Displays

ITS2.2/GM12.5

Documenting the diversity of human responses and adaptations to climate, landscapes, ecosystems, natural disasters and the changing natural resources availability in different regions of our planet, cross-disciplinary studies in human-landscape interaction provide valuable opportunities to learn from the past. This session is targeted at providing a platform for scientists with common interests in geomorphology and geoarchaeology and, in particular, the complex and integrated nature of the relationship between landforms, geomorphological processes and societies during the Anthropocene, and how this has developed over time at different spatial and temporal scales.

This session seeks related interdisciplinary papers and specific geomorphological or geoarchaeological case-studies that deploy various approaches and tools to address the reconstruction of former and present human-environmental interactions from the Palaeolithic period through the modern. Topics related to records of the Anthropocene from Earth and archaeological science perspectives are welcome. We are inviting contributions that focus on the two-way interactions between geomorphological processes/landforms and human activity. These should show how the various factors of the physical environment interact with the Anthroposphere, and, in turn, how population and individuals may affect (and change) these factors. Furthermore, contributions may include (but are not limited to) insights about how people have coped with environmental disasters or abrupt changes; defining sustainability thresholds for farming or resource exploitation; distinguishing the baseline natural and human contributions to environmental changes. In this context, topics of different fields may be addressed in the session such as landform evolution, landscape sensitivity and resilience in the overall context of the interrelation between geomorphology and society, geohazards, geoheritage and conservation, geomorphological responses to (and evidence for) environmental change, and applied geomorphology. Moreover, issues of scale and hierarchies may be addressed, and methods and applications of dynamic rather than equilibrium ideas and metaphors. Ultimately, we would like to understand how strategies of human resilience and innovation can inform our modern strategies for addressing the challenges of the emerging Anthropocene, a time frame dominated by human modulation of surface geomorphological processes and hydroclimate.

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Co-organized by BG3/CL4/NH8/SSP1/SSS3
Convener: Julia MeisterECSECS | Co-conveners: André Kirchner, Guido Stefano MarianiECSECS, Kathleen Nicoll, Hans von Suchodoletz, Sanja Faivre, Sven Fuchs, Margreth Keiler
Displays
| Attendance Mon, 04 May, 14:00–18:00 (CEST)

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Chat time: Monday, 4 May 2020, 14:00–15:45

Chairperson: Julia Meister, Margreth Keiler, Hans von Suchodoletz
D2498 |
EGU2020-6485
| solicited
| Highlight
Andrea Zerboni, Anna Maria Mercuri, Assunta Florenzano, Eleonora Clò, Giovanni Zanchetta, Eleonora Regattieri, Ilaria Isola, Filippo Brandolini, and Mauro Cremaschi

The Terramare civilization included hundreds of banked and moated villages, located in the alluvial plain of the Po River of northern Italy, and developed between the Middle and the Recent Bronze Ages (XVI-XII cent. BC). This civilization lasted for over 500 years, collapsing at around 1150 years BC, in a period marked by a great societal disruptionin the Mediterranean area. The timing and modalities of the collapse of the Terramare Bronze Age culture are widely debated, and a combined geoarchaeological and palaeoclimatic investigation – the SUCCESSO-TERRA Project –is shading new light on this enigma. The Terramare economy was based upon cereal farming, herding, and metallurgy; settlements were also sustained by a well-developed system for the management of water and abundant wood resources. They also established a wide network of commercial exchange between continental Europe and the Mediterranean region.The SUCCESSO-TERRA Project investigated two main Bronze Age sites in Northern Italy:(i) the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio, and (ii) the San Michele di Valestra site, which is a coeval settlement outside the Terramare territory, but in the adjoining Apennine range. Human occupation at San Michele di Valestra persisted after the Terramare crisis and the site was settled with continuity throughout the whole Bronze Ages, up to the Iron Age. The combined geoarchaeological, palaeoclimatic, and archaeobotanical investigation on different archaeological sites and on independent archives for climatic proxies (offsite cores and speleothems) highlights the existence of both climatic and anthropic critical factors triggering a dramatic shift of the landuse of the Terramare civilization. The overexploitation of natural resources became excessive in the late period of the Terramare trajectory, when also a climatic change occurred. A fresh speleothem record for the same region suggests the occurrence of a short-lived period of climatic instability followed by a marked peak of aridity. The unfavourable concomitance between human overgrazing and climatic-triggered environmental pressure, amplified the on-going societal crisis, likely leading to the breakdown of the Terramare civilization in the turn of a generation.

How to cite: Zerboni, A., Mercuri, A. M., Florenzano, A., Clò, E., Zanchetta, G., Regattieri, E., Isola, I., Brandolini, F., and Cremaschi, M.: Geoarchaeological evidence of multiple climatic and anthropic triggers driving the breakdown of the Terramare civilization (Bronze Age, Northern Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6485, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6485, 2020

D2499 |
EGU2020-161
| Highlight
Filippo Brandolini and Francesco Carrer

In fluvial environments, alluvial geomorphological features had a huge influence on settlement strategies during the Holocene. However, a few projects investigate this topic through quantitative and question-driven analyses of the human-landscape correlation. The Po Valley (N Italy) – located between the Mediterranean regions and continental Europe – is as a key area for the investigation of environmental and cultural influences on settlement strategies since prehistoric times. For instance, the transition from Roman to Medieval times represented a crucial moment for the reorganisation of human settlement strategies in the Po Valley; the process was mainly driven by climate changes and socio-political factors. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis (SPPA) was here employed to provide a solid statistical assessment of these dynamics in the two historical phases. A point pattern (PP) corresponds to the location of spatial events generated by a stochastic process within a bounded region. The density of the PP is proportional to the intensity of the underlying process. The intensity, in turn, can be constant within the region or spatially variable, thus influencing the uniformity of distribution of spatial events. SPPA provides powerful techniques for the statistical analysis of PP data that consist of a complete set of locations of archaeological sites/findings within an observation window. The use of spatial covariates enables the investigation of environmental and non-environmental factors influencing the spatial homogeneity of the point process. Archaeologists have increasingly analyzed such datasets to quantify the characteristics of observed spatial patterns with the aims of deriving hypotheses on the underlying processes or testing hypotheses derived from archaeological theory. The aim of this paper is to assess whether a shift in water management strategies between the Roman and Medieval periods influenced the spatial distribution of settlements, and to evaluate the relative importance of agricultural suitability over flood risks in each historical phase. In particular, the variability settlement patterns between Roman and Medieval phases has been assessed against two related proxies for alluvial geomorphology and agricultural suitability: flood hazard and soil texture. The SPPA performed shows that Roman and Medieval settlement patterns mirror two different human responses to the geomorphological dynamics of the area. Roman land- and water-management were able to minimize the flood hazard, to drain the floodplain and organize a complex land use on different soil types. In the Medieval period, the alluvial geomorphology of the area, characterised by wide swampy meadows and frequent flood events, affected the spatial organisation of settlement, which privileged topographically prominent positions. Social and cultural dynamics played a crucial role in responding to alluvial geomorphological environmental challenges in different times.

How to cite: Brandolini, F. and Carrer, F.: Investigate human responses to Late-Holocene changes of fluvial landforms through Spatial Point Pattern Analysis (Po Plain, N Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-161, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-161, 2019

D2500 |
EGU2020-13700
Athanasios Votsis and Dina Babushkina

Advances in Digital Humanities are providing increasingly rich research material for understanding (1) the environmental and locational attributes of ancient settlements and (2) the regional structure of systems of settlements. Non-material records, in particular, provide information about the social and cultural drivers of human-landscape interaction in settlements that, when combined with material records, aid in refining existing models of settlement-landscape evolution and sustainability. We present a case study from Late Bronze Age Southeast Aegean that utilizes literary records, biogeophysical data and geoinformatics methods to offer insights into the abovementioned topics in that region. Specifically, we utilize a georeferenced version of the record of cities and their sociocultural and environmental descriptions, provided in the Catalog of Ships in Homer’s Iliad. We combine this information with datasets from the spatial (physiography, climatology) and temporal (continuities/discontinuities, population) context of those settlements. Ultimately, we are interested in deriving identifiable patterns in our dataset – more specifically, whether there exist patterns of settlement-environment interaction that are inherently more sustainable than others, as well as getting a glimpse into the hierarchy of values underlying this interaction.

How to cite: Votsis, A. and Babushkina, D.: Understanding settlement-landscape interaction with literary records and geoinformatics: The case of Homer’s Late Bronze Age Southeast Aegean, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13700, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13700, 2020

D2501 |
EGU2020-1440
István Viczián, Gábor Szilas, Farkas Márton Tóth, György Sípos, Dávid Gergely Páll, and József Szeberényi

Geoarchaeological and geomorphological studies were carried out on the alluvial plain of the Danube in an urban environment in the Northwest part of Budapest. The human-landscape interactions were investigated from the Neolithic to the present times.

The environmental reconstruction was produced through inter- and multidisciplinary geomorphological, archaeological, environmental historical researches, using OSL and radiocarbon dating, malacology, stratigraphy, and sedimentological analyses of samples from archaeological excavations, GIS data processing of contemporary and historical maps, archival documents and the spatial pattern of prehistoric archaeological sites.

The Danube is Europe's second longest river with a large catchment area. Its drainage basins’ climatic and environmental changes have significant effects on our case study area’s environment and its societies. The geomorphological and hydrographical evolutions’ long-term and short-term processes as well as the landscape’s episodic events were studied by investigating the geomorphological responses to climatic, fluvial and human impacts on the environment.

The landscape evolution from a nature-dominated fluvial environment to a densely built up anthropogenic landscape of a metropolis was revealed. An active river channel used to cross the research area in the Early Holocene. Today only some moderate-sized swampy, waterlogged areas refer to the existence of this former river channel and the subsequent lake and marshy environment. Through time this relict form of the Danube’s paleochannel was occupied by streams, draining surface water, ground water and abundant karstic springs. The location of the two prehistoric settlement concentrations along the Danube can be linked with the former existence of the significant tributary streams’ confluence. Geomorphological-topographical investigations of the area’s archaeological sites revealed that one of the streams has reversed its flow direction through time. From the Roman Period onward, but especially during the Modern Times, the watercourses have been canalised and their channels have been relocated. Today hardly anything is reminiscent of the former alluvial environment in this part of the capital city.

How to cite: Viczián, I., Szilas, G., Tóth, F. M., Sípos, G., Páll, D. G., and Szeberényi, J.: Human-landscape Interactions along the Danube from the Neolithic to the Present in Budapest, Hungary, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1440, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1440, 2019

D2502 |
EGU2020-7066
Giulia Iacobucci, Davide Nadali, and Francesco Troiani

The question of human-waterscape interactions worldwide has been and still is a central topic in historical and archaeological research. The Southern Mesopotamia Plain, where the ancient State of Lagash developed, represents an ideal case study. Indeed, at Tell Zurghul archaeological site, extensive field-works have been recently carried on by the Italian Archaeological Mission and an interdisciplinary approach, combining field surveys and geomorphological mapping through remote sensing techniques, has been applied for analyzing the function and role of the waterscape on the early civilization. Indeed, the geomorphological analysis through remote sensing techniques and archaeological surveys are essential for the reconstruction of a complex environmental system, where landforms due to different morphogenetic processes occur, related to the presence of a wide fluvial-deltaic paleo-system and the human activities.

The Southern Mesopotamian Plain coincides with the Tigris and Euphrates deltaic plain, developed starting since the Mid-Holocene: the maximum marine ingression reached Nasiriyah and Al-Almara about 6000 yrs BP; after that, the paleo-delta progradation shifted the shoreline up to the modern position. The development of a typical bird-foot delta guaranteed an amount of water indispensable for agriculture, settlements, and transport. Indeed, the high mobility of the channels and avulsions processes (i.e. levees breaks and related crevasse splays formation) are the main features typically connected to a multi-channel system, guarantying the water supply through seasonal floods. In the area, the management of water during the mid-Holocene, digging an extensive network of canals and building dams, improved the socio-economic conditions. However, the occurrence of the so-called Megadrought Event, dated 4.2 ka BP, drastically modified the hydroclimatic conditions of the area, favoring arid conditions and improving the frequency of unpredictable extreme hydrological events.

The main aim of the work is to contribute to the reconstruction of the waterscape surrounding the archaeological sites of Tell Zurghul and Lagash and know more about waterscape-human interactions during the Holocene. A multi-sensor approach has been adopted to identify the main geomorphological features and describe the associated morphogenetic processes. The availability of the multispectral Landsat-8 satellite imagery and 30-meter spatial resolution DEMs (i.e. the optical DSM from ALOS and the infrared DTM from ASTER) allowed a supervised classification through specific spectral signature and a microtopographic analysis. The spectral signatures of active and inactive crevasse splays have been extracted, discerning among crevasse channels, proximal and distal deposits characterized by coarsest and finest sediment respectively. Moreover, the microtopographic analysis led to recognize channels above inter-floodplains, upward convexity of active crevasse splays and roughly flat topography of inactive ones. The excavations in Area B of the archaeological site shows evidence of the presence of water and the proximity of the sea. Brackish-marine marshes environment has been confirmed by fish vertebras (belong to “Bull Shark”, i.e. Carcharhinus leucas) and fishing net recovered into a mudbrick structure. Moreover, the patron deity of the city in the 3rd millennium BC, was the goddess of the sea and sea species (fish and birds), confirming the strong connection between water and the ancient settlement.

How to cite: Iacobucci, G., Nadali, D., and Troiani, F.: Human-waterscape interactions during the early-mid Holocene: insights from a multi-disciplinary approach in Southern Mesopotamia (Iraq), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7066, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7066, 2020

D2503 |
EGU2020-3763
| Highlight
Felix Riede

Approximately 13,000 years BP, the Laacher See volcano, located in present-day western Germany (East Eifel volcanic field, Rhenish Shield) erupted cataclysmically. Airfall tephra covered Europe from the Alps to the Baltic. As part of an on-going project investigating the potential ecological and human impacts of this eruption, legacy data harvested from a variety of disciplinary sources (palynology, pedology, archaeology, geological grey literature) is now combined with recent geoarchaeological work, to provide new insights into the distribution of the Laacher See fallout and its impact on contemporaneous hunter-gatherer populations. This detailed reconstruction of human impact 13,000 years ago also forms the basis for reflection on modern strategies for coping with the emerging risks posed by extreme and compound events in the present and near future.

How to cite: Riede, F.: Apocalypse then? The Laacher See eruption (13ka BP) and its human impact along a proximal-to-distal transect , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3763, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3763, 2020

D2504 |
EGU2020-1868
Olga Khokhlova and Alena Sverchkova

The chrono-sequence of paleosols, buried under different constructions in the big kurgan Essentuksky 1 in Ciscaucasia (Stavropol region), built by people of the Maikop culture in the second quarter of the 4th millennium BC, was studied. The height of the kurgan was 5.5-6 m and diameter – more than 60 m. It had four earthen constructions and three – made of stones. We studied the composition of the material of kurgan’s constructions, paleosols buried under four earthen kurgan's constructions and the surface soil on the area adjoining to the kurgan. The macro- and micromorphological observations and set of analytical and instrumental methods were used to study the properties of soils in the chrono-sequence and composition of material from the earthen constructions. According to archaeological data, the kurgan was built for time-span from 25, but not more than 50 years. During this interval, the morphological and physicochemical properties of soils changed, namely, there was a decrease in the thickness of the humus profile and the content of organic carbon, an increase in the content of gypsum, carbon of carbonates, a shift of the area of their accumulation up the profile, and transformation of the forms of carbonate features. The percentage of the exchangeable sodium and magnesium in the composition of exchangeable bases increased and magnetic susceptibility decreased. The most “arid” properties are found in the paleosol buried last in the studied chronological sequence: the humus horizon is the lightest, the profile is most enriched in carbonates, there is the highest content of exchangeable sodium and magnesium in the composition of exchange bases, the lowest magnetic susceptibility and the maximum amount of gypsum in the second meter of the profile. During the indicated time-span of the construction of the kurgan, Haplic Chernozems Loamic changed in Calcic Chernozems Loamic. For the studied time-span, a palynological analysis revealed a decrease in forest area and an increase in the portion of grassy vegetation. In the composition of grasses, there was an increase in the proportion of steppe and xerophytic species. The climate of the studied interval (the beginning of the development of the Maikop culture in the Ciscaucasia) is characterized as drier and hotter in comparison with nowadays. The material for the earthen layers of the kurgan's constructions was taken from the gleyic horizons of the Gleysols (the lowest layer in the first and second constructions) and from the Ah and AhB horizons of the Chernozems (the overwhelming majority of the layers). This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 16-17-10280.

How to cite: Khokhlova, O. and Sverchkova, A.: Geoarchaeological study of big Essentuksky 1 kurgan in Ciscaucasia, Russia, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1868, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1868, 2019

D2505 |
EGU2020-21482
Michael Zech, Marcel Lerch, Marcel Bliedtner, Clemens Geitner, Dieter Schäfer, Jean Nicolas Haas, Roland Zech, and Bruno Glaser

The archaeology of high mountain regions got high attention since the discovery of the copper age mummy called "Ötzi" in the Ötztaler Alps in 1991. Results of former archaeological research projects show that mesolithic hunter-gatherers lived in Alpine regions since the beginning of the Holocene, 11,700 years ago (Cornelissen & Reitmaier 2016). Amongst others, the Mesolithic site Ullafelsen (1860 m a.s.l.) and surroundings represent a very important archaeological reference site in the Fotsch Valley (Stubaier Alps, Tyrol) (Schäfer 2011). Many archaeological artifacts and fire places were found at different places in the Fotschertal, which provides evidence for the presence and the way of living of our ancestor. The "Mesolithic project Ullafelsen" includes different scientific disciplines ranging from high mountain archaeology over geology, geomorphology, soil science, sedimentology, petrography to palaeobotany (Schäfer 2011). Within an ongoing DFG project we aim at addressing questions related to past vegetation and climate, human history as well as their influence on pedogenesis from a biomarker and stable isotope perspective (cf. Zech et al. 2011). Our results for instance suggest that (i) the dominant recent and past vegetation can be chemotaxonomically differentiated based on leaf wax-derived n-alkane biomarkers, (ii) there is no evidence for buried Late Glacial topsoils being preserved on the Ullafelsen as argued by Geitner et al. (2014), rather humic-rich subsoils were formed as Bh-horizons by podsolisation and (iii) marked vegetations changes likely associated with alpine pasture activities since the Bronce Age are documented in Holocene peat bogs in the Fotsch Valley. Nevertheless, there remain some challenges by joining all analytical data in order to get a consistent overall picture of human-environmental history of this high mountain region.

Cornelissen & Reitmaier (2016): Filling the gap: Recent Mesolithic discoveries in the central and south-eastern Swiss Alps. In: Quaternary International, 423.

Geitner, C., Schäfer, D., Bertola, S., Bussemer, S., Heinrich, K. und J. Waroszewski (2014): Landscape archaeological results and discussion of Mesolithic research in the Fotsch valley (Tyrol). In: Kerschner, H., Krainer, K. and C. Spötl: From the foreland to the Central Alps – Field trips to selected sites of Quaternary research in the Tyrolean and Bavarian Alps (DEUQUA EXCURSIONS), Berlin, 106-115.

Schäfer (2011): Das Mesolithikum-Projekt Ullafelsen (Teil 1). Mensch und Umwelt im Holozän Tirols (Band 1). 560 p., Innsbruck: Philipp von Zabern.

Zech, M., Zech, R., Buggle, B., Zöller, L. (2011): Novel methodological approaches in loess research - interrogating biomarkers and compound-specific stable isotopes. In: E&G Quaternary Science Journal, 60.

How to cite: Zech, M., Lerch, M., Bliedtner, M., Geitner, C., Schäfer, D., Haas, J. N., Zech, R., and Glaser, B.: The Mesolithic site Ullafelsen in the Fotsch Valley (Tyrol, Austria) – a biomarker perspective, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21482, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21482, 2020

D2506 |
EGU2020-2949
Thomas Raab, Alexandra Raab, Florian Hirsch, Alexander Bonhage, and Anna Schneider

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) recorded by LiDAR are now available for large areas, providing an opportunity to map small landforms for the first time in high resolution and over larger areas.  The majority of these small earth surface structures is of anthropogenic origin, and their formation is often ancient. The newly visible microrelief can therefore reflect the imprints of centuries or millennia of past land uses. Among the anthropogenic structures identified in the new high-resolution DEMs, Relict Charcoal Hearths (RCHs) are particularly widespread and abundant. RCHs are remains of past charcoal burning and mainly found in pre-industrial mining areas of Europe and North America. They normally have a relative height of fewer than 50 centimetres on flat terrain and a horizontal dimension ranging from about 5-30 metres. Despite the small spatial dimensions, RCHs can reach significant land coverage due to their enormous numbers. Recent LiDAR data show that a remarkable area of our landscape has this human fingerprint from the past. We therefore need to ask about its effect on soil landscapes and ecosystems in general. The growing relevance of RCHs is also noticeable in the rising number of RCH case studies that have been conducted. This study reviews the state of knowledge about RCHs mainly by addressing three coupled legacies of historic charcoal burning: the geomorphological, the pedological, and the ecological legacy. We are going to present recent findings on these three legacies.

How to cite: Raab, T., Raab, A., Hirsch, F., Bonhage, A., and Schneider, A.: Fingerprints from past charcoal burning - lessons learned and future perspective studying Relict Charcoal Hearths (RCH), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2949, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2949, 2020

D2507 |
EGU2020-22674
Adam Łajczak and Roksana Zarychta

In the investigations on changes of topography of historical town centres the attention is focused on estimation of the thickness of cultural layers and on determination of changes of land topography in selected small areas or along profiles. Less often the attention is focused on determination of spatial differentiation of these changes within larger parts of centres of historical towns. The aim of presentation is to reconstruct differences between paleotopography and modern topography of historical centre of Cracow, Poland, during the last millennium. The paleotopography studied represents situation before the 10th century without any significant human impact. The paleotopography was reconstructed using the published contour-line maps basing on archeological and geoengineering investigations and showing the roof of in situ fossil soil. The preliminary contour-line map represented a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) base map. DEM from aerial laser scanning (ALS DEM) shows the contemporary topography of Cracow centre. The application of selected morphometric indices makes it possible to describe quantitatively changes in spatial aspect in altitude, local relative height, slope, and aspect classes. The analysis of changes of values of the studied elements of topography shows that in the scale of the whole study area, the changes are directed towards the flattening of the area. In more local scale, the areas of flattening trends are adjacent to the areas of undulating trends.

Only few papers discuss the changes in town topography as the consequence of long lasting increase of anthropogenic deposits resulting in land flattening or undulation increase. These papers, however, do not consider the quantitative evaluation of many-sided character of this process. Similar remarks concern the papers on modern development of towns. Revealed in the newest literature positive vertical changes in the topography of Cracow centre which occurred during the last millennium show large spatial differentiation and range to over 10 m. In the older literature the value 5 m was so far suggested in the area of Old Town in Cracow. Other parameters of changes in Cracow topography studied by the Authors have never been considered in literature.

How to cite: Łajczak, A. and Zarychta, R.: Changes in topography of Cracow centre during the last millennium, Poland, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22674, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22674, 2020

D2508 |
EGU2020-2202
Jaroslav Klokocnik, Vaclav Cilek, Jan Kostelecky, and Ales Bezdek

A new method to detect paleolakes via their gravity signal is presented (here with implications for geoscience and archaeology). The gravity aspects or descriptors (gravity anomalies/disturbances, second radial derivatives, strike angles and virtual deformations) were computed from the global static combined gravity field model EIGEN 6C4 for an application in archaeology and geoscience in Egypt and surrounding countries. The model consists of the best now available satellite and terrestrial data, including gradiometry from the GOCE mission. EIGEN 6C4 has the ground resolution ~10 km. From archaeological literarure we took the positions of archaeological sites of the Holocene occupations between 8500 and 5300 BC (8.5-5.3 ky BC) in the Eastern Sahara, Western Desert, Egypt. We correlated the features found from the gravity data with the locations; the correlation is good, assuming that the sites were mostly at paleolake boarders or at rivers. We suggest position, extent and shape of a paleolake. Then, we have estimated a possible location, extent and shape of the putative paleolake(s). We also reconsider the origin of Libyan Desert glass (LDG) in the Great Sand Sea (GSS) and support a hypothesis about an older impact structure created in GSS, repeatedly filled by water, which might be a part of some of the possible paleolake(s).

How to cite: Klokocnik, J., Cilek, V., Kostelecky, J., and Bezdek, A.: Gravity aspects from recent Earth gravity model EIGEN 6C4 for geoscience and archaeology in Sahara, Egypt, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2202, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2202, 2020

D2509 |
EGU2020-306
Rupert Bäumler, Bernhard Lucke, Jago Birk, Patrick Keilholz, Christopher O. Hunt, Sofia Laparidou, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Paula Kouki, and Sabine Fiedler

Petra is hidden in rugged arid mountains prone to flash floods, while the dry climate and barren landscape seem hostile to cultivation. Nevertheless, there are countless remains of terraces of so far unknown purpose. We investigated three well-preserved terraces at Jabal Haroun to the south-west of Petra which seemed representative for the diverse geology and types of terraces. A hydrological model shows that the terraces were effective at both control of runoff and collection of water and sediments: they minimized flash floods and allowed for an agricultural use. However, rare extreme rainfall events could only be controlled to a limited degree, and drought years without floods caused crop failures. Pollen and phytoliths in the sediments attest to the past presence of well-watered fields including reservoirs storing collected runoff, which suggest a sophisticated irrigation system. In addition, faeces biomarkers and plant-available phosphorus indicate planned manuring. Ancient land use as documented by the terraces created a green oasis in the desert. They seem to represent Petra's agricultural hinterland, which was lost during the Islamic period due growing aridity and an increased frequency of devastating extreme precipitation events. The heirs of the Nabateans reverted to their original Bedouin subsistence strategies but continue to opportunistically cultivate terrace remains.

How to cite: Bäumler, R., Lucke, B., Birk, J., Keilholz, P., Hunt, C. O., Laparidou, S., Abu-Jaber, N., Kouki, P., and Fiedler, S.: The terraces of Petra, Jordan: archives of a lost agricultural hinterland, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-306, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-306, 2019

D2510 |
EGU2020-7421
Nehemie Strupler

Since one century, aerial photography has a successful track record of detecting and mapping archaeological traces of human activity in the landscape. The tools and procedures evolved gradually, following technological and methodological advancements of earth remote sensing. It started with the use of crop marks and other proxies such as soil, shadow or snow to distinguish observable differences caused by subsurface archaeological remains, locating buried archaeological features.  Beside theses data gathered by archaeologists, the declassification at the end of the last century of millions of photographs (such as the CORONA, ARGON or LANYARD US satellite programs as well as other non-US military programs) has resulted in a vast archive.

Historical images represent a fundamental tool in archaeological research, particularly for Western Asia.  They document nowadays inaccessible landscapes that has been recovered by modern human infrastructure (i.e.  building, roads) or heavily modified (notably by the increasing use of mechanized agricultural methods), erasing fragile traces from thousands of years ago.  Only through the detailed analysis of archives from the 20th century, is it possible to recover archaeological evidences and paleo-environmental features.  

The traditional workflow uses historical images as a first step prior to archaeological fieldwork, asserting and dating detected features. One main problem arises when ground truthing of these detected features is not possible anymore. How trustful are the detections and how to date them? My poster/talk will present sources as well as state-of-the-art analysis of historical aerial images based on the Scaling Territories Project (SCATTER).  The combined use of historical maps, aerial images and ground acquired archaeological data from nearby field-walking prospections enables to reconstruct the paleo-landscapes and the location of (presumed and know lost) settlements in Central Anatolia.  

How to cite: Strupler, N.: The last traces. Historical images and the reconstruction of lost archaeological landscapes, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7421, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7421, 2020

D2511 |
EGU2020-62
Jenny Richards, Jerome Mayaud, Richard Bailey, and Heather Viles

Earthen heritage forms ~10% of UNESCO’s World Heritage List, with sites generally concentrated in dryland environments. Many sites are exposed to environmental processes such as wind, sediment movement and rain, which can result in extensive deterioration of the earthen heritage. To improve the effectiveness of conservation strategies that aim to minimise deterioration, there is an urgent need to understand how multiple environmental processes interact and impact earthen heritage, particularly over longer (centennial) timescales. We therefore apply the ViSTA-HD model (Vegetation and Sediment TrAnsport model for Heritage Deterioration) to Suoyang Ancient City, an archaeological site in north-west China made of rammed earth. ViSTA-HD is a cellular automata model developed by the authors to model the risk of environmentally-driven deterioration at earthen heritage sites. It is comprised of two modules: (i) an environmental module that spatially resolves environmental processes across an earthen site, and (ii) a deterioration module that spatially resolves the risk of deterioration across a wall face. The risk of deterioration is simulated for three common deterioration features at Suoyang - polishing, pitting and slurry. We use ViSTA-HD to investigate variations in deterioration risk under future potential climate scenarios across the 21st century. We also use the model to robustly test the impact of potential nature-based conservation strategies.

How to cite: Richards, J., Mayaud, J., Bailey, R., and Viles, H.: What is the future for our earthen heritage? Modelling the risk of environmentally-driven deterioration at sites located in dryland areas, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-62, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-62, 2019

D2512 |
EGU2020-22132
Vyacheslav Nizovtsev and Natalia Erman

A paired analysis of historical documents was performed for the Upper Volga Basin (primary chronical sources published in the Complete Collection of Russian annals were analyzed), and papers on the dynamics of fluctuations in lake levels, river water levels, dendrological and palynological data were published. The peak of the medieval optimum was at the turn of the first and second millennia, and its maximum in the region was noted at the end of the X century. During this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfalls led to a reduction in shallow water bodies, water-logging and a decrease in river floods. This is evidenced by the settlements on the floodplains of a number of Upper Volga rivers. At this time, the Upper Volga route and the "route from the Varangians to the Greeks" began to function. The exploration by the Slavs of the Upper Volga basin and the development of the settlement structure took place in favorable conditions for agriculture and settlement. Climatic conditions not only provided good harvests, but also contributed to the economic growth and development of relations between Slavic tribes during the formation of the ancient Russian state. The transition period of the XIII - XIV centuries was called the “period of contrasts,” because it was a harbinger of the Little Ice Age. It was characterized by the following features: an increase in the intra-seasonal climate variability, an increase in humidity, drastic fluctuation in humidity and relative warmth from year to year, a widespread decrease in summer temperatures by 1-2 ° C. The XIII century accounts for one of the longest periods in which various extreme natural phenomena concentrated. It refers to the years 1211-1233, 15 of which were years of famine. Climatologists call XIV-XIX centuries the Little Ice Age (LIA). The average annual temperature dropped by - 1.4 ° С, and the average summer temperature dropped by 2-3° С. Periods of increased humidity alternated with dry periods more frequently, cyclonic activity increased dramatically, and the duration of the growing season decreased by almost three weeks. In the XV century already more than 150 extreme adverse natural phenomena were recorded. In the era of the Little Ice Age, dramatic climate fluctuations were recorded by various sources more and more often. In Central Russia chroniclers recorded drastic climate cooling in the last third of the XVI century. Simultaneously with the beginning of the Little Ice Age, the process of developing watershed areas took place during the internal colonization of the land. The determining factors were demographic, socio-economic and historical, but the role of the natural factor cannot be ignored. The climax of the increase in the number of extreme natural phenomena falls on the XV-XVII centuries. Only at the end of the XVII century climate conditions in Russia somewhat leveled off.

This work was financially supported by the RFBR (Russian Foundation of Basic Research) grant: Project № 19-05-00233.

How to cite: Nizovtsev, V. and Erman, N.: Climate and nature management in the Middle Ages in the Upper Volga basin, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22132, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22132, 2020

D2513 |
EGU2020-19139
Merle Muru, Rachel Harding, Simon Fitch, Tine Missiaen, and Vince Gaffney

During the late glacial and early Holocene, vast areas of dry land stretched from the British Isles to continental Europe over what is now the southern part of the North Sea. Whilst it is known that this landscape was inhabited, little is known about the cultures that lived there and the surrounding environment. This study focuses on the Brown Bank area, between the UK and Dutch coasts, with its significant 25 km long and 10-15 m high ridge on the seabed which has provided many Mesolithic ex-situ finds. However, all of these finds have been recovered serendipitously due to commercial fishing and dredging, and thus the landscape and sedimentary context of these archaeological finds is unclear.
The goal of this study is to map the terrestrial features in the Brown Bank area and reconstruct the palaeolandscape and its inundation to determine the potential locations from which this archaeological material derives, and potentially locate Mesolithic settlement sites. The project uses high-resolution parametric echosounder surveys in a dense survey network to record the area and facilitate later targeted dredging and vibro-core sampling.
The seismic surveys revealed a pre-marine inundation landscape with fluvial channels eroded into post glacial sediments. A peat layer was located on the top of the banks of the channels where it continues laterally hundreds of metres. Radiocarbon dating of the top part of the peat layer, just below the transgressive deposits gave ages around 10.2-9.9 cal ka BP. Palaeogeographic reconstructions based on the mapped terrestrial features and the available relative sea level change data suggest that the final inundation of the area happened c. 1000 years later. Where dredging was carried out in areas of interest, primarily where the early Holocene surface outcropped onto the seabed, a large number of blocks of peat with pieces of wood and other macrofossils were recovered, suggesting a good potential for preservation of possible archaeological material and possible locations of origin for the serendipitous finds made by fishermen.
We conclude that this study provides new insights into the palaeogeography and the timing of the inundation of the Brown Bank area and gives the landscape context to the potential Mesolithic habitation of this part of the southern North Sea.

How to cite: Muru, M., Harding, R., Fitch, S., Missiaen, T., and Gaffney, V.: Exploration of submerged Mesolithic landscapes around the Brown Bank, southern North Sea, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19139, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19139, 2020

D2514 |
EGU2020-5185
Markus Fuchs, Raphael Steup, Katja Korthiringer, and Timo Seregely

In many Central European river catchments changes in long-term sediment dynamics are caused by external driving forces (e.g. human impact, climate change). In addition, the sensitivity of fluvial systems to environmental change is controlled by the catchment’s geomorphic connectivity of individual sediment sinks. In this study, we reconstruct the temporal evolution of different types of sediment reservoirs along the sediment cascade in a mesoscale upland catchment to assess its sensitivity to external changes. The chronological evolution of hillslope and floodplain sediments is based on 79 OSL and 83 C14 ages. Our results show that deposition of hillslope sediments coincides with the first evidence for human-induced soil erosion triggered by the earliest European farmers, but were decoupled from the river network for more than two millennia when the aggradation of overbank fines started and steadily increased. Therefore, the connectivity between the colluvial and alluvial sediment sinks of the catchment is mainly controlled by the landscape geometry and frequency and magnitude of erosion, transport and deposition processes.

How to cite: Fuchs, M., Steup, R., Korthiringer, K., and Seregely, T.: Discontinuities in sediment connectivity controlled by human-environment interaction along the sediment cascade of a mesoscale catchment in Central Germany, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5185, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5185, 2020

D2515 |
EGU2020-16886
Margreth Keiler, Jorge Alberto Ramirez, Md Sarwar Hossain, Tina Haisch, Olivia Martius, Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, and Heike Mayer

Disasters induced by natural hazards or extreme events consist of interacting human and natural components. While progress has been made to mitigate and adapt to natural hazards, much of the existing research lacks interdisciplinary approaches that equally consider both natural and social processes. More importantly, this lack of integration between approaches remains a major challenge in developing disaster risk management plans for communities. In this study, we made a first attempt to develop a conceptual model of a coupled human-landscape system in Swiss Alpine communities. The conceptual model contains a system dynamics (e.g. interaction, feedbacks) component to reproduce community level, socio-economic developments and shocks that include economic crises leading to unemployment, depopulation and diminished community revenue. Additionally, the conceptual model contains climate, hydrology, and geomorphic components that are sources of natural hazards such as floods and debris flows. Feedbacks between the socio-economic and biophysical systems permit adaptation to flood and debris flow risks by implementing spatially explicit mitigation options including flood defences and land cover changes. Here we justify the components, scales, and feedbacks present in the conceptual model and provide guidance on how to operationalize the conceptual model to assess risk and community resilience of Swiss Alpine communities.

How to cite: Keiler, M., Ramirez, J. A., Hossain, M. S., Haisch, T., Martius, O., Ifejika Speranza, C., and Mayer, H.: Understanding risk and resilience in alpine communities: A conceptual model for coupling human and landscape systems, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-16886, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-16886, 2020

Chat time: Monday, 4 May 2020, 16:15–18:00

Chairperson: Sven Fuchs, Sanja Faivre, Guido Mariani, Kathleen Nicoll
D2516 |
EGU2020-10654
Amélie Duquesne, Christine Plumejeaud-Perreau, and Jean-Michel Carozza

Although many studies have analyzed the impact of human interventions on European rivers over decades or centuries, researchers have rarely evaluated the geomorphological effects of these anthropogenic pressures on fluvial systems. However, quantifying anthropogenic impacts is fundamental to understanding how rivers are affected by human interventions and to improving the river management and restoration. The aim of this study is to propose a new and original qualitative method to estimate the importance of human impacts on rivers over the last three centuries using the middle Charente River as a test case. The study area is an anastomosing, low-energy and little mobile river of the lowlands of Western France. It extends from the city of Angoulême (Charente) to the city of Saintes (Charente-Maritime), with a length of approximately 100 km. The study segment has been subjected to high anthropogenic pressure since the High Middle Ages, and it was enhanced during the 19th century to facilitate navigation and terrestrial transportation, to ensure the exploitation of the water's driving force (water mills and paper mills), to maintain the local people (fishing dams and agro-pastoral uses) and to allow for flood protection. To understand and estimate the anthropogenic heritage of the Charente River, this study employed a two-stage method: 1) an inventory of the human interventions on the fluvial system through the consultation of geo-historical data (textual archives, historical maps and iconography) dating from the end of the 17th century to the 2010s and 2) an evaluation of the human impact of each human intervention, sub-category and category of intervention based on the calculation of the Cumulative Human Impact Index. The Cumulative Human Impact Index is composed of several qualitative attributes graded by an evaluator. The results allow one 1) to generate a database and typology of the human interventions affecting the middle Charente River over the long term; 2) to map the cumulative impacts of human interventions on the study area; and 3) to analyze the unitary and overall impact of each human intervention, sub-category and category of intervention on the river landscape's heritage. Finally, this study concludes with 1) a discussion of the advantages of using a qualitative methodology for the estimation of anthropogenic impacts and 2) a reflection on the use of the maps of cumulative human impacts for Charente River management and restoration.

How to cite: Duquesne, A., Plumejeaud-Perreau, C., and Carozza, J.-M.: A qualitative approach to evaluating the impact of human interventions on the middle Charente River (West France), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10654, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10654, 2020

D2517 |
EGU2020-835
Janusz Krukowski

The first prayer to the Sun (abstract)

 

At the end of Pleistocene, from the 15th to the 12th millennia BP people of the Magdalenian culture one of the last cultures of Paleolith were living in Pyrenean at the basin of Ariège River. Magdalenian people had left great works of art on the walls of the caves in the region. Also many tools and sculptures had been found inside these caves. According to the French archeologists who were investigating the caves  (i.a. Pailhaugue 1998, Clottes 1999), Magdalenians were hunting in the tundra for the bison, reindeer, horse, deer and antelope during the Summer. During the cold Winter they were moving to the Pyrenees, and that time they had been visiting the Pyrenean caves. On the basis of the paintings and sculptures found in Ariège, French archeologists draw conclusions concerning the structure of the social groups and shamanism.

After electrification of the Grotte de la Vache (one of the caves in Ariège), a very modest image became visible. French archeologists agreed that it represents the image of sun. However, nobody has been analyzing it in a more detailed way.

According to the proposed paper, this modest image of the sun on the wall of the Grotte de la Vache is the most important among all other images and paintings. This is because it shows the transition from shamanism to the first religion, the Sun worship. Basing on the chronology of the known volcanic eruptions and the data gathered in the framework of the Greenland Ice Core Project (2009) we are able to place this transition in time as 12 945 (+/- 15) years BP.

Keywords: shamanism, first religion, Sun worship, Magdalenian culture, Ariége, Niaux, Vache

How to cite: Krukowski, J.: The first prayer to the Sun, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-835, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-835, 2019

D2518 |
EGU2020-830
Ancuta Petras, Gabriela Florescu, Simon M. Hutchinson, Cécile Brun, Marie-Claude Bal, Vanessa Py Saragaglia, and Marcel Mindrescu

Little is known about how areas of high ecological value and biodiversity hotpots will be impacted in the long-term by increasing anthropogenic pressure, added to future climate warming. One such example is the Romanian Carpathians, among the richest biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of biodiversity indicators and home to the largest unmanaged old-growth forests in Europe. This area is currently threatened by forest clearance and other anthropogenic land-use change, poor management practices and increased risk to wildfire. Peat bogs are among the most important palaeo-archives for the reconstruction of past environmental changes and disturbance regimes, with the potential to provide the longer-term perspective at a local to regional scale necessary for a sustainable management and restoration of these areas. Here we reconstruct late Holocene fire history and the relationship with anthropogenic disturbance, particularly mining, in a former mining area located in Lapus Mts, NW Romanian Carpathians, based on two peat sequences.

To reconstruct past fire activity, we used sedimentary macroscopic charcoal and also employed macro-charcoal morphologies to determine the type of material burnt (wood, grass, forbs). Past local soil/bedrock erosion and regional atmospheric pollution from historical mining were reconstructed on the basis of abiotic sediment properties such as elemental geochemistry, magnetic mineral characteristics, organic matter content and particle size. Our results show clear variations in macro-charcoal concentration, which coincide with changes in the geochemical, magnetic and grain-size indicators. Specifically, increases in macro-charcoal concentration, particularly the wood charcoal morphotype, were shortly followed in both cores by marked increases in heavy metal concentration and by enhanced soil and bedrock erosion, as inferred from geochemical, magnetic and grain-size proxies. This suggests increased local disturbance during intervals with mining activities and indicates the likelihood that humans used fire to clear the forests and open the access to the mining sites. Such actions likely resulted in topsoil removal and bedrock left exposed to environmental and climatic factors. Over the last centuries, the recovery of the local environment is evident in the proxies, with low fire activity and low soil/bedrock erosion, which coincides with the cessation of local mining activities. 

By showing both impact and recovery of the landscape, our study offers insight into the past evolution of this area and can be used to predict future possible responses of the local environment to anthropogenic stressors.   

How to cite: Petras, A., Florescu, G., Hutchinson, S. M., Brun, C., Bal, M.-C., Saragaglia, V. P., and Mindrescu, M.: Fire history and the relationship with late Holocene mining activities in the NW Romanian Carpathians reconstructed from two peat core sequences, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-830, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-830, 2019

D2519 |
EGU2020-19383
Ioana Persoiu and Aurel Persoiu

The wide river valleys and their lower terraces in NW Transylvania were the main avenue along which people and cultures crossed the Carpathian Mountains (East Central Europe) in the early Holocene and later established communities up to the present. This colonization process was marked by constant shifts between the locations of the main settlements, in response to changes in climate and associated geomorphological processes. In this paper, we have combined paleoclimatic, paleovegetation and geomorphological data from the Someșul Mic catchment to provide a narrative of interactions between human settlers and their natural and built environment between ca. 8000 cal BP and 1850 AD.

The climate of the region had a high degree of continentality (warm summers and cold winters) in the early Holocene that started to decrease after ca. 7000 cal BP, to reach a minimum in the mid-Holocene. After ca. 4000 cal BP, summer temperatures slightly increased while winter ones decreased, leading to renewed continentality. Contrary, the precipitation regime was dominated by low values in the first half of the Holocene, followed by an abrupt increase after 5500 cal BP, when Mediterranean climate expanded northwards. Pollen records indicate large-scale increases in temperate forests from the early Holocene onwards; with a general decrease in openness after 8500 cal BP. Following the spread of Neolithic societies, arable land expanded after ca. 7500 cal BP, while forested areas started to decrease subsequently. The absolute ages of alluvial sediments along the the median reach of Someșul Mic river suggest the river flows at the floodplain level since the Last Glacial Maximum. In the Late Glacial the channel has transformed from a coarse gravel braided channel type in an incised, meandering or anabranching one, except in the area of the former alluvial fan of the river, developed at the entrance in the hilly area. In this case, the Bolling – Allerod Interstadial is marked by a slight diminish of flow regime, with the maintenance of the braided pattern. Generalized channel change in a narrow, incised meandering one occurred with few hundred years delay after the edge of the Holocene, and most probably was predated by a transitory channel type (wandering or subadapted braided pattern). 

Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron, Roman and Mediaeval findings are preferentially (82 %) positioned on alluvial fans, glacises or positive floodplain forms imposed by tectonic uplifts. Only 18 % of them are located in areas affected by local subsidence or with evidences of fluvial activity (active channel, meander belt, palaeochannels).

The human communities have fully used the local opportunities in placing their constructions: alluvial fans, glacis, positive morphologies imposed by local tectonics, stable channel reaches at millennial or even Holocene scale. The centennial and millennial climatic variations (precipitation) most probably influenced the spatial dynamics of human settlements and constructions, with advancements during warm and dry periods in more vulnerable areas to floods, torrential activity or ground level variations, and retreats during cold and humid ones. The role of abrupt climate oscillation changes is not well understood.

How to cite: Persoiu, I. and Persoiu, A.: Geomorphological and climatic controls on the settling of river valleys in NW Transylvania (Romania) in the Holocene, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19383, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19383, 2020

D2520 |
EGU2020-8975
Irene Rocchi, Sergio Rocchi, and Matteo Masotta

The discovery of metals and how to extract and use them was a turning point in human history, because it changed the economy and socio-cultural structure of ancient civilisations and started to severely affect the impact of human activities on the environment. In fact, a lot of societies developed near extraction sites and founded their economy on the use and trade of metals.
In Tuscany (Italy) there has been a long history of mining and metal extraction. From archaeological studies it has been reconstructed that the earliest records of these activities date back to the Etruscan period (VII century B.C.). Exploitation continued intermittently until a few decades ago. This extended period of mining exploitation left a wealth of both iron and copper metallurgical slags that can usually be found as abandoned and unsupervised heaps.
These slags, apparently just a waste from the metallurgical process, actually carry information about the evolution of the metallurgical process through which they were generated. Information about the charge, flux and fuel can be inferred from chemical and mineralogical composition of the slags.
Slags from three different smelting districts, ranging from ancient Etruscan-Roman period to modern age (1900 A.D.)  were studied macroscopically, identifying distinctive features related to the smelting process in different time periods. Then, thin sections obtained from representative samples were examined, using optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Chemical analyses were performed for major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively.
Leaching experiments on some carefully selected samples were also completed, to investigate the release of potentially toxic elements during the interaction of the slags with the surrounding environment.
This kind of investigation allows to reconstruct part of the history of metal utilisation as well as to predict the impact that these remains will have on the environment.

How to cite: Rocchi, I., Rocchi, S., and Masotta, M.: Ancient to modern metallurgical slags: evolving smelting techniques and their interaction with the environment, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8975, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8975, 2020

D2521 |
EGU2020-1045
Danae Thivaiou, Efterpi Koskeridou, Christos Psarras, Konstantina Michalopoulou, Niki Evelpidou, Giannis Saitis, and George Lyras

Greece and the Aegean area are among the first areas in Europe to have been occupied by humans. The record of human interventions in natural environments is thus particularly rich. Some of the interventions of the people inhabiting various localities of the country have been recorded in local mythology. Through the interdisciplinary field of geomythology it is possible to attempt to uncover the relationships between the geological history of early civilizations and ancient myths.

In the present work, we focused on the history of Lake Lerni in the Eastern Peloponnese, an area that is better known through the myth of Hercules and the Lernaean Hydra. The area of the lake – now dried and cultivated – was part of a karstic system and constituted a marshland that was a source of diseases and needed to be dried.

A new core is studied from the area of modern-day Lerni using palaeontological methods in order to reconstruct environmental changes that occurred during the last 6.000 years approximately. The area is known to have gone from marsh-lacustrine environments to dryer environments after human intervention or the intervention of Hercules according to mythology. Levels of peat considered to represent humid intervals were dated using the radiocarbon method so as to have an age model of the core. Samples of sediment were taken every 10 cm; the grain size was analysed for each sample as well as the fossil content for the environmental reconstruction.

The presence of numerous freshwater gastropods reflects the intervals of lacustrine environment accompanied with extremely fine dark sediment. Sedimentology is stable throughout the core with few levels of coarse sand/fine gravel, only changes in colour hint to multiple levels richer in organic material.

How to cite: Thivaiou, D., Koskeridou, E., Psarras, C., Michalopoulou, K., Evelpidou, N., Saitis, G., and Lyras, G.: Lake Lerna: investigating Hercules' ancient myth, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1045, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1045, 2019

D2522 |
EGU2020-19359
Records of climate changes and anthropogenic actions over dune fields in historical times
(withdrawn)
Mihaela Tudor, Ana Ramos-Pereira, and Joana Gaspar de Freitas
D2523 |
EGU2020-19782
Andreas Nikolaidis, Evangelos Akylas, Constantine Michailides, Theodora Moutsiou, Georgios Leventis, Alexandros Constantinides, Carole McCartney, Stella Demesticha, Vasiliki Kassianidou, Zomenia Zomeni, Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer, Yizhaq Makovsky, and Phaedon Kyriakidis

Maritime connectivity between Cyprus and other Eastern Mediterranean coastal regions on the mainland constitutes a critical factor towards understanding the origins of the early visitors to Cyprus during the onset of the Holocene (circa 12,000 years before present) in connection with the spread of the Neolithic in the region (Dawson, 2014). 
In this work, ocean circulation modeling and particle tracking are employed for characterizing drift-induced sea-borne connectivity for that period, using data and assumptions to approximate prevailing paleo-geographical conditions (re-constructed coastline from global sea level curves), and rudimentary vessel (rafts, dugouts) characteristics, as well as present-day weather conditions. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and mcWilliams, 2005), forced by Copernicus Marine portal hydrological data, with wave and wind forcing derived from a combination of global reanalysis data and regional-scale numerical weather predictions (ERA5 and E-WAVE project products), are employed to provide the physical domain and atmospheric conditions. Particle-tracking is carried out using the OpenDrift model (Dagestad et al., 2018) to simulate drift-induced (involuntary) sea-borne movement. The sensitivity of the results on the hydrodynamic response (e.g. drag) of rudimentary vessels, such as rafts of postulated shape, size, and weight, that are believed to have been used for maritime travel during the period of interest, is also investigated. The simulation results are used to estimate the degree of maritime connectivity, due to drift-induced sea-borne movement, between segments of Cyprus coastline as well as its neighboring mainlands, and identify areas of both coastlines where landing/departure might be most favorable.
This work aims to provide novel insights into the possible prehistoric maritime pathways between Cyprus and other Eastern Mediterranean coastal regions, and is carried out within the context of project SaRoCy (https://sarocy.cut.ac.cy), a two-year research project implemented under the “Excellence Hubs” Programme (contract number EXCELLENCE/0198/0143) of the RESTART 2016-2020 Programmes for Research, Technological Development and Innovation administered by the Research and Innovation Foundation of Cyprus.

References

Dagestad K.-F., Röhrs J., Breivik Ø., Aadlandsvik B. 2018. “OpenDrift: A generic framework for trajectory modeling'', Geoscientific Model Development 11, 1405-1420. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1405-2018.

Dawson, H. 2014. Mediterranean Voyages: The Archaeology of Island Colonisation and Abandonment. Publications of the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press Inc.

Shchepetkin, A. F., & McWilliams, J. C. 2005. “The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): A split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model”. Ocean Modelling 9, no. 4, 347-404. https://doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.002.

How to cite: Nikolaidis, A., Akylas, E., Michailides, C., Moutsiou, T., Leventis, G., Constantinides, A., McCartney, C., Demesticha, S., Kassianidou, V., Zomeni, Z., Bar-Yosef Mayer, D., Makovsky, Y., and Kyriakidis, P.: Modeling drift-induced maritime connectivity between Cyprus and its surrounding coastal areas during early Holocene, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19782, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19782, 2020

D2524 |
EGU2020-545
Luca Forti, Eleonora Regattieri, Anna Maria Mercuri, Ilaria Mazzini, Andrea Pezzotta, Assunta Florenzano, Cecilia Conati Barbaro, Luca Peyronel, Daniele Morandi Bonacossi, and Andrea Zerboni

During the late Quaternary, Iraqi Kurdistan was the scenario of several fundamental human-related
events including the dispersion of Homo in Asia and Europe, the origin of agriculture, the beginning
of urbanization, and the formation of the first state entities. We present the initial results of a
geoarchaeological investigation in this area, which aims to reconstruct a detailed framework of the
relationship between climatic changes, landscape responses, human adaptation, and settlement
distribution during the Late Quaternary. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data were collected
from two key areas: the territory of the Navkur and Faideh plains, in northern Kurdistan, and a portion
of the Erbil plain, in southern Kurdistan. In the two regions, the Land of Niniveh and MAIPE
archaeological missions are operating. Remote sensing, GIS analyses, and geomorphological survey
are the tools used for the geomorphological reconstruction of ancient hydrology (fluvial pattern) and
the evolution of distinct landforms. Geochemical and geochronological analyses on speleothems from
the Zagros piedmont caves of same region provide information on Holocene climatic variability in
the area. Whereas environmental settings and human land use are investigated on the basis of
sedimentological, palynological, micropaleontological, and geochemical analyses of a fluvio-
lacustrine sequences preliminary dated between 40 and 9 ka BP. The lacustrine sequence is composed
by clayey and silt-sandy sediments alternating calcareous and organic matter-rich layers.
Environmental and geomorphological data have been compared with archaeological information
(mostly the chronological distribution of the archaeological sites) to interpret exploitation of natural
resources, the settlement dynamics and shift in land use. 

How to cite: Forti, L., Regattieri, E., Mercuri, A. M., Mazzini, I., Pezzotta, A., Florenzano, A., Conati Barbaro, C., Peyronel, L., Morandi Bonacossi, D., and Zerboni, A.: Geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Quaternary climate- environmental-human nexus in the Kurdistan region of Iraq , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-545, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-545, 2019

D2525 |
EGU2020-10575
Sabrina Prochazka, Marta Luciani, and Christopher Lüthgens

The arid regions of the world occupy 46% of the total surface area, providing a habitat for 3 billion people. More than 630 million people are directly affected by desertification. Extreme events like droughts and flash floods increase the pressure on plants, animals and above all, humans and their settlements. In the context of a climate change with such far-reaching consequences, historical oases settlements stand out as best practice examples, because their water supply systems must have been adapted to the changing climate during the Holocene to guarantee the viability of the oases and their inhabitants. I will focus on the ancient oasis Qurayyah, located in the northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, a unique example in this context. Recent research has proven that, lacking a groundwater spring, the formation of a permanent settlement in Qurayyah was made possible mainly by surface-water harvesting, with local fracture springs potentially only providing drinking water. First numerical dating results for the water harvesting system from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz confirm that the system was erected in a period characterized by changing climatic conditions from the Holocene climate optimum to the recent arid phase. This study aims to determine parameters and chronology of this sustainable irrigation system and intends to learn and understand how ancient settlers accomplished the construction of such a highly developed water supply system. To reach this research aim the irrigation system was reconstructed using field mapping and remote sensing techniques. It was shown that the reconstructed irrigation system worked as a flood irrigation system. Dams and channels were built to maximize the flooded area and at the same time to prevent catastrophic flooding under high discharge conditions. Contemporaneous historical irrigation systems in comparable size and complexity are known from Mesopotamia or Egypt. In addition to the system’s reconstruction, a new reverse engineering approach based on palaeobotany was developed for Qurayyah to reconstruct the climate conditions during the time of its operation. Compared to today’s precipitation of 32 mm per year in the research area, our results imply that the irrigation system was constructed in a time of significant climate change, because significantly higher amounts of precipitation would have been necessary to enable the cultivation of olive trees (reference plant for the reverse engineering approach), with a sufficient amount of water.

How to cite: Prochazka, S., Luciani, M., and Lüthgens, C.: Determining parameters and chronology of a sustainable water harvest system in desert oases; case study Qurayyah, northwest Arabian Peninsula, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10575, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10575, 2020

D2526 |
EGU2020-18646
Naimeng Zhang, Qinghai Xu, Dongju Zhang, Ulrike Herzschuh, Zhongwei Shen, Wei Peng, Sisi Liu, and Fahu Chen

Understanding the paleoenvironment (such as climate and landscape) in the area where the early ancient human appears on the Tibetan Plateau is an interesting topic. Based on the results of pollen data on the Yaowuyao loess section of the Qinghai Lake Basin, we used landscape reconstruction algorithms to reconstruct the changes in vegetation cover for 15,000 years. It is shown that the vegetation in the Yaowuyao area changed from temperate steppe (15-7.5 ka) to forest-steppe (7.5-4 ka). Compared with previous studies on the sediment in Qinghai Lake, our study can better reflect the local environment of the Qinghai Lake basin. Furthermore, based on the paleoclimate change data and archeological data from the surrounding areas, it is noticed that while precipitation increases and trees increase, human activities decrease. This may be caused by the substance and strategies of the ancient human beings that have adapted to the steppe. In addition, our results also show that the intensity of ancient human activity has a negative correlation with plant biodiversity, which may be related to human disturbance to the environment. Our paleoecological and environmental study not only shows the paleoenvironment of the early human activities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau but also revealed possible early human activity signals.

How to cite: Zhang, N., Xu, Q., Zhang, D., Herzschuh, U., Shen, Z., Peng, W., Liu, S., and Chen, F.: Landscape reconstruction and the relationship between human and environment in Yaowuyao area, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau since 15000 yr BP, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18646, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18646, 2020

D2527 |
EGU2020-6569
Ying San Liou

Micro-Raman spectroscopy and petrographic analysis was carried out on ancient potsherds and sediments excavated from the Huagangshan site and river sediments collected from the northern part of eastern Taiwan. The ceramic fragments analyzed, dating back to 1600-2100 B.P., are recognized to be Early Metal Age of Taiwan. The aims of this study are mainly to identify the mineralogical compositions of ceramics, to explore technical processes such as firing temperature and redox state, and to decipher the nature of clays and its raw materials source.

The results of micro-Raman analysis for ancient potsherds show the presence of 12 minerals. Quartz, anatase, amorphous carbon, hematite, and pyroxenes are the main components of tempers. In addition, amorphous carbon and hematite are the main constitutes for black- and red- hues pottery, respectively. From the point of view of manufacturing techniques, a large amount of amorphous amorphous carbon indicates that the gray-black pottery is fired under a reducing condition. On the contrary, hematite reveals an oxidizing atmosphere for red-hues pottery. The presence of quartz and anatase implies that the firing temperature is estimated to be 750-950°C. A total of 66 samples, containing 23 ceramic fragments (local and imported products) and 6 sediment from cultural strata of archaeological site and 33 river sediments around the site, is implemented by petrographic analysis of thin sections. Petrographic analytic results of 23 potshards show that the proportion of clay is consistent (60.5~69.1%). The inclusions principally include quartz (polycrystalline and monocrystalline quartz), feldspar, muscovite, and volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic lithic fragments, and quartz is the main component. In addition, the triangle map with ingredients (volcanic lithics+quartz-sedimentary lithics-metamorphic lithics) shows that the raw materials source of local and main stream pottery recognized by archaeologist is not local, but comes from a distance area (the Coastal Range). On the other hand, imported pottery indicates the raw materials source is indeed from the central and southern Central Range (some distance south of the site). The result further illustrates the vigorous exchange and/or trade activities between the populations of eastern Taiwan during the Early Metal Age (1600-2100 B.P.).

How to cite: Liou, Y. S.: An Archaeometric Characterization of Ancient Pottery from Huagangshan Site, Eastern Taiwan, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6569, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6569, 2020

D2528 |
EGU2020-5013
Chun Chen, Lih-Der Ho, and tzung-ying Li

This study reports a continuous microclimate monitoring carried out in Gorilla Cave、Beifeng Cave、Jingua Cave and Tienyu Cave(Kaohsiung, Taiwan) between June 2018 and August 2019. These limestone caves are located in the Mt. Shoushan, which is mainly composed of limestone and mudstone. This study tried to assess the recreational impacts to the microclimate of the caves by monitoring the CO2, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, and provide effective management strategies. A monitoring station was set up at the middle of each cave. We also set up an auto-operated time-lapse camera at the entrance of the caves to record the numbers of tourists and their entering time and the durations in caves. As carbon dioxide in the limestone caves may have negative impact to both speleothems and visitors, our presentation focuses on the variations of CO2 concentration in the caves.

Daily and seasonal fluctuations of CO2 concentration were observed. Monitoring data show that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the caves also changes significantly with the wet and dry seasons. The monthly average of the carbon dioxide concentration in the cave has a good correlation with rainfall and temperature, which means that the higher the temperature and humidity, the higher the carbon dioxide concentration in the cave. Besides, the difference between the day-night temperature change outside the cave and the temperature inside the caves also seems to affect whether the carbon dioxide inside the cave is easily dissipated or not. Especially when the temperature outside the cave at night is lower than the temperature inside the cave, the carbon dioxide concentration inside the cave often drops to the environmental background value (around 420 ppm). Therefore, the difference in air density caused by high and low temperature may be an important mechanism driving the gas exchange inside and outside the cave.

Based on the monitoring results, we suggest that (1) The cave is open during the dry seasons from November to April. Although monitoring data indicate that the caves have gradually dried up in October, cave exploration activities have also become active. However, the period from wet to dry in the cave is theoretically the stage of cave rock development. Considering the continuous dripping in the cave at this time, in order to avoid disturbing the development of speleothems, it is recommended to close the caves until most of the caves are dry in November. (2) The caves are open daily from 8 am to 12 am, from 1 pm to 5 pm, with a break of an hour at noon. (3) There are one batch per hour and 8 batches per day to allow visitors enter the caves, and the stay time is limited to 1 hour. (4) The monitoring results also help us reasonably estimate the number of visitors in each batch, that is, Gorilla Cave is about 15 people, Tienyu Cave is 20 to 30 people, Beifeng Cave is about 20 people and Jingua Cave is 10 to 15 people.

How to cite: Chen, C., Ho, L.-D., and Li, T.: Recreational impacts on the microclimate of the limestone caves and management in Shoushan National Nature Park of Taiwan, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5013, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5013, 2020

D2529 |
EGU2020-5175
Shuai Wang

Under the intense disturbances of human activities, the global resources and environment are facing unprecedented stresses. Now, because the earth has entered a new era of “anthropocence”, coupling natural and social systems, analyzing the structure and function of the human-land system has become the key to ensuring the sustainability of the earth system. Human-land coupled systems, whose structures are the relationships between internal components and functions are their properties to meet a certain demand, are composed of a natural ecological subsystem and a human social subsystem with their interactions. A human-land coupled system has structural and functional characteristics that are different from social or natural systems’ respectively. While structure determines function, functional feedback structure. “Fit” is a sustainable system structure configuration. Here, we summarized the four main types of “fit” within coupled human-land system. (1) Fit of totality: to the allocation of the total amount of key indicators does not exceed the threshold; (2) Fit of structure: the interaction relationships configuration to sustain good performance of the system; (3) Fit of dynamic: adjusting and optimizing the configuration when new changes or disturbances occurred; (4) Fit of scale: the rational configuration of the structure-function effect relationship between different scales. Coupled human-land systems researches are aiming at the aspects of quantity, order, time, and space to propose ways to regulate and control the structure of the system to achieve sustainable functions, so as to keep fit. In the future, priority can be given to the following three aspects: (1) Developing theories and methods of coupled human-land systems’ structure; (2) Analyzing the changes in the structure of the coupled system and their functional effects; (3) Further identifying and clarifying the approaches to keep fit.

How to cite: Wang, S.: Structure and function of coupled human—natural systems: from fitting to sustainability, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5175, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5175, 2020

D2530 |
EGU2020-13567
Paolo Madonia and Cipriano Di Maggio

Vulcano, the southernmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago, has been characterized by an intense fumarolic activity since its last eruption from La Fossa cone (1888-1890). This island has a strong touristic vocation and frequentation, and here volcano-hydrothermal activity represents, at the same time, a landmark, one of the main causes of hydrogeological instability and a severe risk for human health. The space-time dynamic of this complex system is controlled by the mutual interactions among micro-meteorological, volcanic, tectonic, morphogenetic and anthropic processes.

La Fossa cone is affected by intense water erosion phenomena, also controlled by fumarolic activity as an obstacle for the growth of vegetation and a weathering factor. Man-made structures, with particular reference to deep modifications in the natural stream network induced by buildings and roads, exert a strong influence on these erosion processes, also fostered by episodic wildfires.

Another relevant theme is the acceleration of the coastal erosion processes in the Baia di levante area, driven by the circulation of chemically-aggressive hydrothermal fluids, which transforms the pristine volcanic minerals into phases like gypsum, anhydrite and clay minerals, significantly reducing the mechanical resistance of the rocks to the action of wave erosion. A general retreatment of the coastline (several meters in some locations) has been observed in the last twenty years, caused by the combined effect of volcanic activity, anthropic modifications and changes in sea level.

How to cite: Madonia, P. and Di Maggio, C.: Erosional processes in the natural-anthropic geosystem of Vulcano Island (Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13567, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13567, 2020

D2531 |
EGU2020-1426
Aleksey Sidorchuk and Andrei Entin

Risk of damage of buildings and infrastructure by gully erosion can be estimated on the net of flowlines or by evaluation of depths of gullies with erosion model, or by calculation of some simplified measures of erosion rate, which are correlated with such calculated gullies depths and/or with the measurements of gully erosion. The most exact approach is based on calculation of the transformation of longitudinal profiles of linear erosion features along all flowlines on DEM with GULTEM model. The model includes calculation of gully erosion and thermoerosion, gully bank widening and collapsing. This requires detailed meteorological, hydrological, morphological and lithological information and includes model calibration on the measurement data. The simplified methods are based on the calculation of critical runoff depth at which linear erosion of the soil begins for each point on the catchment. The total sediment yield at each point by all flows above critical or difference between the maximum runoff depth and its critical value is calculated within such approach. This requires much less hydrological, morphological and lithological information, but takes into account only initial conditions on the catchment. Calculations of the risk of gully erosion were performed on the net of flowlines for the gas fields on the Yamal Peninsula with existing and designed structures and buildings. Comparison of the results of evaluating the gully erosion potential by the simplified methods with the data of calculations of gully erosion using the detailed dynamic model and field measurements showed their satisfactory agreement. This confirms the possibility of using express-methods for a quick assessment of the scope of using territories for development with the following detailed calculations with the use of GULTEM on certain areas of construction for evaluation of the risks of landscape and infrastructure disturbance.

Funding: This research was funded by RFBR grant 18-05-60147 "Extreme hydrometeorological phenomena in the Kara Sea and the Arctic coast".

 

How to cite: Sidorchuk, A. and Entin, A.: Risk of gully erosion: methods and examples of estimates, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1426, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1426, 2019

D2532 |
EGU2020-22485
Jeong Ah Um, Sungsu Lee, and Hee Jung Ham

In order to predict the loss and the damage from the hazards such as debris flow resulted from dam failures, three important factors must be taken into account; the strength of hazard, the inventory and the vulnerability of the inventory to the hazard. In the case of the debris flow, the flow speed, the inundation boundary and depth, and the flow force can be the hazard. The inventory corresponds to the list of assets and demographic distribution while the vulnerability is the probability of the damage of each inventory by the specified hazard. In this study, the hazard is assessed from 3D numerical simulation of the debris flow incurred by the dam failure. Since the detail description and modeling of the inventory is nearly impossible, the present study utilized GIS-based regional assessment of the vulnerability combined with the inventory, in which the distribution of the inventory represents the exposure and the performance of the inventory such as age of building represents the sensitivity. As an example, building vulnerability index is measured by combining weighted five proxy variables; density of hazard exposed area of building, building importance level, type of building structural material, status of building structural design, and deterioration level of building. The selected proxy variables are evaluated with predefined scoring criteria and nondimensionalized based on a standardization method. The resulting vulnerability is normalized for the relative assessment with the region of interests. The computed strength of the hazard is then convoluted with the normalized vulnerability and the results show the risk of the region. This research was supported by a grant (2018-MOIS31-009) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety(MOIS).

How to cite: Um, J. A., Lee, S., and Ham, H. J.: Quantification of Regional Risk from Failure of Earth Dam, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22485, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22485, 2020

D2533 |
EGU2020-22490
Sungsu Lee, Joo Yong Lee, and Selugi Lee

More than 70% of domestic reservoirs in Korea are earth dams that are more than 50 years old, and until recently, large and small reservoirs have repeatedly collapsed and resulted in damages. However, most of the domestic and foreign techniques of reservoir collapse simulation, which are used as the techniques for damage prediction, are not only based on two-dimensional flow analysis, but are also performed by ignoring the dam collapse process. The dimensional flow, of course, has limitations that do not reflect the effect of the soil mass at the beginning of the collapse. To compensate for the limitations, we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate the collapses of reservoir collapses with three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and assumed the multiphase flow technique of soils as three phases of soil, suspension, and air. . In addition, the Herschel-Bulkely fluid was modified to take into account the water content and concentration of the soil, and the coulomb-viscoplastic fluid was introduced to simulate the nonlinear viscosity of the initial soil breakdown by considering the interaction inside the soil. Using 3D simulation techniques, 3D simulation was performed on the assumption of total collapse and partial collapse of the mountain reservoir collapse in 2013. Prediction and comparison of inundation ranges were made and comparison with the inundation area created through previous studies. This research was supported by a grant (2018-MOIS31-009) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety(MOIS).

How to cite: Lee, S., Lee, J. Y., and Lee, S.: Numerical Simulation of Debris Flow incurred by Earth Dam Collapse, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22490, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22490, 2020