GI4.3 | Honorary Session in Memory of Mariarosaria Manzo: Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for the Investigation of Earth Surface Dynamics
Honorary Session in Memory of Mariarosaria Manzo: Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for the Investigation of Earth Surface Dynamics
Convener: Riccardo Lanari | Co-convener: Stefano Perna
| Tue, 16 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)
Room -2.16
Posters on site
| Attendance Tue, 16 Apr, 16:15–18:00 (CEST) | Display Tue, 16 Apr, 14:00–18:00
Hall X4
Orals |
Tue, 10:45
Tue, 16:15
The proposed session is inspired by the themes that have characterized the 20-year research activity of the colleague Mariarosaria Manzo, to whose memory is dedicated the session.
Particularly, the scientific contributions provided by Mariarosaria Manzo have been mainly focused on the exploitation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for Earth surface deformation retrieval and investigation through the application of the original Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique and the development of advanced DInSAR methods focused on generation of deformation time series, as for the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach.
Several application scenarios and test sites have been investigated in the works of Mariarosaria Manzo, focused on Earth deformations induced by: Earthquakes, Volcanic activities, landslides and anthropic activities, such as excavations, just to quote some examples. Moreover, her activities have been also devoted to the assessment of the performance of advanced DInSAR techniques and on the development of new algorithmic solutions.
The session is thus intended to focus on the latest analyses achieved through the development and/or the exploitation of DInSAR methods for Earth observation; potential application scenarios include, but are not limited to, those mentioned above.

Orals: Tue, 16 Apr | Room -2.16

Chairpersons: Riccardo Lanari, Stefano Perna
On-site presentation
Riccardo Lanari

This work has the objective to introduce the session dedicated to the memory of my colleague and friend Mariarosaria Manzo.

In particular, the session has been inspired by the themes that have characterized Mariarosaria’s 20-year research activity. Indeed, her main scientific contributions have been concentrated on the exploitation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for Earth surface deformation retrieval and investigation through the application of the original Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique and the development of advanced DInSAR methods focused on the generation of deformation time-series, as for the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach [1].

Therefore, the session is intended to focus on the latest analyses achieved through the development and/or the exploitation of DInSAR methods for Earth observation, as well as on their possible future applications.

Instead, this contribution will provide a brief overview of Mariarosaria’s main findings, achieved through the DInSAR analysis focused on Earth deformations induced by: earthquakes [2-4], volcanic activities [5-7], anthropic actions [8], and on her contribution to the performance assessment of advanced DInSAR techniques [9] and to the development of new algorithmic solutions [10].

But, above all, this work aims to keep the memory alive of Mariarosaria’s intelligence, balance, courage and passion she has always put into everything she did.


[1] R. Lanari et al., “An Overview of the Small BAseline Subset Algorithm: A DInSAR Technique for Surface Deformation Analysis,” Wolf, D., Fernández, J. (eds) Deformation and Gravity Change: Indicators of Isostasy, Tectonics, Volcanism, and Climate Change. Pageoph Topical Volumes. Birkhäuser Basel., 2007

[2] R. Lanari et al., “Surface displacements associated with the L'Aquila 2009 Mw 6.3 earthquake (central Italy): New evidence from SBAS‐DInSAR time series analysis,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 (20), 2010

[3] M. Manzo et al., “A quantitative assessment of DInSAR measurements of interseismic deformation: the southern San Andreas Fault case study,” Pure and Applied Geophysics 69, 1463-1482, 2012

[4] D. Cheloni et al., “Geodetic model of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence inferred from InSAR and GPS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44 (13), 6778-6787, 2017

[5] A. Borgia et al., “Volcanic spreading of Vesuvius, a new paradigm for interpreting its volcanic activity, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (3), L03303, 2005

[6] M. Manzo et al., “Surface deformation analysis in the Ischia Island (Italy) based on spaceborne radar interferometry,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 151 (4), 399-416, 2006

[7] P. Tizzani et al., “Surface deformation of Long Valley caldera and Mono Basin, California, investigated with the SBAS-InSAR approach,” Remote Sens. Environ., 108 (3), 277-289, 2007

[8] R. Lanari et al., “Satellite radar interferometry time series analysis of surface deformation for Los Angeles, California,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (23), L23613, 2004

[9] F. Casu et al., “A quantitative assessment of the SBAS algorithm performance for surface deformation retrieval from DInSAR data”, Remote Sens. Environ., doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2006.01.023, 2006

[10] A. Pepe et al., “Improved EMCF-SBAS Processing Chain Based on Advanced Techniques for the Noise-Filtering and Selection of Small Baseline Multi-Look DInSAR Interferograms”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens., 53 (8), 4394-4417, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2396875, 2015.

How to cite: Lanari, R.: A brief overview of the 20-year research activity of Mariarosaria Manzo on Differential SAR Interferometry, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12612,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Pablo Andres Euillades, Rosa Liliana Alpala, Leonardo Daniel Euillades, Jorge Alpala, Patricia Rosell, Yenni Roa, and Maurizio Battaglia

Sotará is a stratovolcano located at a remote region of the Southern Cordillera Central, in Colombia.  It presents signs of unrest since 2011, evidenced by increased seismicity and crustal deformation formerly detected by tilt-meters, and later by inflation measured at several GNSS permanent stations operated by the Colombian Geological Survey.  In this contribution we processed a set of ascending and descending SAR scenes acquired by the Sentinel-1 Mission by using the Small Baseline Subsets (SBAS) multi temporal DInSAR approach. The region is challenging for DInSAR processing using C-Band data, because it is covered by thick forest causing temporal decorrelation, except for the peaks higher than 3500 m above sea level. As deformation in the site is subtle, i.e. in the order of 2cm/year, atmospheric contamination can potentially hide the geophysical signal, leading to misleading conclusions. To decide if atmospheric corrections should be applied, we analyzed the correlation between the unwrapped phase and topography at each interferogram before and after applying atmospheric corrections provided by the Generic Atmospheric Correction Online Service for InSAR (GACOS). We search for data clustering in the plane correlation coefficient vs. time, which allow for detecting atmospheric stratification signals and evaluating the convenience of applying corrections or not. As a result, we decided not applying atmospheric corrections, and the deformation time series without them show a good agreement with the LOS projected GNSS ones. The results were used for estimating the source parameters through inverse modelling of ascending, descending SAR data and GNSS data using the DMODELS inversion software. We detect migration of the deformation source in the Sotará volcano towards shallower positions between 2011 and 2020. This work is an example of the capability of Sentinel-1 long data series for measuring subtle deformation even in though environment conditions.

How to cite: Euillades, P. A., Alpala, R. L., Euillades, L. D., Alpala, J., Rosell, P., Roa, Y., and Battaglia, M.: Characterizing volcano deformation with DInSAR and GNSS data: the Sotará Volcano case study. , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-2136,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Federico Di Traglia and the Stromboli 2022 research group

Steep-slopes volcanoes are susceptible to rapid geomorphological changes resulting from frequent eruptive activity, leading to non-equilibrium slope conditions. Stromboli, among other volcanoes, undergoes significant geomorphological alterations within short time frames (days to months) due to the accumulation of eruptive deposits, lava flows, and various processes including erosion, transportation, and re-sedimentation of volcaniclastic material. These changes are activated by mass-flows and exogenous phenomena, primarily the action of sea waves.

To comprehend the complex interplay between eruptive activity and the morphological response of the volcanic slope, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on events occurring at Stromboli between October and December 2022. This study employed a range of methodologies, including multiplatform remote sensing data, bathymetric surveys, geophysical-volcanological monitoring data, slope stability modeling, and direct observations. The remote sensing data encompassed satellite imagery, airborne single-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) topographic data, complemented by ground-based and spaceborne InSAR displacement measurements, and very-high-resolution visible optical orthophotographs.

The primary objective of this study is to elucidate the mutual influences between eruptive activity and the morphological response of the volcano slope. Stromboli, with its persistent eruptive activity and dynamic, steep-slope volcanic flank, serves as an ideal case for such investigations.

The findings of this study illustrate how the inherent characteristics of the material comprising the slope (a heterogeneous accumulation of volcanic deposits and thin lava flows), along with the steep slope angle, constitute crucial factors affecting slope stability, particularly in coastal regions. The impact of overloading from lava flows and mass-flows, combined with undercutting effects resulting from erosion, especially along the coast, acts as triggers for mass-flow phenomena. The formation of mixtures between lava flows and volcaniclastic deposits plays a role in generating glowing mass-flows, attributing them to what is commonly known as deposit-derived Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs).

The findings aim to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms leading to the instability of volcaniclastic deposits, resulting from the interaction between erosive phenomena and the overloading of slopes by lava flows and mass-flows. The obtained results can be helpful in estimating the hazard induced by geomorphological processes in contexts like Stromboli, including the potential triggering of landslides and deposit-derived PDCs that may, in turn, lead to tsunamis.

How to cite: Di Traglia, F. and the Stromboli 2022 research group: Rapid geomorphological changes on Stromboli volcano monitored by multi-platform remote sensing data, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-2885,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Jose Fernandez and Antonio G. Camacho

Recent developments in InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) during the past decades allow to obtain high-precision, high-resolution ground deformation data with a broad spatio-temporal coverage. These large new datasets offer comprehensive insights into the deformation field and its time-evolution. Unfortunately, these new data sets cannot be fully exploited using the classical approaches for interpretation. In particular if we look for the most detailed estimation of the processes occurring in geologically active areas. Normally these classical approaches assume a priori geometries (e.g., point sources, disks, prolate or oblate spheroids, etc.) and nature of the source, and invert separately for the different sources when more than one is considered. Also, many time-series deformations in active regions are characterized by complicated patterns of ground deformation resulting from multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. In response to these challenges, we consider a new interpretation methodology which employs a combination of 3-D arbitrary sources for pressure and dislocations (including strike-slip, dip-slip, and tensile) simultaneously. This approach does not assume any a priori hypotheses regarding the deformation source’s number, nature, shape or location, providing deformation sources as 3D cell aggregations for which the inversion process automatically assigns a source type, magnitude values (MPa for pressure and cm for dislocations), position and orientation (angles of dislocation planes). The methodology inverts simultaneously ascending and descending LOS displacement time series data from InSAR, assuming the possible existence of offset values in the data sets. We show, as a way of example, a summary of the obtained results using last generation InSAR observation techniques and the new interpretation modeling to study the recent volcanic unrest and eruption in La Palma, Canary Islands, showing the obtained results.

How to cite: Fernandez, J. and Camacho, A. G.: New perspectives and challenges on geodetic volcano monitoring using InSAR and last generation interpretation tools, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-3425,, 2024.

Virtual presentation
Ana Mirian Villalobos, Cristiano Tolomei, Pablo Euillades, Christian Bignami, Leonardo Euillades, and Elisa Trasatti

The present study demonstrates the application of time series techniques with Differential Interferometry Radar (MT-InSAR) using images from the Sentinel-1 (C-band) and SAOCOM (L-band) radar sensors. The main objective was to identify and assess ground deformation at the San Miguel volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador, for study and monitoring purposes. Various approaches were employed to enhance phase signal quality, including the use of Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterers (PS) MT-InSAR methodologies, as well as atmospheric corrections using both the GACOS (Generic Atmospheric Correction Online Service for InSAR) data and an altitude-dependent linear model able to estimate and then remove the stratified component of the troposphere. Additionally, orbital corrections were performed, and the impact of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) accuracy and updates of the topography on phase, especially for SAOCOM L-band images, were evaluated.

The InSAR results revealed subsidence in the volcano crater showing a maximum rate of -25 mm per year, then we modeled the retrieved deformation patterns as a system of normal faults simulating two concentric craters. Moreover, limited deformation was detected in the western upper flank of the volcano during the 2023 period using SAOCOM data. We also observed that the volcano was strongly affected by atmospheric disturbances, although the performed corrections by using GACOS information did not yield to fully satisfactory results. In our work, the importance of using updated and accurate DEMs when processing L-band images has been emphasized.

Finally, our study suggests to continue using SAR images for monitoring San Miguel volcano activity, implementing longer time series with SAOCOM, and performing comparisons between SAR data acquired from both C- and L-band, possibly covering the same period, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the deformation occurring at San Miguel volcano, and to improve the understanding of the volcanic activity.

How to cite: Villalobos, A. M., Tolomei, C., Euillades, P., Bignami, C., Euillades, L., and Trasatti, E.: Monitoring Based on Differential Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) of the Activity of San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4759,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Andrea Manconi, Nina Jones, Simon Loew, Tazio Strozzi, Rafael Caduff, and Urs Wegmueller

The analysis of multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) datasets using specific algorithms, such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) or Small-Baseline Interferometry (SBAS), enables the generation of ground velocity maps and displacement time series, achieving sub-centimetric accuracies in ideal cases. These applications have significantly transformed the approach to investigating landslide processes and surface deformation measurements can now be obtained at relatively high spatial and temporal resolutions without the need for costly instrumentation. The current availability of regional, country-scale, and even continental-scale datasets has not only impacted research activities but has also influenced the daily practices of practitioners and civil protection strategies.

In mountainous areas, intrinsic limitations of satellite SAR imagery can hinder the nominal performance of PSI and SBAS results. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive analysis of C-Band SAR datasets from the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-1/2, Envisat ASAR, and Sentinel-1 spanning the period 1992-2020. Our goal is to reconstruct the multi-decadal spatial and temporal evolution of surface displacements at the Brienz/Brinzauls landslide complex, located in canton Graubünden, Switzerland. To achieve this, we analyzed approximately 1,000 SAR images using standard differential interferometry (DInSAR), multitemporal stacking, PSI, and SBAS approaches. The extensive network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations on the Brienz landslide complex allowed us to validate the deformation results.

Our analysis sheds light on the limitations that arise when relying on satellite radar measurements for the analysis and interpretation of complex landslide scenarios, particularly in cases of significant spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the deformation field. Satellite radar interferometry measurements are now routinely employed in local investigations, as well as in regional, national, and continental monitoring programs. Therefore, our results hold significant relevance for users seeking a comprehensive understanding of such datasets in complex scenarios.

How to cite: Manconi, A., Jones, N., Loew, S., Strozzi, T., Caduff, R., and Wegmueller, U.: Investigating surface deformation with C-Band satellite interferometry in landslide complexes: insights from the Brienz/Brinzauls slope instability, Swiss Alps , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-7688,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Massimiliano Porreca, Filippo Carboni, Mariarosaria Manzo, Emanuela Valerio, Claudio De Luca, Martina Occhipinti, and Maurizio Ercoli

Over the past three decades, remote sensing techniques, particularly Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR), have been used to investigate ground deformation phenomena accurately. The DInSAR method is extensively adopted for reconstructing the deformation pattern induced by earthquakes and for discerning the seismogenic fault, particularly in cases where field evidence are not comprehensive.

This study focuses on the application of DInSAR method to the 2016 Mw 6.5 mainshock occurred in the Apennines, central Italy. The earthquake produced a complex surface rupture distribution in a wide area which was meticulously examined by field geologists for a long time after the seismic sequence.

Here, we present detailed maps of the surface deformation pattern produced by the M. Vettore Fault System (VFS) during the October 2016 earthquakes, derived from ALOS-2 SAR data via DInSAR technique. On these maps, we trace a set of cross-sections to analyse the coseismic vertical displacement, essential to identify both surface fault ruptures and off-fault deformations. At a local scale, several coseismic ruptures are identified in agreement with previous field observations. On a larger scale, the VFS hanging-wall displays a long-wavelength upward-convex curvature, less evident toward the south and interrupted by the presence of an antithetic NE-dipping fault. The quantitative comparison between DInSAR- and field-derived vertical displacement highlights the reliability of the approach for constraining ruptures with vertical displacement up to 50-60 cm. The rapid detection of deformation patterns using DInSAR provides crucial information on activated fault segments, their distribution, and interaction shortly after seismic events. The proposed workflow, applicable globally with satellite SAR data, can support geological field surveys during seismic crises and offer rapid insights into surface ruptures essential for emergency management in not easily accessible areas.

How to cite: Porreca, M., Carboni, F., Manzo, M., Valerio, E., De Luca, C., Occhipinti, M., and Ercoli, M.: DInSAR analysis to detect local and regional coseismic ground deformation: insights from the 2016 central Italy earthquake, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-11867,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Celine Eid, Alberto Manuel Garcia Navarro, Christoforos Benetatos, and Vera Rocca

InSAR time series analysis is a powerful tool used in remote sensing to monitor ground deformation over time. In recent years, advanced techniques and algorithms have been developed for the application of InSAR in a more accurate manner along with the continuous availability of new satellite data. In this research, we propose the use of a developed clustering algorithm for analyzing InSAR time-series data and face the superposition of effects inducing ground movements. The investigated area is in the Po Plain in northern Italy and it is characterized by massive groundwater production for various purposes and it also hosts an underground gas storage system. The focus of the research is the identification and the quantification of the seasonal and trend behavior related to aquifer exploitation. We selected the additive approach for decomposing the time-series obtained from InSAR and applied the k-means clustering algorithm (Morissette and Chartier, 2013) over the seasonal and trend components. The results showed different seasonal behaviors attributed to areas with varying water production, rainfall precipitation and structural geology. The trend was analyzed and compared to the existing literature proving the reliability of this method.

The quantification of ground deformation due to each main source is of paramount importance for a reliable prevision of each phenomenon via the calibration of dedicated numerical models. The results of the research will be used to discriminate and quantify the effects of water production from the effects of gas storage operations and they will allow the calibration of dedicated 3D numerical fluid-flow and stress-strains models.


Morissette, L. & Chartier, S. (2013). The k-means clustering technique: General considerations and implementation in Mathematica. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9, 15-24.

How to cite: Eid, C., Garcia Navarro, A. M., Benetatos, C., and Rocca, V.: Cluster analysis of InSAR data for the investigation of groundwater production effects, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-22212,, 2024.

Virtual presentation
Deodato Tapete, Antonio Montuori, Maria Virelli, Alessandro Coletta, Francesco Longo, and Simona Zoffoli

Italy is world leader in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and SAR Interferometry (InSAR), owing to a complete in-house supply and value-added chain. To consolidate this strength, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) run national programs promoting new SAR missions [1], development of SAR/InSAR-based scientific research, and demonstration of novel downstream applications [2-3].

W.r.t. space upstream, in 2019-2022 the flagship COSMO-SkyMed constellation was ensured operational continuity with the launch of two Second Generation satellites. COSMO-SkyMed efficiently addresses users’ needs via provision of interferometric SAR time series through: a) regular observation plans, e.g. the MapItaly project over the national territory and the Background Mission across the globe; b) on-demand tasking; c) specific coverages, e.g. in 2023 during emergencies like Turkey and Syria earthquake [4] and floods in Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany regions, Italy [5]; d) within international initiatives, e.g. the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) [6].

COSMO-SkyMed is also exploited in bilateral cooperation with other space agencies, e.g. JAXA on disaster management [7] and CONAE through SIASGE program [8]. In this respect, ASI promotes multi-mission/multi-frequency approach to investigate synergy between radar bands.

Within PLATiNO national program [9], PLT-1 will embark a compact X-band SAR payload, with metrical resolution, and operate in both monostatic and bistatic mode with COSMO‐SkyMed. Several long-baseline bistatic SAR techniques are currently being evaluated.

Moreover, the current study for a national L-band SAR mission focuses on the assessment of L-band application scenarios, exploitation of monostatic and bistatic configurations, and the analysis of synergies with respect to ROSE-L system and Sentinel-1 constellation.

W.r.t. midstream/ground-segment, ASI not only implemented a new portal to facilitate access to and tasking of COSMO-SkyMed data by institutional users, but also has recently announced the new MapItaly Portal, equipped with user-oriented interface, high-performance processing capability, and download speed [10]. While MapItaly Portal will be expanded to other SAR missions, since 2021 ASI is distributing SAOCOM data collected within ASI’s Zone of Exclusivity through a dedicated portal [11].

All these investments are capitalised in national R&D programs aiming to develop novel algorithms up to at least a Scientific Readiness Level (SRL) of 4, i.e. “Proof of concept”. The most recent was the “Multi-mission and multi-frequency SAR” program [2-3]. In 2021-2023, national public research bodies and industry developed and tested innovative algorithms to process multi-mission/multi-frequency SAR data. InSAR and SAR tomography were among the main techniques that were improved, e.g. for natural hazards applications in DInSAR-3M, MUSAR and MEFISTO projects [12-14].

Perspectives for testing these algorithms in a pre-operational context and input into final users’ workflows are now offered by the Innovation for Downstream Preparation (I4DP) program. Launched in late 2021, I4DP implements the ASI’s roadmap for downstream [15]. Some of the current projects deploys InSAR to address multi-risk assessment in urban areas, infrastructure monitoring, cultural heritage conservation.

A selection of results from the above-mentioned initiatives will be presented in order to share and give evidence of the main achievements and current perspectives.
















How to cite: Tapete, D., Montuori, A., Virelli, M., Coletta, A., Longo, F., and Zoffoli, S.: National programs, achievements and current perspectives at the Italian Space Agency to promote SAR missions, InSAR scientific research and downstream applications, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-12268,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Stefano Perna, Francesco Longo, Simona Zoffoli, Malcolm Davidson, Lorenzo Iannini, and Riccardo Lanari

This work is focused on the possibility to enhance the observation capabilities of the forthcoming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ROSE-L (which stands for Radar Observation System for Europe at L-band) mission [1], [2], supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the Copernicus Expansion Programme.

Specifically, we propose a solution aimed at enabling the currently designed ROSE-L system for a two-look ScanSAR mode

configuration, without impairing key parameters, namely, the azimuth resolution and the range swath, of the original system, which is instead designed to basically achieve only a one-look ScanSAR mode configuration. In particular, following the analysis presented in [3], we propose to properly shape the radiated azimuth beam, doubling its width, without upsetting the original design of the ROSE-L radar antenna and taking advantage of the degrees of freedom offered by its current layout.

The proposed ROSE-L two-look ScanSAR mode configuration presents several valuable advantages in different applications, among which we focus on the possibility to retrieve, at global scale and without azimuth gaps, the North-South deformation components of the displacement phenomena occurred on the ground through the so called Burst overlap interferometry technique [4].



[1] M. Zimmermanns and C. Roemer, “Copernicus HPCM: ROSE-L SAR Instrument and Performance Overview,” in EUSAR 2022; 14th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar, Leipzig, Germany, 2022, pp. 1-6.

[2] M. Davidson and R. Furnell, “ROSE-L: Copernicus L-Band SAR Mission,” in IGARSS 2021; IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Brussels, Belgium, 2021, pp. 872-873.

[3] S. Perna, F. Longo, S. Zoffoli, M. Davidson, L. Lannini and R. Lanari, “ A conceptual performance study on a two-look ScanSAR mode configuration for the forthcoming ROSE-L mission,” in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2023.3344537.

[4] R. Grandin, E. Klein, M. Métois, C. Vigny, “Three-dimensional displacement field of the 2015 8.3 Illapel earthquake (Chile) from across- and along-track Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry,” in Geophys.Res. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 2552-2561, 2016.

How to cite: Perna, S., Longo, F., Zoffoli, S., Davidson, M., Iannini, L., and Lanari, R.: Enabling the Forthcoming ROSE-L Sensor for Global Scale 3-D Earth Surface Deformation Retrieval Through a Two-Look ScanSAR Mode Configuration, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-6375,, 2024.

Posters on site: Tue, 16 Apr, 16:15–18:00 | Hall X4

Display time: Tue, 16 Apr 14:00–Tue, 16 Apr 18:00
Chairpersons: Stefano Perna, Riccardo Lanari
Michele Manunta, Paolo Berardino, Manuela Bonano, Francesco Casu, Claudio De Luca, Riccardo Lanari, Antonio Pepe, Susi Pepe, Stefano Perna, Pietro Tizzani, and Giovanni Zeni

This contribution is aimed at drawing the professional and human profile of our colleague and friend Mariarosaria, based on the memories and materials that we have collected during her 20 years’ activity at the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) of the National Research Council (CNR), Naples, Italy.

Beside a short overview of her professional contribution at IREA-CNR, we intend to provide also our personal memories picked up from 20 years of co-workership and friendship. Anecdotes, stories and facts will be also provided, with the objective to transmit Mariarosaria’s intelligence, competence, passion, courage, poise, firmness, gentleness, determination and sweetness, all enclosed in her wonderful smile and amazing blue eyes.

All this represents her legacy that we want to pass on.

How to cite: Manunta, M., Berardino, P., Bonano, M., Casu, F., De Luca, C., Lanari, R., Pepe, A., Pepe, S., Perna, S., Tizzani, P., and Zeni, G.: The legacy of Mariarosaria Manzo, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21873,, 2024.

Nikos Svigkas, Pasquale Striano, Simone Atzori, Manuela Bonano, Cristiano Tolomei, Nikolaos Vavlas, Anastasia Kiratzi, Francesco Casu, Christian Bignami, Claudio De Luca, Marco Polcari, Marianna Franzese, Andrea Antonioli, Michele Manunta, Fernando Monterroso, Yenni Lorena Belen Roa, and Riccardo Lanari

In 2023, seismic activity of considerable magnitude occurred along the Türkiye-Syria border, characterised by an Mw 7.8 earthquake on the 6th of February and was followed by an Mw 7.5 event, nine hours later. These earthquakes, which are the strongest recorded in recent years, resulted in over 50,000 casualties and are related with the activity of the East Anatolian Fault Zone —a 600 km-long plate boundary where the Arabian and Anatolian plates meet. To analyse these seismic events, we leveraged data from diverse satellites, including SAOCOM-1, Sentinel-1, and ALOS-2. Employing InSAR techniques, such as conventional interferometry and Pixel Offset tracking, we assessed surface deformations caused by the events. The high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar displacement results underwent non-linear and linear inversions, enabling the creation of detailed variable slip fault models. A meticulous multiscale sampling approach was applied, that facilitated a comprehensive examination of the tectonic structures triggering these events. The fault zone exhibited a pronounced left-lateral strike-slip character, with components of dip-slip movements observed in specific segments. Additionally, we capitalised the detailed slip models, to estimate the distribution of the intensity of ground motions in the affected region.

How to cite: Svigkas, N., Striano, P., Atzori, S., Bonano, M., Tolomei, C., Vavlas, N., Kiratzi, A., Casu, F., Bignami, C., De Luca, C., Polcari, M., Franzese, M., Antonioli, A., Manunta, M., Monterroso, F., Roa, Y. L. B., and Lanari, R.: Detailed Slip Distribution Model of the Türkiye-Syria 2023 Seismic Event exploiting SAOCOM-1, Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 Satellite Imagery., EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-6179,, 2024.

Martina Occhipinti, Filippo Carboni, Shaila Amorini, Carlos López-Martinez, Nicola Paltriccia, and Massimiliano Porreca

Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a largely exploited technique applicable to different case studies involving ground deformation on Earth. A key application is the detection of the effects promoted by large earthquakes, comprising detailed variations in ground deformations at large an local scales. Since one limit of this technique relies on the costs that may be present for the access of some satellitary imagery or software licenses for the data processing, this latter problematic can be solved with the adoption of an alternative processing performed via scripts. In this work, an automatic open-source implemented Python script (Snap2DQuake) based on the “snappy” module by SNAP software 9.0.8 (ESA) for the processing of Sentinel-1 images is presented. The main feature of the script is the reproduction of all the operators contained in SNAP software using the tools of “snappy”, in order to avoid some issues that can occurr using the software, and to build a complete, simple and automatic workflow to obtain LOS deformation maps and the derived Horizontal (E-W) and Vertical deformation maps. The automatization of the processing makes Snap2DQuake easy to use and suitable with basic users of programming. The proposed tool has been tested on two case studies referred two different tectonic contexts: the M6.4 Petrinja earthquake (Croatia, December 2020) and the Mw 5.7 to Mw 6.3 seismic sequence occured near Tyrnavós (Greece, March 2021). The output maps of Snap2DQuake, in agreement with field observations and previous work, furnish new insights insights into the deformation pattern linked to earthquakes, demonstrating the reliability of Snap2DQuake as an alternative tool for users working on different applications, even with basic coding skills. 

How to cite: Occhipinti, M., Carboni, F., Amorini, S., López-Martinez, C., Paltriccia, N., and Porreca, M.: SNAP2DQuake: an implemented and automatic tool of ESA SNAP's Python module for DInSAR technique on ground deformation estimation from Sentinel-1 data, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-8542,, 2024.

Phase Optimization of Multi-looked Polarimetric Interferometric SAR Data: Introductory Experiments with Dual-pol Sentinel-1 SAR Images
Antonio Pepe and Fabiana Calò
Francesco Falabella, Angela Perrone, Tony Alfredo Stabile, and Antonio Pepe

Ground displacement time-series are standard outputs of consolidated multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (InSAR) algorithms. These products make it possible to remotely detect the spatial and temporal evolution of the deformation field relative to investigated stable targets on the ground with centimeter or even millimeter precision. The occurred deformation is perceived as a change in the round-trip Line-Of-Sight (LOS) path from the sensor to the target; therefore, unambiguous projection in three-dimensional (3-D) space is an undetermined problem. Instead, discerning the vertical [up-down (UD)] and horizontal [east-west (EW)] profiles can be achieved using complementary ascending and descending satellite orbits, assuming however the north-south (NS) profile is negligible. Furthermore, the addition of other independent ascending and descending observations is valuable in order to get bidimensional estimates with greater precisions, but at the same time it is not sufficient to recover the NS profiles due to the lack of sensitivity of the polar orbits to that component. In this context, multi-platform SAR acquisitions from complementary views can be used with the polar-orbiting satellite counterpart to resolve full 3-D displacement profiles.

In this work, we propose a multi-platform procedure to integrate satellite SAR data collected from ascending and descending orbits with data collected from ground-based SAR (GB-SAR) systems to compute 3-D InSAR ground displacement maps and time-series. At this aim, the multi-platform data are first processed independently in order to obtain single-look georeferenced InSAR LOS products, using advanced or canonical multi-temporal InSAR processors and, then, the data are integrated by solving a determined system of linear equations where the unknowns are the temporal samples common to all multiplatform datasets. Note that, as not all data are acquired in the same temporal instant, a quasi-synchronous temporal matching procedure is applied. Also, a theoretical variance-covariance-based framework is proposed to assess the precision of the 3-D estimates.

The developed algorithm was applied to the slow-varying landslide of Gorgoglione in the south-western part of Matera Province (Basilicata Region, southern Italy) on a hilly area at about 800 m a.s.l. by processing ascending and descending Copernicus Sentinel-1 A/B C-Band acquisitions, and a set of GB-SAR IBIS-L Ku-Band images; the results shown that during the analyzed period (September 2016 - July 2017) the landslide area was subject to a deformational trend along the southern profile and to a vertical subsidence trend in accordance with the morphology of the landslide itself.

How to cite: Falabella, F., Perrone, A., Stabile, T. A., and Pepe, A.: Three-dimensional InSAR displacement profiles exploiting multi-platform SAR acquisitions: Application to the slow-varying landslide of Gorgoglione (Italy) , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18281,, 2024.

Enhanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Procedures for the Generation of Ground Deformation Products 
Antonio Pepe, Andrea Barone, Raffaele Castaldo, Francesco Falabella, Pietro Mastro, Giuseppe Solaro, Tony Stabile, Pietro Tizzani, and Susi Pepe
Pietro Tizzani, Monika Przeor, Luca D’Auria Luca D’Auria, Susi Pepe Susi Pepe, and Iván Cabrera‐Pérez

The interaction processes between the two most active Hawaiian volcanoes are still controversial, and despite multiple studies carried out over more than a century, an unambiguous model has yet to be identified. In order to provide new insights we compared the ground deformation patterns in both volcanoes using DInSAR SBAS and Global Positioning System (GPS)datasets. In this work, we processed 10 tracks of ENVISAT ASAR satellite images from 20032010, together with available GPS data from 15 stations located around the two summit calderas of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea. We applied the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to the DInSAR SBAS ground deformation data to reveal relationships between the spatio-temporal patterns of the ground deformation of the two volcanoes. ICA is widely used Data Mining technique, which allows detecting, separating and characterizing hidden patterns into a spatio-temporal dataset. We performed inverse modelling of the observed ground deformation pattern using analytical source models. The results indicate that the ground deformation of Mauna Loa is associated with a dike‐shaped source located at 6.2 km depth. In comparison, the anticorrelated ground deformation of Kīlauea is associated with a volumetric source at 1.2 km depth. This excludes a hydraulic connection as a possible mechanism to explain the anticorrelated behaviour; instead, we postulate a stress‐transfer mechanism. To support this hypothesis, we performed a 3D numerical modelling of stress and strain fields in the study area, determining the elastic interaction of each source over the others. The most relevant finding is that the Mauna Loa shallow plumbing system can affect the shallowest magmatic reservoir of Kīlauea.

How to cite: Tizzani, P., Przeor, M., Luca D’Auria, L. D., Susi Pepe, S. P., and Cabrera‐Pérez, I.: Mauna Loa and Kīlauea Elastic volcanic interaction detected via independent component  analysis, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21119,, 2024.

Andrea Barone, Maurizio Fedi, Antonio Pepe, Pietro Tizzani, and Raffaele Castaldo

The topic of this contribution is the use of the integrated multiscale approach to model the deformation field in volcanic framework retrieved through Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique. Specifically, the proposed approach is based on the properties of the harmonic elastic fields satisfying the homogeneity laws and involves multi-scale procedures, such as the Multiridge and ScalFun methods, and boundary analysis techniques, such as the Total Horizontal Derivative (THD). These methodologies allow an unambiguous estimate of the geometrical parameters of the deformation sources, which are the depth, the horizontal position, its shape and horizontal extent, and have turned out to be valid tools for studying simple field sources.

We now show the application of the integrated multiscale approach to model sources with any geometry, also irregular. To do this, we perform several synthetic data tests based on simulated deformation field through COMSOL Multiphysics software package; the results show that we are able to estimate geometrical parameters of geometrically irregular bodies without using any reference model. Finally, we propose an application to real ground deformation dataset, that is the case of the 2004 – 2010 uplift episode occurred at Yellowstone caldera resurgent domes area. We conclude by highlighting the advantages of the proposed methodology and the future developments (in progress) arising from the harmonic properties of elastic deformation fields.

How to cite: Barone, A., Fedi, M., Pepe, A., Tizzani, P., and Castaldo, R.: Analysis of DInSAR measurements in volcanic framework through an integrated multiscale approach: the Yellowstone caldera case-study., EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21121,, 2024.

Antonio Natale, Paolo Berardino, Alessandro Di Vincenzo, Carmen Esposito, Riccardo Lanari, and Stefano Perna

This contribution is aimed at describing the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) infrastructure developed at the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) - National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Naples, Italy.

The infrastructure consists of a flight and a ground segment.

Specifically, the flight segment includes an airborne SAR system, that is, the Multiband Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR (MIPS) sensor [1] owned by IREA-CNR. This is based on the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology, operates at X- and L-band and it can be easily mounted onboard (and unmounted from) different types of aircrafts.

The ground segment includes an IT platform for data storage and processing, located at the IREA-CNR laboratories, and the airborne SAR data processing chain, jointly developed by IREA-CNR and University Parthenope, Naples, Italy [2]. Related to the infrastructure, there are also those activities carried out before and during the airborne campaign to guarantee the proper planning and the successful execution of the campaign itself.

To show the current capabilities of this infrastructure, in terms of characteristics of the final products as well as of the timely response in emergency scenarios, by way of example we present a case study relevant to a MIPS campaign carried out in the frame of the agreement between IREA-CNR and the Department of Civil Protection of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers. In particular, the considered case study has been picked up from a set of airborne SAR campaigns carried out from 2019 to 2022 with the aim of generating multi-temporal single-pass X-Band interferometric Digital Elevation Models of the Stromboli Volcano, in order to perform long-term analyses of the topographic changes related to its eruptive activity [3].


[1] A. Natale, P. Berardino, C. Esposito, G. Palmese, R. Lanari, and S. Perna, “The New Italian Airborne Multiband Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR (MIPS) System: First Flight Test Results,” Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp., vol. 2022-July, pp. 4506–4509, 2022, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS46834.2022.9884189.


[2] P. Berardino, A. Natale, C. Esposito, R. Lanari, and S. Perna, “On the Time-Domain Airborne SAR Focusing in the Presence of Strong Azimuth Variations of the Squint Angle,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 61, pp. 1–18, 2023, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2023.3289593.


[3] R. Lanari, C. Esposito, P. Berardino, A. Natale, G. Palmese, and S. Perna, “Stromboli volcano monitoring with airborne SAR systems,” in EGU General Assembly 2023, doi:


How to cite: Natale, A., Berardino, P., Di Vincenzo, A., Esposito, C., Lanari, R., and Perna, S.: Monitoring volcanic areas through the IREA-CNR airborne SAR infrastructure, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21176,, 2024.

Giovanni Onorato, Claudio De Luca, Francesco Casu, Michele Manunta, Muhammad Yasir, and Riccardo Lanari

Advanced DInSAR techniques are used to investigate the temporal evolution of the deformations through the retrieval of the displacement time series, achieved through the inversion of an appropriate set of multi-temporal interferograms. Among them, the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) is a well-established approach which has been widely used for the analysis of several deformation phenomena.

In this context, an effective and robust Phase Unwrapping (PhU) algorithm must be typically implemented and exploited in order to accurately retrieve the ground deformation signals. This operation represents a critical step because of the intrinsically ill-posed nature of the problem which may lead to solutions that, despite being mathematically correct, do not reproduce the actual unwrapped phase profile.

A common indicator for the quality of the PhU solution within advanced DInSAR methods like SBAS is the temporal coherence. This is a point-like parameter available for methods where the displacement time-series are retrieved through the inversion of an overdetermined linear equation system [M, N], with M>N, where M is the number of the generated (redundant) interferograms and N represents the exploited SAR images, whose solution can be obtained in the LS sense.

We present in the following a simple solution to identify and correct possible PhU errors, based on a different and innovative use of the temporal coherence parameter.

In principle, the higher the value of the temporal coherence, the better the quality of the PhU solution; however, unfortunately, the temporal coherence sensitivity decreases when the number of interferograms increases. To overcome this issue we propose to compute for each point a time series of local temporal coherences, computed by exploiting a limited number of interferograms. To do this, starting from the first acquisition date of the analysed dataset, we define a time window range, say Δw, and a time sampling, say ti , where the step size Δt= ti+1 -ti  is selected in agreement with the satellite revisiting time. Accordingly, for the generic i-th step, we consider the time window centred around the ti value and we calculate the temporal coherence by on a limited subset of interferograms whose master and/or slave images are included in the selected time window [tiw/2 , tiw/2]

This solution is computationally efficient and allows us to regain sensitivity on possible PhU errors. Indeed, by doing so, the number of interferograms to be analysed in order to identify those characterized by PhU errors has been drastically reduced, making the local temporal coherence more sensitive to small variations in a single interferogram. A subsequent algorithm of PhU errors correction can be then applied only to the involved interferograms, reducing the time computing and increasing the ability to spot and correct the wrong interferogram.

How to cite: Onorato, G., De Luca, C., Casu, F., Manunta, M., Yasir, M., and Lanari, R.: Identification of phase unwrapping errors through the extension of the temporal coherence factor for redundant sequences of small baseline DInSAR interferograms, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21319,, 2024.

Pasquale Striano, Sabatino Buonanno, Francesco Casu, Claudio De Luca, Federica Cotugno, Marianna Franzese, Adele Fusco, Michele Manunta, Giovanni Onorato, Yenni Lorena Belen Roa, Maria Virelli, Muhammad Yasir, Giovanni Zeni, Ivana Zinno, Riccardo Lanari, and Manuela bonano

Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques have emerged as powerful tools for monitoring and surveillance at both single-building and territorial levels, offering sub-centimetric accuracy with manageable costs. Among these techniques, the DInSAR method known as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) and its parallel algorithmic implementation, referred to as the Parallel SBAS (P-SBAS) approach, stand out for their ability to provide systematic displacement measurements at both regional, national and continental scales through the generation of spatially and temporally dense deformation time series, contributing to investigate various hazard scenarios related to the natural and the built-up environments. Moreover, by exploiting the full-resolution extension of the P-SBAS approach, it is also possible to generate long-term deformation time series at different spatial resolution scales for regional and local displacement investigations.

This work focuses on the extensive use of the full-resolution P-SBAS approach for local-scale DInSAR analyses aimed at detecting localized deformation phenomena in wide urban areas, with a particular interest in infrastructure and individual building displacements. To this aim, we can profitably capitalize on the highest spatial resolution of the SAR images collected by the currently available and future advanced satellite SAR systems characterized by different operational modes (Stripmap, TOPSAR, ScanSAR) and frequency bandwidths (L-, C-, and X-band).

Among these, we leverage the extensive archives of X-band (about 3 cm wavelength) SAR data acquired since 2009 along the overall Italian territory by the sensors of the Italian COSMO-SkyMed constellation of the first (CSK) and second (CSG) generation, operated through the Stripmap mode (about 3 m x 3 m spatial resolution) within the so-called Map Italy program. This huge SAR dataset makes it possible to monitor the surface deformations affecting the built-up environment with a very high spatial and temporal measurement density. In this work, we perform a full-resolution P-SBAS analysis over some Italian cities (e.g., Roma, Napoli, Bologna, Catania), where large sequences of ascending and descending CSK/CSG SAR data are available, in order to assess the health conditions of critical infrastructures and buildings related to extended built-up environments. Moreover, we also present the preliminary full-resolution P-SBAS results achieved by processing the available L-band SAR data acquired by the new twin sensors of the Argentinian SAOCOM-1 constellation of CONAE (spatial resolution about 5x5 m). Thanks to the longer wavelength characterizing the L-Band data, we can investigate the possibilities of overcoming some of the typical limitations of X-band SAR systems (e.g., the occurrence of phase unwrapping problems). Our approach involves the use of parallel hardware and software solutions, including GPU parallel programming techniques, which prove to be highly effective in rapidly generating full-resolution P-SBAS deformation time series over large urbanized areas. These measurements can help to define a roadmap for identifying and preventing critical conditions in buildings and infrastructures.

How to cite: Striano, P., Buonanno, S., Casu, F., De Luca, C., Cotugno, F., Franzese, M., Fusco, A., Manunta, M., Onorato, G., Roa, Y. L. B., Virelli, M., Yasir, M., Zeni, G., Zinno, I., Lanari, R., and bonano, M.: National scale full-resolution P-SBAS processing for the investigation of critical infrastructure deformations related to the built-up environment , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21611,, 2024.

Francesco Casu and the IREA-CNR Team

Since 2014, the Sentinel-1 satellite constellation has provided a huge amount of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data across the Earth with an unprecedent continuous and high acquisition rate. These characteristics, together with the free and open access Copernicus data policy, have made possible the development of operational services aimed at monitoring the millimetric displacements of Earth surface, with particular reference to volcanic and seismic phenomena. The services are based on the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique, which permits measuring the crustal displacements from a multi-temporal set of SAR data acquisitions.

The services herein presented are part of the tasks of the Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment of National Research Council of Italy (IREA-CNR) to support the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) for volcanoes and seismic areas monitoring.

One of the implemented services starts from the occurrence of an earthquake, once published in the main global seismic catalogues, and generates the relevant DInSAR co-seismic displacement maps with the available Sentinel-1 data. This tool is fully operative and generates products dating back to 2015, thus allowing us to investigate the ground displacement associated to more than 600 earthquakes. More recently, the tool has been extended to provide not only the measure of the displacement, but also a speditive model of the seismic source and it is under development a machine learning based solution to further extend the retrieved information. All the generated products are freely available to the scientific community through the European Plate Observing System Research Infrastructure (EPOS-RI).

A second service is dedicated to volcano ground displacement monitoring. In this case, every time a new SAR data in the Sentinel-1 catalogues is available over a monitored volcano, the DInSAR processing, based on the Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS) approach, starts and allows updating the ground displacement time series for both the ascending and descending passes. The so-retrieved Line of Sight (LOS) measurements are then combined to compute the Vertical and East-West components of the computed displacements, which are straightforwardly understandable by most of the end users. This service is currently running for the main active Italian volcanoes (Campi Flegrei caldera, Mt. Vesuvius, Ischia, Mt. Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano), making us able to continuously follow the temporal evolution of the ground displacement since 2015. Are currently under development automatic and semi-automatic techniques to investigate the detected ground displacements.


This work is supported by: the CNR-IREA and Italian DPC agreement; the EPOS-RI, including the one obtained through the EPOS-Italia JRU; the European Union - NextGeneratonEU through the projects: NRRP - MEET (Monitoring Earth's Evolution and Tectonics); ICSC - CN-HPC - PNRR M4C2 Investimento 1.4 - CN00000013; GeoSciences IR - PNRR M4C2 Investimento 3.1 - IR0000037; Sustainable Mobility Center - MOST - PNRR M4C2 Investimento 1.4 - CN00000023.

How to cite: Casu, F. and the IREA-CNR Team: 10 Years of Sentinel-1 data exploitation to monitor volcanic and seismic areas through DInSAR techniques, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21852,, 2024.