R. L., Obiso, V., and Pérez García-Pando, C.: Trade-offs of simplified versus comprehensive representation of mineralogy when studying dust impacts on Earth’s climate systems, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-6384, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-6384, 2024.

08:59–09:01
|
PICO5.9
|
EGU24-7871
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Paul-Alain Raynal, Caroline Pierre, Béatrice Marticorena, Jean-Louis Rajot, Abdourahmane Tall, Issa Faye, Diouma Cor Fall, Bineta Amar, Antoine Couedel, Gatien Falconnier, Jean-Alain Civil, Olivier Roupsard, and Sidy Sow

It is currently estimated that around 15% of the global mineral dust load comes from the Sahel. In this area, rainfed agriculture and livestock grazing play a crucial role in the livelihood of its rapidly growing population. Cropland is likely to be a main source of anthropogenic dust emissions in this region, as this land use type can favor wind erosion if land management deprives the soil of vegetation cover.

Yet, in situ measurements of wind erosion fluxes are scarce in the Sahel, and usually monitor only one type of land use and an associated land management (eg. whether or not to harvest crop residues, intercropping, etc.). Thus, there is room to improve the assessment of the Sahelian anthropogenic contribution to the global dust load, especially through a regional modelling approach relying on field measurements.

In this study, we combined in situ measurements from Sahelian Senegal with a modelling approach to estimate the effect of the main Sahelian land uses on wind erosion. Furthermore, we monitored contrasting land management per land use, representative of the last decades (1960-2020). Here we present the results for one groundnut field over two years (2020-2021), four different fallowed fields over one year (2022/2023), four millet fields over one year (2023/2024). All 1ha-plots were located near the town of Bambey in central Senegal (Groundnut Basin). The observations included sand-traps monitoring (for each 1ha-plot, 5 masts of 5 « Modified Wilson And Cooke » or MWAC sand traps each; collected every 2 weeks), meteorological data (e.g., wind and temperature profiles, and rainfall; at 5-minutes resolution) and vegetation monitoring (aboveground biomass, surface cover, height; weekly to monthly).

For each land use and land management, we estimated the aerodynamic surface roughness length and the wind friction velocity to simulate the horizontal flux of aeolian sediments using a dedicated model (the Dust Production Model – DPM). We then combined the wind erosion model (DPM) with vegetation models (STEP for fallows and STICS for crops) to simulate the vegetation growth and the associated horizontal flux of aeolian sediment. These simulations are compared to the in situ monitoring from the sand traps. Finally, we used ERA5 meteorological time series from the ECMWF to simulate the horizontal flux for the 1960–2020 period over a typical plot from the study area, for different realistic scenarios of land uses and land management.

Our study revealed the variability of wind erosion horizontal flux for the main Sahelian land use types (400 kg/m/yr for bare soil, 200 kg/m/yr for cropland, less than 10kg/m/yr for fallows), as well as slighter differences related to land management for a same land use. These results help to understand the link between wind erosion and agropastoral practices in Sahelian conditions over multi-decadal periods of time.

How to cite: Raynal, P.-A., Pierre, C., Marticorena, B., Rajot, J.-L., Tall, A., Faye, I., Fall, D. C., Amar, B., Couedel, A., Falconnier, G., Civil, J.-A., Roupsard, O., and Sow, S.: Wind erosion in Western Sahel : Quantifying the impact of land use and land management, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-7871, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-7871, 2024.

09:01–09:03
|
PICO5.10
|
EGU24-3981
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Yanyu Li and Qizhong Wu

Dust storms are severe and disastrous weather events that typically occur in arid and semi-arid desertification areas. The frequent occurrences of spring dust storms in East Asia in recent years have drawn widespread attention in the context of the significant achievements in ecological management and sand prevention. Identifying the source and transport of dust storms in East Asia is key to comprehending the ecological environment and climate. In this study, the MODIS annual product MCD12C1 is used as labels to classify the land cover of Landsat 8/9 images using the Random Forest method in order to obtain the dynamic distribution of dust source areas. The land cover results are processed to the WRF model to provide the meteorological field, after which a Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART-WRF is used to simulate the horizontal and vertical transport of particles from five dust source regions in East Asia during the March 22, 2023 dust storm event. The source apportionments for regions on the transmission path of different dust sources are revealed by an online tracer-tagged of air quality model NAQPMS. The results show that the total area of the East Asian dust source regions in March 2023 is 1.5×106 km2. Cold high pressure from Siberia and the Mongolian cyclone are key synoptic situations for dust emission and transport from dust source areas. The Taklimakan Desert and the Tarim Basin mainly affect northwestern China. The Badain Jaran Desert and Horqin Sandy Land have a greater impact on northern China, with longer transmission distances, and can even affect southeast and Northeast China. The Gobi Desert affects northern China by influencing the dust source areas in Inner Mongolia. The vertical transport height is up to 500m from the ground. The PM2.5 source apportionments show that the Badain Jaran Desert contribution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas accounted for 45.5 %, while the Gobi Desert accounted for 1.4 %.

How to cite: Li, Y. and Wu, Q.: How dust sources affect downstream regions in East Asia during a dust storm event, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-3981, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-3981, 2024.

09:03–09:05
|
PICO5.11
|
EGU24-18339
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Robert Wagner and Kerstin Schepanski

Vegetation fires represent a major, mostly anthropogenically-driven, component of the Earth system that are affecting different landscapes in multiple regions of the globe and are supposed to increase further in number and severity with the ongoing climate change. Measurements and conceptional model studies have already shown that the fire-induced disturbance of the near-surface wind patterns allow for the mobilization of soil dust particles and their injection into the atmosphere through the pyro-convective updrafts related to the fires. However, the dust emission schemes of the current generation of aerosol-climate models do not consider this fire-related emission pathway and focus on wind-driven dust emissions of mostly unvegetated landscapes such as deserts only. This can result in an underrepresentation of dust particles in the fire-affected regions with consequences regarding a correct representation of aerosol-atmosphere interactions such as the radiation budget.

Therefore, the present study aims to provide more insights concerning the importance of fire-driven dust emissions in the climate system. In order to achieve this, the process was implemented as a new emission pathway into the aerosol module HAM (Hamburg Aerosol Module) of the newly coupled aerosol-climate model ICON-HAM. Information about the behavior of the fire-affected wind fields and their potential to overcome typical emission thresholds have been used to set the dust emission fluxes in relation to data of the global fire activity, expressed by the fire radiative power (FRP), and to land-surface characteristics such as soil type and surface roughness.

Multi-year global simulations of ICON-HAM were analyzed to quantify the impacts of the additional dust emissions caused by the fire activity and their injection parameterization on a seasonal and continental scale. It was found that the strength of the fire-related dust emissions strongly depends on the region where the fire occurs, which is determined by the local soil-surface conditions and not only by the fire strength. However, the vegetation fires can lead to an increase of the atmospheric dust load even in regions far away from those commonly known as dust source areas, highlighting that fire-driven dust emissions can substantially contribute to the total aerosol load and in particular its composition within fire-prone regions or also within a fire-prone climate.

How to cite: Wagner, R. and Schepanski, K.: Fire-driven dust emissions – applying a newly developed parameterization scheme in a global aerosol-model, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18339, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-18339, 2024.

09:05–09:07
|
PICO5.12
|
EGU24-7235
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Xianglei Meng, Yan Yu, and Paul Ginoux

Wildfires can reduce vegetation cover and soil adhesivity, thus expanding bare grounds susceptible to wind erosion. Although in situ observations have confirmed dust emission following wildfires, a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of post-fire dust emissions is limited. Here, on the basis of satellite observations of active fires, aerosol abundance, vegetation cover and soil moisture from 2003 to 2020, we found that 91% and 54% of large wildfires are followed by reduced vegetation cover and enhanced dust emission, leaving intensive dust loadings for 1-25 days over normally dust-free regions. Furthermore, small wildfires, which naturally occur more widespread and frequently than large wildfires, lead to more considerable post-fire dust emissions, mostly global semi-arid regions. The occurrence and intensity of post-fire dust emission are regulated primarily by the extent of precedent wildfires and resultant vegetation anomalies, and modulated secondarily by pre-fire drought conditions. Despite the episodic nature of post-fire dust events, the amount of post-fire dust emission has shown an upward trend over the past two decades, especially over the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes, where droughts and wildfires are intensifying. These post-fire dust events impose greater socioeconomic and health impacts than dryland dust, due to the closer location of the former to populated areas. With an ongoing enhancement of extreme wildfires and concurrent droughts under global warming, our results emphasize the emerging importance of post-fire dust emissions on global and regional scales.

How to cite: Meng, X., Yu, Y., and Ginoux, P.: Quantifying dust emission following wildfires on the global scale, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-7235, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-7235, 2024.

09:07–09:09
|
PICO5.13
|
EGU24-10547
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Samaneh Moradikian, Sanaz Moghim, and Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour

Mineral dust particles have the potential to serve as natural nuclei for cirrus cloud formation in the upper troposphere. Several studies demonstrate that dust aerosol plays a pivotal role in initiating cirrus clouds and forming extended optically thick cirrocumulus decks known as “dusty cirrus”. Despite this, our ability to accurately identify and predict these climatically significant clouds is still limited. In this work, we propose an algorithm to identify dusty cirrus clouds based on satellite data over the Aral Sea region between 2006 and 2021. The algorithm uses the CALIOP Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) to verify the coexistence of dust particles and cirrus clouds and determine the occurrence of dusty-cirrus. To enhance the accuracy of the algorithm, temperature obtained from an external source (the GEOS-5 data product supplied to CALIPSO) is also incorporated as a constraint for cirrus cloud identification. A random selection of identified dusty cirrus events (5% of the data, 90 events) is cross-validated against other data sources including cloud top temperature (MODIS), cloud top height (MODIS), and AOD (MODIS and VIIRS). The cross-validation confirms approximately 97% of the events to be associated with dusty-cirrus. This confirms that the developed algorithm can be used for developing a dusty cirrus calendar using available CALIOP data. This calendar reveals different facts about the dusty-cirrus occurrence in the study area. Out of the 4407 available samples, 2709 cirrus cloud events are identified, with approximately 65% (1790 events) of them being associated with dusty cirrus. The average values obtained for summer, fall, winter, and spring are 54%, 63%, 66% and 75%, respectively. Annual and seasonal trend analysis reveals different increasing rates for this region. Despite the important uncertainties, our analysis and results suggest that the proposed algorithm can be used for first-order identification and statistical analysis of dusty cirrus.

How to cite: Moradikian, S., Moghim, S., and Hoshyaripour, G. A.: Development of a dusty cirrus calendar based on satellite data, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-10547, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-10547, 2024.

09:09–09:11
|
PICO5.14
|
EGU24-5430
|
On-site presentation
Emmanouil Proestakis, Antonis Gkikas, Thanasis Georgiou, Anna Kampouri, Eleni Drakaki, Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Eleni Marinou, and Vassilis Amiridis

Dust aerosols play a key role in the Earth’s radiation budget, in climate system, environmental conditions, and human health. However, the complex role of dust depends not only on the physical and chemical properties, but in addition to the particle size distribution, spanning from less than 0.1 μm to more than 100 μm in diameter. Larger mineral dust particles are more efficiently removed through dry deposition close to the source regions and act more efficiently as CCN and/or IN than fine-mode dust particles, whereas fine dust particles are more prominent to long-range transport, resulting to degradation of air-quality and induced negative disorders on human health.
Here, a new four-dimensional, multiyear, and near-global climate data record of the submicrometer and supermicrometer (in terms of diameter) components of atmospheric pure-dust, is presented. The separation of the two modes of dust is based on a combination of (1) the total pure-dust product provided by the ESA-LIVAS database and (2) the supermicrometer-mode component of pure-dust provided by the first-step of the two-step POLIPHON technique, developed in the framework of EARLINET. The submicrometer-mode component of pure-dust is extracted as the residual between the LIVAS total pure-dust and the supermicrometer-mode component of pure-dust. The decoupling scheme is applied to CALIPSO observations at 532nm. The final products consist of the submicrometer-mode and supermicrometer-mode of atmospheric pure-dust, of quality-assured profiles of backscatter coefficient at 532nm, extinction coefficient at 532nm, and mass concentration. The datasets are established primarily with the original L2 horizontal (5 km) and vertical (60 m) resolution of CALIOP along the CALIPSO orbit-path, and secondly in averaged profiles of seasonal-temporal resolution, 1o×1o spatial resolution, and with the original vertical resolution of CALIPSO, between 70oS and 70oN and covering more than 15-years of Earth Observation (06/2006-12/2021).
The climate data record is unique with respect to a wide range of potential applications, including climatological, time-series, and trend analysis over extensive geographical domains and temporal periods, validation of atmospheric dust models and reanalysis datasets, assimilation activities, and investigation of the role of airborne dust on radiation and air quality.

How to cite: Proestakis, E., Gkikas, A., Georgiou, T., Kampouri, A., Drakaki, E., Ryder, C. L., Marenco, F., Marinou, E., and Amiridis, V.: A near-global multiyear climate data record of the fine-mode and coarse-mode components of atmospheric pure-dust, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5430, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5430, 2024.

09:11–09:13
|
PICO5.15
|
EGU24-430
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Léo Clauzel, Sandrine Anquetin, Christophe Lavaysse, Guillaume Siour, Gilles Bergametti, Béatrice Marticorena, Christel Bouet, Rémy Lapere, and Jennie Thomas

The expected growth of solar photovoltaic (PV) production in West Africa over the coming decades poses challenges to the electrical network requiring accurate solar forecasts for both energy producers and power grid managers. Furthermore, solar radiation is affected by dust aerosols which play a significant role in West African meteorology, due to the proximity of this region to the Sahara desert, which is the world's largest source of mineral dust aerosols emissions.

In this general context, our research aims at identifying the impact of mineral dust on solar energy production. Thus, this study focuses on evaluating the influence of dust aerosols on solar radiation forecasts for the Zagtouli solar plant in Burkina Faso. 

Employing a coupled approach between a meteorological model (WRF) and a chemical transport model (CHIMERE), two dust events that are representative of the dry season are simulated in line with West African climatology. While one event is linked to dust emissions from the Bodélé plateau (Chad), the other is related to dust sources located within the South Atlas area.

The model undergoes rigorous assessment in regards to dust life cycle parameters (Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), PM10, size distribution) and variables essential for solar energy production (Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI), temperature) using in-situ measurements from long-term observatories (AERONET, INDAAF, AMMA-CATCH) and from the solar farm (GHI), satellite observations (AQUA/TERRA-MODIS, CALIPSO-CALIOP), and reanalysis data (CAMS). This evaluation shows a robust performance of the model.

In addition, sensitivity studies are implemented to evaluate the respective impacts of direct and indirect effects of dust aerosols on the amount of solar radiation available at the surface.

Overall, this study provides strong support for a modeling approach that couples meteorological processes with the dust life cycle to refine solar forecasts in the West African region.

How to cite: Clauzel, L., Anquetin, S., Lavaysse, C., Siour, G., Bergametti, G., Marticorena, B., Bouet, C., Lapere, R., and Thomas, J.: West African dust load modeling and its impact on solar radiation forecast during the dry season, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-430, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-430, 2024.

09:13–10:15
Chairpersons: Adolfo Gonzalez Romero, Martina Klose
Dust variability and environmental and socio-economic aspects
10:45–10:47
|
PICO5.1
|
EGU24-12289
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Kilian Hermes, John Marsham, Martina Klose, Franco Marenco, Melissa Brooks, and Massimo Bollasina

Dust storms are frequent high-impact weather phenomena that directly impact human life, e.g., by disrupting land and air traffic, posing health threats, and affecting energy delivery from solar-energy systems. Timely and precise prediction of these phenomena is crucial to mitigate negative impacts.

Currently operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models struggle to reliably reproduce or resolve dynamics which lead to the formation of convective dust storms, making short-term forecasts based on observations (“nowcasts”) particularly valuable. Nowcasting can provide greater skill than NWP on short time-scales, can be frequently updated, and has the potential to predict phenomena that currently operational NWP models do not reproduce.  However, despite routine high frequency and high resolution observations from satellites, as of January 2024, no nowcast of dust storms is available.

In this study, we present an image-based nowcasting approach for dust storms using the SEVIRI desert dust RGB composite. We create nowcasts of this RGB composite for a large domain over North Africa by adapting established optical-flow-based methods as well as a machine learning approach based on a U-net. We show that our nowcasts can predict phenomena such as convectively generated dust storms (“haboobs”) which currently operational NWP may not reliably reproduce. Furthermore, we show that a machine learning model offers crucial advantages over optical-flow-based nowcasting tools for the application of predicting complete RGB images.

Our approach therefore provides a valuable tool that could be used in operational forecasting to improve the prediction of dust storms, and indeed other weather events. Due to the technical similarity of RGB composite imagery from geostationary satellites, this approach could also be adapted to nowcast other RGB composites, such as those for ash, or convective storms.

How to cite: Hermes, K., Marsham, J., Klose, M., Marenco, F., Brooks, M., and Bollasina, M.: Image-based nowcasting of dust storms by predicting SEVIRI desert dust RGB composites, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12289, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-12289, 2024.

10:47–10:49
|
PICO5.2
|
EGU24-5573
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Yiting Wang, Yan Yu, Ji Nie, and Paul Ginoux

This research focuses on changes in early-spring dust emissions from Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes, in the context of global warming. Our study was motivated by the abnormally early and strong dust storms across East Asia in March 2021 and March 2023. These two recent dust extremes opposed the decadal decline of East Asian dust activities. Past studies have attributed this dustiness decline to expanded vegetation cover and resultant weaker near-surface winds in April and May; while in March, dust source regions in the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes have been mainly covered by snow or frozen soil instead of vegetation. Inspired by the abnormally warm and snow-free conditions associated with both the 2021 and 2023 early-spring dust extremes, our study examines an alternative hypothesis on dust regimes over the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes: in a warmer climate, earlier snow melt may cause stronger early-spring dust outbreaks. Here, using multiple observational datasets and model simulations, we show a 10-35% increase in March dust emission across the East Asian, Central Asian and North American drylands, from the 1980s towards the end of the 21st century, bringing ~20% extra PM10 to Beijing and Denver. This hemispherical enhancement in early-spring dust emission is primarily caused by reduced snow cover in response to warming, and further promoted by dynamical coupling between snow, wind, and soil moisture changes. The increased amount of dust, a light absorbing aerosol, may in turn accelerate larger-scale snow melt when it deposits, thereby triggering positive feedbacks between snow melting, dust emission, and warming. Our findings call for adaptation to the anticipated stronger early-spring dust storms across the North Hemispheric mid-latitudes in the upcoming decades.

How to cite: Wang, Y., Yu, Y., Nie, J., and Ginoux, P.: Stronger early-spring dust outbreaks across the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes in a warmer climate, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5573, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-5573, 2024.

10:49–10:51
|
PICO5.3
|
EGU24-9570
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Feifei Mu and Stephanie Fiedler

Desert-dust aerosols affect the climate, human health, and socio-ecomomic activities. In East Asia, the passage of Mongolian cyclones induce dust-emitting winds in the Gobi Desert. While cyclones are known as driver of dust outbreaks, the relative contribution of Mongolian cyclones to the total East Asian dust emission amount and the dust aerosol optical depth has not been quantified from a climatological perspective. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study systematically assesses the co-occurrence of Mongolian cyclones and dust aerosols in East Asia for 2001 to 2022. This study pairs output of the automated detection algorithm for extra-tropical cyclones in ERA5 re-analysis from the ETH Zürich with data for dust aerosols from multiple sources. Through the use of multiple dust data sets, we account for the substantial data uncertainty for dust aerosols in term of the spatial pattern and the absolute emission magnitudes, which can differ by an order of magnitude. The climatological analysis shows a high frequency and intensity for the occurrence of Mongolian cyclones in the lee of the Altai-Sayan Mountains (100Eo–125Eo and 37No–53No), favouring the seasonal dust activity in the Gobi Desert. The results highlight a tight constraint on the mean Mongolian cyclone contribution to the total dust emission amount of 39-47% in the spatial mean for spring based on data from MERRA-2 and Wu et. al. (2022), despite substantial differences in the absolute emission magnitudes. The dust-laden air from the Gobi Desert during such events typically moves southeastwards over China in the wake of the cyclones affecting the aerosol optical depth. For southern Mongolia and Northeastern China (105Eo–130Eo and 37No–52No), we estimate 34% (MERRA-2) to 43% (CAMS) of the dust aerosol optical depth (DOD) being associated with Mongolian cyclones. A decrease in dust emission fluxes and dust storm frequencies have been reported for Northern China in the past two decades and is thought to be connected to decreasing near-surface winds. Our results point to a negative trend in the dust emission flux and DOD associated with the occurrence of Mongolian cyclones. However, our results also point to the co-occurrence of particularly intense Mongolian cyclones, measured by the 99th percentile of the wind speed, with exceptionally strong dust storms in recent years, e.g., in March 2021, despite a mean negative trend in dust activity. Given the connection of Mongolian cyclone to high-impact dust storms in East Asia, the potential future development of such events should be addressed in future research.

How to cite: Mu, F. and Fiedler, S.: On the importance of Mongolian cyclones to East Asian dust storm activities, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-9570, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-9570, 2024.

10:51–10:53
|
PICO5.4
|
EGU24-3106
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Outi Meinander, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Anu Kaakinen, Johanna Salminen, Laura Rontu, Andre Welti, Diana Francis, Ana A. Piedehierro, Pasi Heikkilä, Enna Heikkinen, and Ari Laaksonen

On 21–23 February 2021, dust from a sand and dust storm (SDS) in northern Africa was transported to Finland, north of 60°N. The episode was predicted 5 days in advance by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) global operational SILAM forecast (silam.fmi.fi), and its key features (e.g., spatial distribution of wet and dry deposition amounts and particle sizes) were confirmed and detailed by a retrospective analysis. SILAM is among the dust forecast models included in the Word Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System WMO SDS-WAS.  

Dust deposition was observed on 23 February over a large area in the Southern and Central Finland from 60°N to >63.8°N. The ground was covered with snow making dust more easily detectable. The coloured snow caused people to contact FMI asking what is happening. FMI launched a citizen science campaign on Saharan dust with the help of social media, and people were asked to report their observations and to collect dust-containing snow and to extract the dust according to the guidelines. The campaign gained wide national interest in television, radio, newspapers and social media, and resulted in success in receiving citizen samples from 525 locations, with one to over ten samples in each.

The amounts of deposition calculated from the citizen samples were found to be up to 1.1 g/m2 and such maximum amounts per unit area agree with the SILAM calculations. The SILAM model and particle magnetic properties confirmed that dust came from a wide Sahara and Sahel area, from 5000 km away. The median diameters of the dust particles were in the modes of <10 µm and >20 µm. The mineral composition was dominated by quartz, feldspars, and soft phyllosilicates such as micas and clay minerals.

To extract dust from snow, Meinander et al. (2023) protocol recommends: 1. Collect snow samples within one week of the deposition event to minimize post-deposition changes. 2. Evaporate snow under 75oC to preserve the magnectic properties (particles should not be subjected to temperatures higher than 90oC). 3. Keep the remaining particles in the container in which the evaporation took place (e.g., a sheet of aluminium folio on a large oven tray and evaporating the snow in the oven) to best preserve all the particle sizes. 

Reference: Meinander, O., Kouznetsov, R., Uppstu, A. et al. African dust transport and deposition modelling verified through a citizen science campaign in Finland. Sci Rep 13, 21379 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-46321-7. 

 

 

How to cite: Meinander, O., Kouznetsov, R., Uppstu, A., Sofiev, M., Kaakinen, A., Salminen, J., Rontu, L., Welti, A., Francis, D., A. Piedehierro, A., Heikkilä, P., Heikkinen, E., and Laaksonen, A.: African dust transport and deposition modelling verified through a successful citizen science campaign in Finland  , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-3106, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-3106, 2024.

10:53–10:55
|
PICO5.5
|
EGU24-1776
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Suleiman Mostamandi, Georgiy Stenchikov, Ahmed Balawi, Illia Shevchenko, Dania Kabakebji, and Thomas Altmann

Dust in the Middle East (ME) significantly impacts regional climates and negatively affects the operation of solar farms in the ME region. Suspended dust particles attenuate downward short wave (SW) radiation, while dust deposited on the solar devices decreases effectiveness. This study theoretically assesses dust's attenuation and soiling effects on solar panels within the ME, employing a Weather Research Forecasting Model coupled with the aerosol-chemistry module, WRF-Chem, constrained by observed dust depositions. By analyzing the size distribution of dust deposition samples, we found that a major part of the deposited mass resulted from the deposition of dust particles with radii > 10 um. However, the models usually consider only particles with radii < 10 um.

We corrected this deficiency and conducted a year-long simulation using WRF-Chem. We found that the dust (primarily fine particles with radii < 3 m) reduces the downward SW radiation near the surface by 5-10%. Meanwhile, dust deposition (mostly coarse dust particles with radii > 6 m) imposes soiling losses of 12 to 36 % in different parts of the ME, assuming a weekly cleaning cycle.

Our findings unveil a complex interplay between dust size and its multifaceted impact on solar energy production. This novel insight could lead to optimized maintenance strategies and novel mitigation approaches tailored to the unique dust burden of the Middle East. Ultimately, this study aims to advance solar energy resource assessment and pave the way for enhanced photovoltaic efficiency in dust-prone regions.

How to cite: Mostamandi, S., Stenchikov, G., Balawi, A., Shevchenko, I., Kabakebji, D., and Altmann, T.: Assessment of the Impact of Coarse and Fine Dust on Solar Devices in the Middle East, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-1776, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-1776, 2024.

10:55–10:57
|
PICO5.6
|
EGU24-1827
|
On-site presentation
Stavros Solomos, Christina Mitsakou, Samuel Thompson, Helen Macintyre, Karen Exley, Stuart Aldridge, Christos Zerefos, Nikolaos S. Bartsotas, Christina Kalogeri, and Christos Spyrou

Toxicological and epidemiological studies have supported links between desert dust particles and health impacts, such as worsened asthma, hospitalization for respiratory infections, and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Airborne desert dust particles could serve as a medium for interacting with chemicals on their surfaces, potentially enhancing the bioreactivity of fine particles during episodes of dust storms. The role of the different mineralogical composition (e.g. quarz, iron, feldspars) on the biological effects of mineral dust remains to be determined. In this work we analyze the severe dust event that affected the UK on 15 and 16 March 2022 in terms of the synoptic situation leading to this event, the spatiotemporal distribution of the dust plumes over UK and the chemical/mineralogical composition of the particles. We employ the METAL-WRF model to investigate the atmospheric properties and the quantification of particle concentrations in ambient air but also in dry and wet depositions of dust. The METAL-WRF model includes prognostic fields for ten (10) minerals: illite, kaolinite, smectite, calcite, quartz, feldspar, hematite, gypsum, phosphorus and iron. We also investigate the health impacts linked to the desert dust transport on the population in UK regions. Our results are discussed across similar findings at more frequently dust-affected regions such as the Mediterranean.  

Acknowledgment This study is partially supported by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation project Mineralogy of Dust Emissions and Impacts on Environment and Health (MegDeth - HFRI no. 703) and the project Bioclimatic urban design for the sustainability and resilience of the urban environment in the context of climate change (BIOASTY)

How to cite: Solomos, S., Mitsakou, C., Thompson, S., Macintyre, H., Exley, K., Aldridge, S., Zerefos, C., Bartsotas, N. S., Kalogeri, C., and Spyrou, C.: Investigation of the mineralogical composition of desert dust particles during a transboundary pollution episode in the UK and implications for health effects , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-1827, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-1827, 2024.

10:57–10:59
|
PICO5.7
|
EGU24-11462
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Stylianos Kakavas, Evangelia Siouti, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros Pandis

Wind-blown dust emitted by the Earth’s surface is one of the major sources of dust emissions especially in non-vegetated areas like deserts and can affect both climate and human health. Acidity is an important property of atmospheric aerosols impacting a series of related processes and can be affected by these emissions of alkaline dust. In this work, we use a wind-blown dust emissions model to quantify the wind-blown dust emissions over the continental United States during February and July 2017. The modeling domain covers a region of 4752 × 2952 km2 including northern Mexico and southern Canada with a horizontal grid resolution of 36 × 36 km. Then, the hybrid version of aerosol dynamics in PMCAMx (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air-quality Model with Extensions) chemical transport model is used to simulate size-resolved aerosol acidity. In this version of PMCAMx for fine (PM1) particles, bulk equilibrium is assumed, while for larger particles a dynamic model is used to simulate the mass transfer to each size section. Two cases of simulations are performed. The first is the base case simulation and includes the wind-blown dust emissions for both months. The second one neglects these emissions in order to study their effects on aerosol acidity during a wintertime and a summertime period as a function of particle size and altitude.

How to cite: Kakavas, S., Siouti, E., Nenes, A., and Pandis, S.: Seasonal effects of wind-blown dust emissions on size-resolved aerosol acidity over the U.S, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-11462, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-11462, 2024.

10:59–11:01
|
PICO5.8
|
EGU24-17082
|
On-site presentation
Claire Ryder, Clement Bezier, Helen Dacre, Rory Clarkson, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Zak Kipling, Angela Benedetti, Mark Parrington, Samuel Remy, and Mark Vaughan

Atmospheric mineral dust aerosol constitutes a threat to aircraft engines from deterioration of internal components. Here we fulfil an outstanding need to quantify engine dust ingestion at worldwide airports.  The vertical distribution of dust is of key importance since ascent/descent rates and engine power both vary with altitude and affect dust ingestion. We use representative jet engine power profile information combined with vertically and seasonally varying dust concentrations to calculate the ‘dust dose’ ingested by an engine over a single ascent or descent. Using the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) model reanalysis, we calculate climatological and seasonal dust dose at 10 airports for 2003-2019. Dust doses are mostly largest in summer for descent, with the largest at Delhi (6.6 g). Beijing’s largest dose occurs in spring (2.9 g). Holding patterns at altitudes coincident with peak dust concentrations can lead to substantial quantities of dust ingestion, resulting in a larger dose than the take-off, climb and taxi phases. We compare dust dose calculated from CAMS to spaceborne lidar observations from two dust datasets derived from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). In general, seasonal and spatial patterns are similar between CAMS and CALIOP though large variations in dose magnitude are found, with CAMS producing lower doses by a mean factor of 2.4±0.5, particularly when peak dust concentration is very close to the surface. We show that mitigating action to reduce engine dust damage could be achieved, firstly by moving arrivals and departures to after sunset and secondly by altering the altitude of the holding pattern away from that of the local dust peak altitude, reducing dust dose by up to 44% or 41% respectively.

How to cite: Ryder, C., Bezier, C., Dacre, H., Clarkson, R., Amiridis, V., Marinou, E., Proestakis, E., Kipling, Z., Benedetti, A., Parrington, M., Remy, S., and Vaughan, M.: Underestimation of desert dust ingested by aircraft from the CAMS reanalysis compared to CALIOP retrievals, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17082, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-17082, 2024.

11:01–11:03
|
PICO5.9
|
EGU24-17990
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Oriol Teruel-Cabello, Leo Pena, Ester Garcia-Solsona, Eduardo Paredes, Isabel Cacho, Antoni Rosell-Melé, and Joan Villanueva

Airborne mineral dust is a significant constituent of the Earth's climate system that warrants detailed investigation to comprehend its impact on climate processes. This work presents a comprehensive multiproxy approach, utilizing Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, to discern mineral dust source areas from North Africa, a region contributing approximately 55% of the global annual dust load. Our research not only focuses on identifying provenance but also explores the relationship between climate processes in source areas and aerosol properties at remote locations. We collected samples during three oceanographic campaigns in the tropical Atlantic Ocean conducted in 2020, 2021, and 2022, spanning late winter and entire spring periods. The interannual aspect allows us to capture variations, enhancing our understanding of dust emission and transport dynamics. The implementation of a sampling device that separates aerosol particles of different sizes allows for the detailed isotopic characterization of particles in each size range. Our results indicate the existence of diverse origin and transport patterns depending on the particle size. Differentiation based on particle size uncovers compelling insights into the dynamics of dust dispersion, revealing size-dependent variations in dust behavior. Notably, we observe distinctive pathways for the mass of elements at each size, elucidating the complex interplay between Nd, Sr, and Pb. 

How to cite: Teruel-Cabello, O., Pena, L., Garcia-Solsona, E., Paredes, E., Cacho, I., Rosell-Melé, A., and Villanueva, J.: Impactor-Based Size Fractionation of Aerosol Particles over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean: Source Identification using Nd, Sr, and Pb Isotopes , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17990, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-17990, 2024.

Source to sink studies of present and past dust
11:03–11:05
|
PICO5.10
|
EGU24-93
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Zhigang Wang, Laurent Marquer, Yuanyu Cheng, Xiuxiu Ren, Hao Long, Shaofang Ren, Peng Qian, and Xiangmin Zheng

Shengshan Island (SSD), located in East China Sea, contains loess deposits that serve as an excellent carrier for recording environmental changes in the eastern subtropical region of China. Different from the continental Loess Plateau, SSD loess possesses distinctive characteristics due to its coastal location. Here we conducted the first pollen analysis to reconstruct vegetation dynamics in the SSD region during the middle to late Late Pleistocene period (75-40 ka). Biological indicators (i.e., total organic concentration and δ13Corg), along with geochemical proxies (i.e., quartz grain size, magnetic susceptibility, iron oxide ratios, clay minerals, and trace elements), were employed to reconstruct climatic dynamics in the SSD area. The study identified two stages in the evolution of the East Asian Monsoon. In Stage I (75-60 ka), various indicators (i.e., pollen concentration, Pinus concentration, magnetic susceptibility, C4 abundance, K/(I+Ch), Illite crystallinity, CII, Hm/Gt, quartz median grain size, Zr/Rb) increased, suggesting a strengthening of both winter and summer monsoons. In Stage II (60-40 ka), some indicators (i.e., pollen concentration, Pinus concentration, quartz median grain size, Zr/Rb) continued to increase while others (i.e., magnetic susceptibility, C4 abundance, K/(I+Ch), Illite crystallinity, CII, Hm/Gt) decreased, indicating a continued intensification of the winter monsoon but a weakening of the summer monsoon. Further, we explored the driving forces behind variations in monsoon intensity, analyzing changes in various δ18O proxies and sea-level fluctuations. The findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the winter and summer monsoons. Summer monsoon intensity is linked to changes in summer solar radiation at mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, while winter monsoon dynamic is affected by changes in ice volume and ice sheets. These insights contribute to our understanding of environmental changes related to the East Asian Monsoon, offering valuable perspectives on how these mechanisms could respond to future climate changes.

How to cite: Wang, Z., Marquer, L., Cheng, Y., Ren, X., Long, H., Ren, S., Qian, P., and Zheng, X.: Late Pleistocene East Asian monsoon intensity variations and driving mechanisms: Evidence from a multi-proxy analysis of loess deposits on an East China Sea island, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-93, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-93, 2024.

11:05–11:07
|
PICO5.11
|
EGU24-2280
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Deai Zhao, Guoqiao Xiao, Qingzhen Hao, Shaohua Tian, Zhipeng Wu, Hao Lu, Gaowen Dai, Shuzhen Peng, Chunjv Huang, and Qiuzhen Yin

The thick loess-paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are among the best terrestrial archives for the understanding of the global paleoenvironment and East Asian monsoon changes. In particular, orbital-scale variations characterized by major periodicities of ~100 kyr, ~40 kyr and ~20 kyr are recorded by various proxies in the loess, which is often suggested to reflect the orbital control on East Asian climate. However, whether these climate periods could be affected by the signals from the dust source areas remains unknown. Here we present the spectrum results of grain size records from the Baoji loess section spanning the past 400 ka in the southeastern part of the CLP, and compare with the previous results in the western CLP (to the west of the Liupanshan Mts.), including Gulang, Menyuan, Lanzhou, Linxia, Jingyuan loess sections, and loess sections in the eastern CLP (to the east of the Liupanshan Mts.), including Luochuan, Xifeng, Lantian, and Weinan sections. The results show that the dominant periods in different sections are spatially different, and the ~20-kyr precession cycle from the western CLP is significantly stronger than that in eastern CLP. Albeit dust accumulation rates in the Jingbian loess section from the eastern CLP are very high, the lack of precession signal suggests that high sedimentation rate is not the main factor for occurrence of precession cycle in grain size records. The results also suggest that the dust source areas for the eastern and western CLP are different, specifically, the loess deposits in western CLP were mainly sourced from the NE Tibetan Plateau, while the loess deposits in eastern CLP were significantly fed by the deserts to the north CLP (including deserts in Northern China and Southern Mongolia). As the dust production and transportation in NE Tibetan Plateau and the deserts to the north CLP were significantly driven by the ~20-kyr local summer insolation and the ~100-kyr ice age cycle, respectively, we argue that the climate cycle in loess grain size of the CLP indeed reflects the climate signals of their source areas, rather than the deposition areas. Our results suggest that caution should be taken when explaining the meaning of the loess grain size records.

How to cite: Zhao, D., Xiao, G., Hao, Q., Tian, S., Wu, Z., Lu, H., Dai, G., Peng, S., Huang, C., and Yin, Q.: Different orbital rhythms in loess grain-size records across the Chinese Loess Plateau, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-2280, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-2280, 2024.

11:07–11:09
|
PICO5.12
|
EGU24-4003
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Zoran Perić, Helena Alexanderson, Slobodan Marković, Milica Radaković, Petar Krsmanović, and Cathal Ryan

Fine-grained windblown deposits, known as loess, in which fossil soils (palaeosols) are preserved, serve as excellent records of past climate. However, paleoclimate reconstruction studies on loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) in Southeastern Europe have primarily focused on climate changes during the last one or two glacial-interglacial cycles. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the climate of the current interglacial, the Holocene. This oversight may be attributed to the prevailing notion that, based on ice core and marine isotope records, the Holocene is considered a climatically stable period. Additionally, the scarcity of LPS with well-preserved Holocene loess has contributed to this lack of attention until now. Three recently discovered loess-palaeosol sequences in the Eastern Carpathian and the Wallachian Basins present fully preserved loess covering MIS 1-MIS 2 offering the potential to unveil new and detailed information about Holocene climate. In this study, we present initial results from two of these LPS: Kisiljevo (44°44′0'' N and 21°25′0'' E) in the Carpathian Basin, and Velika Vrbica (44°35’1.70’’N, 22°43’15.97’’E) in the Wallachian Basin. For both sequences, detailed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronologies using 63-90 µm quartz have been constructed. Age models based on the OSL ages were constructed using the r.bacon software (Blaauw & Christen, 2011), following which dust accumulation rates (MAR) for the last approximately 30,000 years were calculated. The initial results from Kisiljevo reveal a significant loess accumulation during the Holocene, amounting to approximately 120 cm. The highest MARs were observed between 10 and 12 ka (10,000-8,000 BC) with a mean value of 148 g m2 a-1. A similar trend is evident at the Velika Vrbica LPS, where the average calculated MARs during the early Holocene (8 – 11.7 ka) were 189 g m2 a-1, showing a decreasing trend toward the later part of this period (3.1 – 8 ka) with average values reaching 132.1 m2 a-1. Interestingly, at this site, the mean MARs during Marine Isotope Stage 1 (MIS) were higher than during the cold, stadial MIS 2, where the recorded values averaged 177 g m2 a-1. These initial results suggest that the Holocene dust dynamics in this region was more variable than what generally accepted models suggest.

References: Blaauw & Christen (2011). Flexible paleoclimate age-depth models using an autoregressive gamma process. Bayesian Analysis, 6(3), 457–474.

How to cite: Perić, Z., Alexanderson, H., Marković, S., Radaković, M., Krsmanović, P., and Ryan, C.: New insights into the atmospheric dust dynamics in the Carpathian and Wallachian Basin during MIS 1-MIS 2, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4003, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4003, 2024.

11:09–11:11
|
PICO5.13
|
EGU24-4619
|
On-site presentation
|
Przemysław Mroczek, Maria Łanczont, and Maryna Komar

Colour is a fundamental morphological feature commonly documented during the description of loess layers and soils developed on loesses – both contemporary and fossil. These colours are typically identified directly in the field, matching specific hues from the Munsell Soil Colour Chart. However, this method is highly subjective, with accuracy hinging on the observer's expertise and weather conditions. Introducing digital spectrometers for colour analysis, conducted in the lab on powdered samples, enhances objectivity. This approach was applied to samples from the Middle-Upper Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (L2-S1-L1-S0) in Ukraine's Dnieper basin.

The laboratory work aimed to pinpoint chromatic parameters that typify each loess layer, considering their distinct features and stratigraphic positions, as well as various soil horizons, each with unique degrees of pedogenic alteration. Key colour metrics included lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), chroma (c*), and the R-index. The resultant database of spectrophotometric data helps identify colour patterns characteristic of different sequence components.

Our analysis revealed considerable variation across all measured parameters, yet maintained the distinct coloration typical of loess and soils. We also created a digital colour record corresponding with the analogue Munsell scale, lending further objectivity to colour descriptions. Notably, digital colour identification often markedly differs from traditional, "analogue" methods. Applying RGB tuning, we devised models that realistically replicate colours observed in the field.

The documented chromatic parameters enable geological profile analysis in both vertical and spatial dimensions – following the Dnieper valley's sub-meridian and sub-latitudinal orientations across the river basin. These colour profiles mirror the diverse litho-, pedo-, and diagenetic processes across different genetic stages. Crucially, we identified diagnostic colour characteristics unique to primary loesses (L2 vs. L1), various soil types, their development stages (full-profile vs. reduced), and preservation forms (modern vs. ancient).

Thanks to the high resolution and sensitivity of our spectrophotometric analysis, we detected nuanced chromatic shifts, often abrupt. This revealed otherwise invisible erosional surfaces and concealed boundaries, shedding light on changes in loess lithology or the progression of pedogenic processes. The documented colour shifts illustrate the dynamic evolution of the natural environment, from loess accumulation (cold phases) to soil formation (warm periods).

It should be noted that primary loesses of varying ages, collected from different geological sites, which are primarily described as light yellow, show significant differences in the L*, a*, b*, c* parameters in light of spectrophotometric analyses. This variability aligns well with the findings of geochemical analyses.

Research carried out as part of the grant of National Science Centre, Poland as the project no. 2018/31/B/ST10/01507 entitled “Global, regional and local factors determining the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental record in the Ukrainian loess-soil sequences along the Dnieper River Valley - from the proximal areas to the distal periglacial zone”.

How to cite: Mroczek, P., Łanczont, M., and Komar, M.: Loess chromaticity as an environmental change recorder: spectrophotometric study of aeolian dust and its role in paleoclimate studies, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4619, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4619, 2024.

11:11–11:13
|
EGU24-17608
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Atmospheric dust loading in eastern equatorial Pangea (Western Europe) and its impact on the Late Paleozoic climate system
(withdrawn)
Lily S. Pfeifer, Ying Cui, Tina Wu, Jean Van Den Driessche, Stephane Pochat, Jahandar Ramezani, Michael J. Soreghan, and Gerilyn S. Soreghan
11:13–11:15
|
PICO5.14
|
EGU24-19326
|
On-site presentation
Anna Bird, Ian Millar, Doris Wagner, Kaja Fenn, Rachel Smedley, Barbara Mauz, Moez Mansoura, Michael Rogerson, Marc Luetscher, Mahjoor Lone, and Noureddine Elmejdoub

North Africa is one of the regions identified by UNESCO as experiencing severe water stress, and further drying could be devastating for region that is also insecure. Tropical semi-arid regions, such as North Africa are highly sensitive to climate change, and climate predictions for this area suggest that this region will experience drying in the next decades and centuries. This contrasts with findings from palaeo-studies which show that, during the Pleistocene, global warming often correlates to humid phases. This project uses speleotherm records with palaoedust (loess) archives to assess the climate record over humid and dry periods to improve our understanding of past climate change in the sensitive but under-represented central northern Africa region. This presentation will focus on findings from the most important loess deposit in northern Africa, at Matmata in Tunisia.

The loess sections within the Matmata Plateau have loess and soil horizons relating to a series of humid and arid phases during the Quaternary, a sequence that provides valuable insight into the origins and dynamics of desert deposits and the interplay between continental and maritime weather systems. Previous work, in the 1990s, on the Matmata loess has shown onset of loess deposition to be during a humid phase (~70 ka) with loess deposition continuing as the climate becomes more arid into the Upper Holocene. It is currently assumed that the source of this material is the Grand Erg Orient, based on a relatively old study (1987). However, new OSL data presented here shows that the onset of loess deposition was much older than previously thought (~300 ka), with the top of the sections dated at ~24 ka. It appears that deposition was not continuous with a large gap in the record from 143 – 45 ka. Gaps in sedimentation for the section older than ~140 ka are difficult to determine due to limited reliability of older OSL ages.

Provenance analysis has been undertaken on many of the dated samples to establish past transport directions. Detrital zircon U-Pb data suggest that there is dominant Algeria-type source with some input from the north. The amount of this input varies over time with samples older than 200 ka showing a larger input from the north. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes from different grainsize fractions tell a similar story, with a dominant west African source.

How to cite: Bird, A., Millar, I., Wagner, D., Fenn, K., Smedley, R., Mauz, B., Mansoura, M., Rogerson, M., Luetscher, M., Lone, M., and Elmejdoub, N.: Why does it rain in the desert? The dust record in Tunisia., EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-19326, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-19326, 2024.

11:15–12:30
Chairpersons: Pavla Dagsson Waldhauserova, Outi Meinander
16:15–16:17
|
PICO5.1
|
EGU24-20434
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
|
Alice Karsenti, Charlotte Skonieczny, Stéphanie Duchamp-Alphonse, Xinquan Zhou, Kara Labidi, Nicolas Musial, Ana Alves, Maxime Leblanc, Julius Nouet, Amélie Plautre, Sébastien Bertrand, Eva Moreno, Annachiara Bartolini, Catherine Kissel, and Franck Bassinot

Located in the Northwestern part of the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea (AS) is surrounded by vast arid regions (e.g. Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, Iran), regularly swept by regional winds, that supply important amounts of mineral dust to the sea. This oceanic area is also under the influence of Indian monsoon surface winds that create a coastal upwelling off Somalia and Oman during summer and a convective mixing north of 15°N during winter. Consequently, mineral dust, coastal upwelling and convective mixing bring important amounts of nutrients to the euphotic zone, making the AS one of the most productive oceanic regions in the world. Although older studies usually highlight the coastal upwelling as a major factor behind primary productivity (PP) patterns in the AS, more recent studies have demonstrated that mineral dust inputs and convective mixing could have a significant influence on PP as well, at least since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This time interval encompasses a glacial-interglacial transition with rapid fluctuations of ice sheet volume and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and represents therefore, a perfect case study to explore the impact of key Earth’s climate forcing mechanisms on the PP for both, past and future climate conditions. Yet, mineral dust component is still poorly documented by proxy data in the AS and direct reconstruction of PP are rare, which limit our understanding of how fertilization of the euphotic zone either by dust, coastal upwelling and/or convective mixing, impacts PP in the past. In this study, we combine high resolution bulk geochemical composition, detrital fraction grain-size distribution and clay mineralogy composition, together with coccoliths counting and carbon organic analyses from sediment cores MD00-2354 and MD00-2355, both retrieved on the Owen ridge. The aim is to reconstruct high-resolution mineral dust and PP patterns over the western part of the AS since the LGM. Both sites are located under the direct influence of dust plumes and among the seasonal latitudinal shift of monsoonal winds. They are therefore willing to register nutrient inputs from mineral dusts, winter convective mixing and/or summer coastal upwelling. Combined with previous paleoclimate records from the area, they will provide for the first time, an unprecedented overview of the forcing factors behind PP distribution in the past. Preliminary results show decreasing PP at both sites through the last 20 ka, suggesting a regional pattern of nutrient distribution in the western AS. Particularly, a strong correlation between PP and mineral dust signals reinforces the hypothesis of a key role of mineral dust on PP in the area. 

How to cite: Karsenti, A., Skonieczny, C., Duchamp-Alphonse, S., Zhou, X., Labidi, K., Musial, N., Alves, A., Leblanc, M., Nouet, J., Plautre, A., Bertrand, S., Moreno, E., Bartolini, A., Kissel, C., and Bassinot, F.: Forcing factors behind primary productivity variabilities in Western Arabian Sea  since the Last Glacial Maximum: an important role of mineral dust supplies, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20434, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-20434, 2024.

16:17–16:19
|
PICO5.2
|
EGU24-18596
|
On-site presentation
Modern mineral dust depositions in East Antarctica: faithful geochemical tracers of Southern Africa dust contributions and evolution of the climate during the Holocene
(withdrawn)
Nadine Mattielli, Stefania Gili, Sibylle Boxho, Aubry Vanderstraeten, Alexander Mangold, Christophe Walgraeve, Preben Van Overmeiren, Goulven G. Laruelle, Aloys Bory, Andy Delcloo, and Steeve Bonneville
16:19–16:21
|
PICO5.3
|
EGU24-22132
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Sibylle Boxho, Nadine Mattielli, Aubry Vanderstraeten, Goulven G. Laruelle, Aloys Bory, Paolo Gabrielli, Stefania Gili, and Steeve Bonneville

Epica Dome C (EDC) ice core is invaluable and highly-resolved record of Earth’s climate. Within the database of climate proxies in deep ice core, quantifying the contribution of the various sources of dust has been very challenging and, so far, no continuous record of dust provenance has been established. Here, we developed an algorithm that combines the REE patterns from a large database (from 207 sediments/soils in well-known Potential Source Areas - PSA - in the Southern Hemisphere) to fit the REE patterns measure in EDC data[1]. Complemented by Monte Carlo simulations to account for analytical uncertainties and by evaluation of goodness-of-fit, our model quantifies the respective contribution of the dust sources (regrouped by large PSA like Patagonia, Africa, S-E Australia, New Zealand and Puna-Altiplano) deposited in EDC ice core between 2.9 and 33.7 kyr at a centennial resolution.

Our provenance record reveals that a major shift in dust provenance occurred at ~14.5-kyr BP during which the contribution of Patagonia (PAT – the main supplier of dust of the Last Glacial Maximum -LGM) declined from   ̴55% to 35% (% of total dust deposition) while African dust (SAF) became more prevalent from   ̴20% during LGM to   ̴40% after 14.5 kyr BP. As a matter of fact, the main supplier of dust in EDC during the Holocene is Southern Africa. We ascribe this abrupt shift to (i) long-lasting changes in the hydrology and of Patagonian rivers and (ii) to a sudden acceleration of sea-level rise between 14 and 15 kyr BP that submerged vast swathes of Patagonian continental shelf, triggering a decline in PAT dust supply to Antarctica. In turn, this induced a steep increase – in relative term - of SAF dust contribution in EDC.

Importantly,our record for EDC is very much consistent with our previous results for Epica Dronning Maud Land (EDML)[2] ice core showing the exact same shift (PAT for SAF dust) between 14 and 15 kyr BP. Yet, compared to EDML, EDC record shows generally larger contribution for SAF and lower PAT dust which seems logical considering the respective localization of EDML and EDC. Our results for EDC thus confirms the relationship between dust composition and eustatic sea level and also highlight the importance of African dust deposition in the Southern Indian ocean and in the adjacent sector of the Southern Ocean since 14 kyr. Our tracing method using REE patterns offers a new, high-resolution tool for the reconstruction of atmospheric paleo-circulation and paleoclimate in the Southern Hemisphere.

[1]Gabrielli et al., (2010), Quaternary Science Review 29, 1-2.

[2]Vanderstraeten et al., (2023), Science of the Total Environment 881, 163450

How to cite: Boxho, S., Mattielli, N., Vanderstraeten, A., Laruelle, G. G., Bory, A., Gabrielli, P., Gili, S., and Bonneville, S.: Reading dust provenance record in Epica Dome C Ice Core (EDC) of Antarctica reveals a shift from Patagonian to African sources through the last deglaciation (2.9 – 33.7 kyr), EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-22132, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-22132, 2024.

16:21–16:23
|
PICO5.4
|
EGU24-17880
|
On-site presentation
Steeve Bonneville, Aubry Vanderstraeten, Laruelle Goulven, Sibylle Boxho, Bory Aloys, Gabrielli Paolo, Gili Stefania, and Nadine Mattielli

Antarctic ice cores have provided valuable insights into the intricate interplay between dust and climate dynamics in the Southern Hemisphere. However, until now, a continuous and quantitative record detailing the origin of dust during the last deglaciation is lacking. In this study, we utilized a novel database comprising 207 Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns obtained from dust and fine sediment/soil fractions collected from well-known potential source areas (PSA) in the Southern Hemisphere. By combining this comprehensive dataset of REE patterns, we developed a robust statistical model to best match the REE patterns measured in the Epica Dronning Maud Land (EDML) ice core in East Antarctica. Among the 398 samples analyzed in the EDML core, 386 have been un-mixed with statistical significance. When coupled with data on total atmospheric deposition, our findings enable the first quantification of the dust flux from the various PSA reaching the EDML region between 7,000 and 27,000 years before present (kyr BP). Our results unveil that, despite a substantial decrease in atmospheric deposition at the onset of deglaciation around 18,000 years ago, the dust composition remained relatively uniform throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-27 kyr BP) and Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, between 14.7-18 kyr BP). During this period, approximately 68% of the total dust deposition was coming from Patagonian sources, with the remaining contributions originating from Australia (14-15%), Southern Africa (~9%), New Zealand (~3-4%), and Puna-Altiplano (~2-3%). A significant shift in dust provenance occurred around 14.5 kyr BP, marked by a drop in Patagonian contribution to below 50%, while low-latitude PSAs increased their contributions, accounting for 21-23% from Southern Africa, 13-21% from Australia, and ~4-10% from Puna-Altiplano. We propose that this shift is linked to enduring alterations in the hydrology of Patagonian rivers, including Atlantic-Pacific drainage reversals and the decline of braided planform, along with the sudden submersion of the Patagonian shelf. Indeed, between 15 and 14.0 kyr BP, the PAT shelf surface area was halved and by ∼13 kyr BP, it had shrunk by 70% from to its former maximum glacial expansion, with most of the PAT shelf south of 40°S submerged. The drastic reduction of the area subjected to aeolian deflation coupled with the reduction of fine sediment supply of eastern plains in PAT induced an overall decline in dust emission from Patagonian sources. Our finding emphasizes an important feedback between dust composition in Southern Hemisphere and eustatic sea level during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition. The early Holocene dust composition reveals heightened variability, with a prevalent contribution from Patagonia at ~50%. Post 11.5 kyr BP, as Puna-Altiplano experienced persistent aridity, our records demonstrate a noticeable increase in dust contribution. Leveraging a comprehensive coverage of both local and distal PSA, our statistical model, based on REE patterns, provides a straightforward and cost-effective method for tracing dust sources in ice cores.

How to cite: Bonneville, S., Vanderstraeten, A., Goulven, L., Boxho, S., Aloys, B., Paolo, G., Stefania, G., and Mattielli, N.: Unveiling the provenance of dust in the EPICA Dronning Maud Land Ice Core (Antarctica) throughout the Last Deglaciation (7–27 kyr BP): A Quantitative Record Using a Novel Rare Earth Element Mixing Model, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17880, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-17880, 2024.

Cryosphere interactions
16:23–16:25
|
EGU24-989
|
ECS
|
Highlight
|
Virtual presentation
Dylan Beard, Giovanni Baccolo, Caroline Clason, Geoffrey Millward, Edyta Łokas, Sally Rangecroft, Dariusz Sala, Przemysław Wachniew, and William Blake

Under climatic warming and increased melting, glaciers and ice caps are becoming secondary sources of contaminants deposited decades ago. Cryoconite, an organic-rich material found on the surface of many glaciers, is particularly efficient at accumulating airborne contaminants due to biogeochemical exchanges with the organic matter within cryoconite. Atmospherically derived radioactive isotopes, commonly referred to as fallout radionuclides, have now been found to accumulate in cryoconite globally. However, data from the polar regions, especially ice sheets and ice caps, is scarce. This study helps to address this regional gap in understanding fallout radionuclide accumulation in glacial settings. We present the first radioactivity dataset from cryoconite on a Greenlandic ice cap and assess the role of cryoconite in the distribution of radioactive species in the High Arctic. Forty-six cryoconite samples were collected from the Flade Isblink ice cap (NE Greenland) in August 2022. These samples were analysed via alpha and gamma spectrometry for atmospheric radionuclides, including 137Cs, 241Am, 210Pbexc., 207Bi, 7Be, and several plutonium isotopes. The results of this study confirm cryoconite's exceptional ability to accumulate fallout radionuclides, even in remote and relatively pristine regions such as Northern Greenland. The activities of radionuclides in cryoconite from Flade Isblink are among the highest reported across the High Arctic and the highest ever reported from Greenland. Flade Isblink's radioactivity source is compatible with the stratospheric reservoir established during atmospheric nuclear tests and with weapon-grade fissile fuel, likely originating from Novaya Zemlya. Our findings emphasise the necessity for continued research efforts on the release of legacy contaminants from glaciers, particularly given accelerated global warming and consequent glacier retreat.

How to cite: Beard, D., Baccolo, G., Clason, C., Millward, G., Łokas, E., Rangecroft, S., Sala, D., Wachniew, P., and Blake, W.: Atmospheric radioisotopes in cryoconite from the Flade Isblink ice cap, NE Greenland, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-989, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-989, 2024.

16:25–16:27
|
PICO5.5
|
EGU24-8796
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Jens Søndergaard, Christian Frigaard Rasmussen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, and Christian Juncher Jørgensen

Dispersion and deposition of mineral dust from natural or anthropogenic sources such as proglacial rivers, mines and haul roads can have both positive and negative effects on the environment, depending on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of the dust. Some elements in dust may act as nutrients for, for example, plants, lichens and soil communities, while other elements may act as pollutants with negative impacts on growth or reproduction or cause diseases in animals and plants.

To support the sustainable development of environmentally safe mining in sensitive Arctic land areas and reduce airborne environmental pollution, an improved understanding of processes leading to the dispersion of mineral dust in a changing Arctic is needed. This involves improved methods for monitoring dust emissions and dust deposition in a cold environment as well as analytical tools and methods to source trace and differentiate between natural and mining related dust. Accurate identification of individual dust sources subsequently makes it possible to mitigate emissions and target the regulation of mining activities towards these sources.

In this study, we present preliminary results from two new arctic dust monitoring stations in West Greenland and Svalbard. In Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, mineral dust has been collected using a wide array of passive and active dust samplers, including a continuously operated high volume dust sampler at a weekly sampling frequency over 2022/2023. In Svalbard, mineral dust has been collected in Adventdalen using passive dust collectors in a transect along the haul road to the active coal mines. Samples have been collected on a weekly sampling frequency in the period September to November 2023 to investigate the temporal and spatial variations in dust deposition rates, as well as the impact of haul road traffic relative to the natural dust emissions and depositions.

How to cite: Søndergaard, J., Frigaard Rasmussen, C., Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, H., and Juncher Jørgensen, C.: Potential environmental impacts of natural and mining related dust in Greenland and Svalbard, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-8796, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-8796, 2024.

16:27–16:29
|
EGU24-12816
|
ECS
|
Highlight
|
Virtual presentation
Atmospheric deposition of local mineral dust delivers nutrients to the ‘Dark Zone’ of the Greenland Ice Sheet
(withdrawn)
Jenine McCutcheon, James McQuaid, Nuno Canha, Sarah Barr, Stefanie Lutz, Vladimir Roddatis, Sathish Mayanna, Andrew Tedstone, Martyn Tranter, and Liane Benning
16:29–16:31
|
PICO5.6
|
EGU24-13103
|
On-site presentation
Pavla Dagsson Waldhauserova, Outi Meinander, and IceDust members

Two billion tons of dust are annually transported in our atmosphere all around the world. High latitudes include active desert regions with at least 5 % production of the global atmospheric dust. Active High Latitude Dust (HLD) sources cover > 1,600,000 km2 and are located in both the Northern (Iceland, Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, North Eurasia, and Scandinavia) and Southern (Antarctica, Patagonia, New Zealand) Hemispheres. Recent studies have shown that HLD travels several thousands of km inside the Arctic and > 3,500 km towards Europe. In Polar Regions, HLD was recognized as an important climate driver in the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate in 2019. In situ HLD measurements are sparse, but there is increasing number of research groups investigating HLD and its impacts on climate in terms of effects on cryosphere, cloud properties and marine environment.

Long-term dust in situ measurements conducted in Arctic deserts of Iceland and Antarctic deserts of Eastern Antarctic Peninsula in 2018-2023 revealed some of the most severe dust storms in terms of particulate matter (PM) concentrations. While one-minute PM10 concentrations is Iceland exceeded 50,000 ugm-3, hourly PM10 means in James Ross Island, Antarctica exceeded 300 ugm-3 in 2021-22. The largest HLD field campaign was organized in Iceland in 2021 where 11 international institutions with > 70 instruments and 12 m tower conducted dust measurements (Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, Darmstadt, Berlin and Karlsruhe Universities, NASA, Czech University of Life sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland etc.). Additionally, examples of aerosol measurements from Svalbard and Greenland will be shown. There are newly two online models (DREAM, SILAM) providing daily operational dust forecasts of HLD. DREAM is first operational dust forecast for Icelandic dust available at the World Meteorological Organization Sand/Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS). SILAM from the Finnish Meteorological Institute provides HLD forecast for both circumpolar regions. 

Icelandic dust has impacts on atmosphere, cryosphere, marine and terrestrial environments. It decreases albedo of both glacial ice/snow similarly as Black Carbon,  as well as albedo of mixed phase clouds via reduction in supercooled water content. There is also an evidence that volcanic dust particles scavenge efficiently SO2 and NO2 to form sulphites/sulfates and nitrous acid. High concentrations of volcanic dust and Eyjafjallajokull ash were associated with up to 20% decline in ozone concentrations in 2010. In marine environment, Icelandic dust with high total Fe content (10-13 wt%) and the initial Fe solubility of 0.08-0.6%, can impact primary productivity and nitrogen fixation in the N Atlantic Ocean, leading to additional carbon uptake.

Sand and dust storms, including HLD, were identified as a hazard that affects 11 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. HLD research community is growing and Icelandic Aerosol and Dust Association (IceDust) has > 110 members from 57 institutions in 22 countries (https://icedustblog.wordpress.com, including references to this abstract). IceDust became new member aerosol association of the European Aerosol Assembly in 2022. New UArctic Thematic Network on HLD was established in 2023.   

How to cite: Dagsson Waldhauserova, P., Meinander, O., and members, I.: High Latitude Dust (HLD) measurements in Iceland, Antarctica, Svalbard, and Greenland, including HLD impacts on climate and HLD networking, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-13103, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-13103, 2024.

16:31–16:33
|
EGU24-16834
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Lou-Anne Chevrollier, Adrien Wehrlé, Joseph M. Cook, Alexandre M. Anesio, Liane G. Benning, and Martyn Tranter

Pigmented microalgae bloom on glaciers and snowfields worldwide, contributing to carbon storage and enhanced surface melt through surface darkening. The darkening impact of snow algal blooms is being increasingly studied on terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets but less attention has been given to seasonal snowfields, despite their ecological and climatic relevance. Algal blooms are typically widespread but heterogeneously distributed and therefore high resolution airborne observations provide important insights to better understand the spatial patterns and impact of the blooms. Here, we present 130 field spectra colocated with low-cost and light-weight drone imagery acquired over 6 different snowfields in July and August 2023 around Hardangerjøkulen (Hardanger glacier), Southern Norway. We combine these high-resolution measurements with radiative transfer modeling to provide estimates of abundance, carbon storage and albedo impact of snow algal blooms on seasonal snowfields.

How to cite: Chevrollier, L.-A., Wehrlé, A., M. Cook, J., M. Anesio, A., G. Benning, L., and Tranter, M.: Characterisation of algal blooms on seasonal snowfields through a combination of field spectrometry, drone imagery and radiative transfer modeling at Hardangerjøkulen (Hardanger glacier), Southern Norway, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16834, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-16834, 2024.

16:33–16:35
|
PICO5.7
|
EGU24-8749
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Sujith Krishnakumar, Samuel Albani, Martin Ménégoz, Catherine Ottlé, and Yves Balkanski

Simulating seasonal snow with state-of-the-art global general circulation models (GCMs) is still challenging. Snow provides fresh water to billions of people and plays an important role in the energy budget of the earth through albedo, which affects not only local but also remote and global climate/hydrological patterns. Therefore, changes in snow amount and length of the season are crucial when investigating climate variability.  One key aspect often overlooked in GCMs is the inclusion of Light Absorbing Particles (LAPs) in snow simulations. LAPs dramatically reduce snow albedo, particularly for visible solar radiation, leading to considerable implications for climate modeling. The intention is to lay the foundations for addressing the issues across different climate conditions through simulations, by adding the snow darkening effect to a multilayered intermediate complexity scheme within ORCHIDEE, the land surface model embedded in the IPSL Earth System Model.

LAPs are commonly deposited on the surface of fresh snow and progressively become embedded into deeper layers of the snowpack.  The LAP species taken into account include four log-normal modes of dust, soot, and organic carbons. These tracers allow for the movement of LAPs through different layers of the snowpack, adjusting with snow accumulation or melting. In order to simulate the movement of LAPs, ORCHIDEE has been enhanced with a tracer flow mechanism that carry LAPs from the top snow layer following deposition and move through various layers as snow thickens or flushes with meltwater flow. Our approach to snow albedo deviates from the default method in ORCHIDEE as a function of snow aging through an exponential decay function with dependence on the degree of water saturation and the occurrence of fresh snow deposition. Instead, it integrates the Warren and Wiscombe snow radiative transfer scheme with Kokhanovsky's single scatter properties of snow crystals and the optical properties of LAPs to compute the albedo of impure snow. This study conducted site-level offline ORCHIDEE simulations using observed atmospheric conditions and MERRA2 aerosol deposition data. The integration of LAPs and related processes has led to improved simulations of seasonal snow, achieving more realistic representations of snow albedo compared to pure snow. Our results also show that LAPs play an important role in determining the local snow season length.

How to cite: Krishnakumar, S., Albani, S., Ménégoz, M., Ottlé, C., and Balkanski, Y.: Influence of aerosol deposition on snowpack evolution in simulations with the ORCHIDEE land surface model , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-8749, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-8749, 2024.

16:35–16:37
|
EGU24-12203
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Maria Florencia Ruggeri, Ximena Fadic, Gonzalo Barcaza, and Francisco Cereceda-Balic

The cryosphere, a vital component of the Earth's climate system, holds substantial importance in both the hydrological cycle and the energy balance. Current apprehension turns around alterations in the cryosphere linked to the reduction in Surface Snow Albedo (SSA).

The decrease in SSA is primarily attributed to the presence of light-absorbing particles (LAPs) and the growth of snow grain size (SGS). The quantitative assessment of these SSA reductions' climatic impact is reflected through their Radiative Forcing (RF), indicating the change they induce in the net radiative flux at the tropopause or the top of the atmosphere. LAPs, mainly composed of Black Carbon (BC) and Mineral Dust (MD), contribute to albedo reduction at visible wavelengths. BC originates from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, while MD primarily emanates from arid and semi-arid regions with low vegetation cover. Precise RF calculations resulting from SSA reductions gain significance, particularly in regions where snow cover governs freshwater availability. Chile exemplifies such a concern, possessing the largest portion of the Andean cryosphere, highly responsive to climate change. This has significant implications for water resources, impacting freshwater availability for Chile's residents and key economic activities.

To quantify the Radiative Forcing RF generated by LAPs in the Chilean Central Andes, snow samples were collected at Portillo, from 2017 to 2022. NUNATAK-1 is a portable, flexible, collaborative scientific platform belonging to the Centre for Environmental Technologies (CETAM-UTFSM), specially designed for research campaigns under extreme conditions, equipped with different automatic and real-time monitoring instruments to measure meteorology, net albedo, solar radiation, gases and aerosols, among others. The samples underwent analysis to determine BC and MD concentrations, following the methodologies outlined in Cereceda-Balic et al. (2022). Snow albedo was modeled using the SNow, ICe, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR). Evaluating the singular and combined effects of LAPs, snow albedo was simulated for four scenarios: clean snow (without LAPs), BC only, dust only, and BC + dust. RF represents the variance in absorption between LAP-influenced scenarios and clean snow. For RF calculation, measured solar irradiance specific to each sampling date at the designated site was used. BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 to 717.2 ng g-1, while MD concentrations varied between 1.6 and 181.3 mg kg-1, leading to SSA reductions of up to 21% relative to clean snow. Notably, it was observed that the absorption produced by BC and MD could be comparable, underscoring the significant role of MD in this semiarid location. Moreover, even with relatively moderate or low LAP concentrations in the snow, substantial RF values are generated, emphasizing the heightened climatic influence of LAPs in the region.

Acknowledgments: ANID-Fondecyt Projects 11220525 and 1221526, ANID ANILLO ACT210021, FOVI 230167.

How to cite: Ruggeri, M. F., Fadic, X., Barcaza, G., and Cereceda-Balic, F.: Black Carbon and Dust in the snow of Chilean Central Andes: From albedo reductions to radiative forcing, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12203, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-12203, 2024.

16:37–16:39
|
PICO5.8
|
EGU24-20949
|
On-site presentation
|
Francisco Cereceda-Balic, María Florencia Ruggeri, Gonzalo Barcaza, Ximena Fadic, and Hans Moosmüller

The pristine Antarctic environment, despite its remoteness, is not immune to the influence of anthropogenic
pollutants. This study focuses on quantifying the Radiative Forcing (RF) resulting from Black Carbon (BC)
concentrations in snow samples collected from various points on the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer
of 2023, aiming to assess the impact of BC on the snowpack albedo and, consequently, on the regional climate. To the
best of our knowledge, in most of the locations studied, BC concentrations in snow have never been measured before.
Snow samples were meticulously collected from different locations on the Antarctic Peninsula, covering a diverse
range of environments, including base surroundings, remote locations, and icebergs. This effort was undertaken as
part of the ECA59 campaign, funded by the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH). The sampling constituted the initial
phase of a project involving three distinct sampling periods. Specifically, the collection sites were situated in the
eastern sector of the peninsula, known for its minimal human presence and limited prior research, making it a
relatively unexplored region. BC concentrations in our snow samples were measured following the method described
in Cereceda-Balic et al. (2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113756). To understand the BC RF, the SNICAR
(SNow, ICe, and Aerosol Radiation) model was employed to simulate snow albedo for measured BC concentrations.
This methodology allowed for an assessment of the potential BC-induced changes in albedo and the resulting RF. The
analysis revealed a significant range of BC concentrations in Antarctic snow samples, spanning from 2.4 to 1157 ng g-1. Simulating snow albedo using the SNICAR model indicated BC-induced albedo reductions of up to 20% relative to clean snow. The calculated BC-induced RF reached up to 38 W m-2, indicating a substantial climatic impact of BC in the Antarctic Peninsula region.

Our findings underscore the influence of BC on the radiative properties of snow in the Antarctic Peninsula. The diverse
BC concentrations observed here suggest varying sources and highlight the need for continued monitoring. The results
reveal the vulnerability of the Antarctic Peninsula to the impacts of anthropogenic pollutants, even in its seemingly
pristine surroundings. Acknowledging and addressing these influences is essential for assessing the broader
implications of climate change in polar regions. Continued research at these little-explored sites is crucial for refining
climate models and informing mitigation strategies to preserve the integrity of the Antarctic environment.


Acknowledgments: INACH Project RT_34-21, and ANID Project: Fondecyt Projects N°1221526 andN°11220525, ANILLO ACONCAGUA N°ACT210021, and FOVI230167

How to cite: Cereceda-Balic, F., Ruggeri, M. F., Barcaza, G., Fadic, X., and Moosmüller, H.: Radiative Forcing Assessment of Black Carbon in Snow from the Antarctic Peninsula , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20949, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-20949, 2024.

16:39–16:41
|
PICO5.9
|
EGU24-9995
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Yue Zhou, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin

Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its brown carbon (BrC) components in the cryosphere have significant impact on the biogeochemistry cycling and snow/ice surface energy balance. In this study, snow samples were collected across regional area of northern Xinjiang, China to investigate the chemical composition, optical properties, and radiative forcing (RF) of WSOC. Based on the geographic differences and proximity of emission sources, the sampling sites were grouped as urban (U), remote (R), and soil-influenced (S) sites, for which WSOC concentrations were measured as 1968±953 ng g-1 (U), 885±328 ng g-1 (R), and 2082±1438 ng g-1 (S), respectively. The S sites showed the higher mass absorption coefficients at 365 nm (MAC365) of 0.94±0.31 m2 g-1 compared to those of U and R sites (0.39±0.11 m2 g-1 and 0.38±0.12 m2 g-1, respectively). Molecular-level characterization of WSOC using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) provided further insights into chemical differences among samples. Specifically, much more reduced S-containing species with high degree of unsaturation and aromaticity were identified in U samples, suggesting an anthropogenic source. Aliphatic/proteins-like species showed highest contribution in R samples, indicating their biogenic origin. The WSOC components from S samples showed high oxygenation and saturation levels. The WSOC-induced RF were estimated as 0.04 to 0.59 W m-2, which contribute up to 16% of that caused by BC, demonstrating the important influences of WSOC on the snow energy budget. Furthermore, the molecular composition and light-absorbing properties of BrC chromophores were unraveled by application of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and HRMS. The chromophores were classified into five major types, i.e., (1) phenolic/lignin-derived compounds, (2) flavonoids, (3) nitroaromatics, (4) oxygenated aromatics, and (5) other chromophores. Identified chromophores account for ~23% – 64% of the total light absorption measured by the PDA detector in the wavelengths of 300 – 370 nm. In the representative U and R samples, oxygenated aromatics and nitroaromatics dominate the total absorbance. Phenolic/lignin-derived compounds are the most light-absorbing species in the S sample. Chromophores in two remote samples exhibit ultraviolet-visible features distinct from other samples, which are attributed to flavonoids. Identification of individual chromophores and quantitative analysis of their optical properties are helpful for elucidating the roles of BrC in snow radiative balance and photochemistry.

How to cite: Zhou, Y., Wang, X., and Laskin, A.: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative forcing of water-soluble brown carbon in seasonal snow samples from northern Xinjiang, China, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-9995, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-9995, 2024.

16:41–16:43
|
EGU24-16833
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Sauvik Santra, Shubha Verma, and Shubham Patel

Himalayan glaciers are a significant contributor to the global supply of snowmelt water and serve as the primary source for major rivers in South Asia. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of aerosol species on glaciers in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region and identified the glaciers most affected, as well as the relative and cumulative impact of different aerosol species, including black carbon (BC). We estimate the surface concentration of organic carbon (OC), sulfate (Sul), and dust aerosols in the HKH region. We also measured the concentration of these aerosol species in the snow of nine glaciers and investigated their influence on annual glacier runoff. Furthermore, we identified the source regions and sectors that are responsible for aerosol loading in the region. In this study, we combined free-running (freesimu) and constrained (constrsimu) aerosol simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, an aerosol-snow radiative interaction model, and a novel hypsometric glacier energy mass balance model. The freesimu estimates of aerosol species concentrations were more accurate at high-altitude (HA) stations than at low-altitude (LA) stations. However, the constrsimu estimates performed significantly better at LA stations. A hotspot location of high concentration of aerosol species was identified near Manora Peak, located almost at a central location in the HKH region. Although the concentration of other aerosol species was 2 to 5 times higher than BC (< 70 μg kg-1), they caused significantly less reduction in snow albedo than BC over the HKH glaciers. The cumulative snow albedo reduction (SAR) due to all aerosol species, including BC, was estimated to be as much as 7 to 8% over the Gangotri and Chorabari glaciers, with Gangotri being one of the most important glaciers responsible for the formation of the Ganges River. The Pindari glacier was found to have the highest annual runoff increase (ARI) of all glaciers studied despite having a lower aerosol-induced SAR than the Gangotri and Chorabari glaciers. Five of the nine glaciers (Pindari, Sankalpa, Milam, Gangotri, and Chorabari) had ARI higher than 300 mm w.e. y-1 due to aerosol-induced SAR. Glaciers located in the HKH region were found to be two to three times more sensitive to SAR than cold Tibetan glaciers. This, combined with the recent increase in temperature due to global warming, paints a worrying picture for the future. Analysis of the fractional contribution of aerosol species revealed that BC aerosols, although having a less than 15% contribution to the total aerosol loading, contribute 55 to 70% of total aerosol-induced ARI, followed by dust (20 to 30\%), Sul and OC aerosols respectively. Analysis of region- and source-tagged simulation data revealed that the main sources of OC and Sul aerosols south of 30°N were biomass burning and open burning (for OC), and fossil fuel burning (for Sul) from the nearby Indo-Gangetic plain. For regions located north of 30°N and for dust aerosols, the main contributor was identified as long-range intercontinental transport from far-off regions of Africa and West Asia.

How to cite: Santra, S., Verma, S., and Patel, S.: Cumulative and relative impact of aerosol species on snowmelt runoff from the Hindu Kush Himalayan glaciers, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16833, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-16833, 2024.

16:43–16:45
|
PICO5.10
|
EGU24-14639
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Rethinking the connection between aerosols, meteorology, and snowmelt patterns in High Mountain Asia: Using a novel regional reanalysis
(withdrawn)
Chayan Roychoudhury, William Cheng, Cenlin He, Rajesh Kumar, John McKinnon, and Avelino Arellano Jr.
16:45–16:47
|
PICO5.11
|
EGU24-16299
|
Highlight
|
On-site presentation
Xin Wang and Hanxuan Wen

Snow scavenging is recognized as one of the major sinks for atmospheric microplastics (MPs). However, little is known about the properties of MPs in large-scale surface snow. Using Nile Red staining and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we identified the shapes, sizes, and polymer components of MPs in seasonal snow across northeastern (NE) China, a major industrial area. The average concentration of MPs was (4.52 ± 3.05) × 104 MPs L−1 , and the highest contamination (6.65 ± 3.89) × 104 MPs L−1 was observed in Changbai Mountains, which was the highest concentration observed in surface snow to the extent of literature. The majority of snow MPs were smaller than 50 μm and composed primarily of fragments. Ethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene were the dominant contributors to their chemical components. Investigation with positive matrix factorization revealed that the MPs were primarily generated by debris from packaging materials, followed by industrial and construction activities. In addition, the winter atmospheric circulation over the northwestern Siberian and Mongolian plateaus likely dominated the wide-range dispersion and deposition of the MPs across NE China. These results provide a first comprehensive perspective of MPs from sources to removal associated with snow in a large geographic region.

How to cite: Wang, X. and Wen, H.: Diverse and high pollution of microplastics in seasonal snow across Northeastern China, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16299, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-16299, 2024.

16:47–16:49
|
PICO5.12
|
EGU24-4799
|
ECS
|
On-site presentation
Shaojian Huang, Feiyue Wang, Tengfei Yuan, Zhengcheng Song, Peipei Wu, and Yanxu Zhang

Sea ice (including overlying snow) is a dynamic interface between the atmosphere and the ocean, influencing the mercury (Hg) cycling in polar oceans. However, a large-scale and process-based model for the Hg cycle in the sea ice environment is lacking, hampering our understanding of regional Hg budget and critical processes. Here, we develop a comprehensive model for the Hg cycle at the ocean–sea ice–atmosphere interface with constraints from observational polar cryospheric data. We find that seasonal patterns of average total Hg (THg) in snow are governed by snow thermodynamics and deposition, peaking in springtime (Arctic: 5.9 ng/L; Antarctic: 5.3 ng/L) and minimizing during ice formation (Arctic: 1.0 ng/L, Antarctic: 0.5 ng/L). Arctic and Antarctic sea ice exhibited THg concentration peaks in summer (0.25 ng/L) and spring (0.28 ng/L), respectively, governed by different snow Hg transmission pathways. Antarctic snow-ice formation facilitates Hg transfer to sea ice during spring, while in the Arctic, snow Hg is primarily moved through snowmelt. Overall, first-year sea ice acts as a buffer, receiving atmospheric Hg during ice growth and releasing it to the ocean in summer, influencing polar atmospheric and seawater Hg concentrations. Our model can assess climate change effects on polar Hg cycles and evaluate the Minamata Convention’s effectiveness for Arctic populations.

How to cite: Huang, S., Wang, F., Yuan, T., Song, Z., Wu, P., and Zhang, Y.: Modeling the Mercury Cycle in the Sea Ice Environment: A Buffer between the Polar Atmosphere and Ocean, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4799, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-4799, 2024.

16:49–16:51
|
EGU24-13462
|
ECS
|
Virtual presentation
Felipe McCracken, María Florencia Ruggeri, Gonzalo Barcaza, Ximena Fadic, and Francisco Cereceda-Balic

Contrasting behaviour of neighbouring mountain glaciers, sharing similar mass balance gradients, have been observed, suggesting the influence of local anthropogenic factors altering the surface energy balance and then explaining larger down-wasting trends in glacier response. It is in this context that for this work the comparison of two contrasting glaciers was used to analyze these differences: considering the Paloma Norte Glacier (PNG), exposed to anthropogenic emissions from local mining activities, and the Yeso Glacier (YG), isolated of these sources. The objective of this research is to combine the remote analysis of light-absorbing particles, such as Black Carbon (BC), Organic Carbon (OC), as well as the estimation of area and albedo, together with the analysis of local climatic trends of each glacier according gridded data, in order to evaluate their differences and the influence of each of these parameters on the surface variation of each glacier.

We determined glacier shrinkage, interannual albedo reduction and black carbon estimates using satellite images over the last 22 years for the Paloma Norte and Yeso glaciers. The results show that in the range 2000-2022, the GPN experienced a 27.11% greater surface loss than the GY, 83.49% higher albedo change rates, and almost 23 times higher BC+OC concentrations compared to the GY. Furthermore, the multivariate regression analysis identified that the most influential parameters was BC-OC, which is consistent with the disparities in glacial retreat observed in this period.

These results are part of an ongoing research, where, in addition, it is intended to contrast these values with measured data at ground stations, where we will use the data from NUNATAK-1 (-32,844, -70,129) and 2 (- 33,665, -70,086) refuge laboratories in the Central Andes. NUNATAK-1 is a portable, flexible, collaborative scientific platform belonging to CETAM, specially designed for research campaigns under extreme conditions equipped with different automatic and real-time monitoring instruments to measure meteorology, net albedo, solar radiation, gases and aerosols, among others. Which are parameters that will also be used to compare with glacial ablation and radiative transfer models, to evaluate the scenarios of albedo change under a pristine environment and another under the scenario of aerosol deposition on the surfaces of the glaciers of interest. All the above mentioned is being carried out to determine to whether these differences are purely due to the orientation of each glacier or the local anthropogenic influence to which they are exposed, and thus decouple the natural effect of climate change from the local anthropogenic effect.

In summary, the results of this work will aim to guide decision-makers, to guarantee greater protection and awareness of the effects that local emissions may (or may not) have on the conservation of these important reservoirs of drinking water, which will allow for a decoupling of the influence and/or impact of local anthropogenic activity from the natural effect of climate change.

Acknowledgments: This research has been carried out with the financial support of CETAM-UTFSM, and the ANID projects: Fondecyt Initiation 11220525, Fondecyt Regular N° 1221526, ANID Anillo ACONCAGUA Project N°ACT210021 and FOVI230167.

How to cite: McCracken, F., Ruggeri, M. F., Barcaza, G., Fadic, X., and Cereceda-Balic, F.: Local anthropogenic factors contributing to constrasting glacier response in two mountain glaciers, located in Central Andes, Chile, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-13462, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu24-13462, 2024.

16:51–18:00