Rocky planets around the Sun and other stars – bulk, interiors, atmospheres, and their interdependent evolution
Rocky planets are complex systems. Their evolution is dependent on a wide array of different mechanisms and how they interact together. Interactions between the interior and atmosphere of rocky planets are modulated by the planets’ bulk composition, which in turn is linked to the chemical properties of their host stars. The coupling between different layers of terrestrial planets and feedback processes are important to understand the interdependent evolution of bulk, interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres. How diverse is the physical and chemical parameter space of rocky planets within and beyond our Solar System? What constraints can be placed on the range of possible compositions of terrestrial exoplanets? How do surface-interior interactions shape atmospheric properties of rocky planets in general? How do changes in surface temperature affect surface alteration processes as well as volatile exchanges?
We welcome contributions focused on a single terrestrial body as well as from comparative planetology. Both exoplanets and solar system bodies are covered. This session will bring together scientists from a wide range of domains – geodynamics, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, as well as astrophysics – to examine physical and chemical links between stars and planets and between interiors and atmospheres, as well as their interdependent evolution and implications for exoplanet biosignatures.
Atmospheres and exospheres of terrestrial planets, satellites, and exoplanets
This session primarily focuses on the neutral atmospheres of terrestrial bodies other than the Earth. This includes not only Venus and Mars, but also exoplanets with comparable envelopes and satellites carrying dense atmospheres such as Titan or exospheres such as Ganymede. We welcome contributions dealing with processes affecting the atmospheres of these bodies, from the surface to the exosphere. We invite abstracts concerning observations, both from Earth or from space, modeling and theoretical studies, or laboratory work. Comparative planetology abstracts will be particularly appreciated.
PS3 – The rocky side of terrestrial planets, small bodies and dust
Small Bodies and Dust — Open Session
The scope of this session covers all aspects of dwarf planets and small solar system objects, including comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and dust. Topics are not limited to but include dynamics, evolution, physical properties, and interactions. The presenters are invited to highlight results obtained from space missions, observations, laboratory studies, theory, and numerical simulations. This session also provides a forum for presenting future space instrumentation. We encourage presenting the research results taking into account the multi-disciplinarity of the field.
The Mars Science and Exploration Session will address the latest results from past/current missions as well as results obtained from ground-based measurements, terrestrial analog studies, laboratory experiments and modelling as well as future exploration and prospects.
In this session, we welcome contributions on scientific investigations as well as theoretical models concerning the deep interior and subsurface structure and composition; the surface morphology and composition; the atmospheric composition, dynamics and climate; the ionospheric environment and its interaction with the solar wind; astrobiology and habitability of Mars.
We invite also contributions on martian meteorites. All petrological, geochemical and isotopic studies unraveling composition and structure of martian crust, igneous processes and fluid/rock interaction record are welcome.
Remarkable advancements have been achieved in recent years using orbital and surface instruments on planetary bodies. Spectrometers have visited several planets and small bodies throughout the solar system, covering a large spectral domain. In combination with surface imagery, spectroscopy proved to be very powerful to understand the geologic history of those bodies. This session aims to foster discussion of the latest techniques and discoveries on the surface composition and processes of planetary bodies for recent and upcoming missions.
Causes of dynamic, tectonic, and compositional transitions in the Earth and rocky planets
The present state of Earth and other rocky planets are an expression of dynamical and chemical processes occurring throughout their history. Plate tectonics is one of several planetary heat and mass transport regimes, and transitions into and out of this regime cannot be understood by looking at a single example. The rock-record, through geochemistry and magnetism, is used to interrogate changes in the tectono-thermal regime of Earth’s interior through time, while seismic imaging and gravity data, for instance, provide a snapshot of processes occurring in the contemporary mantle, crust and core. These classes of observations may be linked through geodynamic models, whose accuracy is underpinned by the physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) of its constituent phases (minerals, melts and fluids). Information on the fundamental thermodynamic and physical behaviour of phases is subject to constant advance via experimental and ab-initio techniques.
This session aims to provide a holistic view of the dynamics, structure and composition of Earth, from core to atmosphere, and their evolution through time. We welcome contributions that address questions surrounding Earth’s major geological transformations and initial conditions that include, but are not limited to, study of the Hadean/Archean to better understand plate tectonic behaviour and transitions, magma ocean dynamics, oxidation of planetary interiors/atmospheres and the habitability of silicate worlds. Studies using a multidisciplinary approach are particularly encouraged.
Melts and volatiles in Earth and planetary interiors: from atmosphere to core, from global cycles to the micro-scale, from transport dynamics to storage to geophysical detection
The global-scale cycling of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur etc. controls the mass, composition and state of the outermost volatile layer of terrestrial planets over time, thereby controlling their habitability. These planetary volatile cycles involve the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust, mantle and perhaps even core. On geological timescales, they are controlled by plate tectonics and mantle convection, but also by magmatism. Indeed, mantle melting is a key process that partitions (volatile) elements between the various planetary reservoirs. On Earth, for instance, ingassing and outgassing mainly occur at subduction zones, and major sites of volcanism (i.e., mid-ocean ridges and hotspots), respectively. Indeed, major volatile cycles are balanced to first order through ingassing and outgassing, particularly on plate-tectonic planets such as Earth. In planetary interiors, volatiles are partitioned into the existing minerals, or stabilize minor phases such as diamond or various hydrous phases in the mantle and crust, something that directly influences the spatial distribution of melt formation. Conversely, melt transport induces volatile exchanges between planetary reservoirs and favors outgassing. Understanding the complex dynamics (e.g., multi-phase flow) of melt/fluid segregation or accumulation is thus crucial for understanding global-scale volatile/material cycling. Further, melt retention as well as volatile content and speciation strongly and non-linearly affect rock properties such as viscosity, modal mineralogy, melting behavior, oxidation state, seismic velocity and attenuation, electrical conductivity and density.
In this session, we invite contributions from researchers in all disciplines of the Earth and Planetary Sciences that study volatile cycling and reservoir exchanges through fluid/melt percolation as well as magmatism from regional to global scales, and from short to long timescales. We also invite contributions such as, e.g., on the effects of volatiles on material properties, melt stabilization and planetary surface conditions, related observations or processes. Experimental, observational, modeling, and truly integrated multidisciplinary studies are highly welcome.
PS4 – Core dynamics, magnetic fields and solar wind interaction
Space environments of unmagnetized or weakly magnetized solar system bodies and the effects of space weather on these systems
The ionospheres and (induced) magnetospheres of unmagnetized and weakly magnetized bodies with substantial atmospheres (e.g. Mars, Venus, Titan, Pluto and comets) are subject to disturbances due to solar activity, interplanetary conditions (e.g. solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles) or for moons parent magnetospheric activity. They interact similarly as their magnetized counterparts but with scientifically important differences.
As an integral part of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres are tightly coupled with the neutral atmosphere, exosphere and surrounding plasma environment, possessing rich compositional, density, and temperature structures. The interaction among neutral and charged components affects atmospheric loss, neutral winds, photochemistry, and energy balance within ionospheres.
This session invites abstracts concerning remote and in-situ data analysis, modelling studies, comparative studies, instrumentation and mission concepts for unmagnetized and weakly magnetized solar system bodies.
The session solicits contributions that report on nonthermal solar and planetary radio emissions. Coordinated multi-point observations from ground radio telescopes (e.g., LOFAR, LOIS, LWA1, URAN-2, UTR-2) and spacecraft plasma/wave experiments (e.g., Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Galileo, Juno, Stereo, Ulysses and Wind) are especially encouraged. Presentations should focus on radiophysics techniques used and developed to investigate the remote magnetic field and the electron density in solar system regions, like the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and the magnetized auroral regions. Interest also extends to laboratory and experimental studies devoted to the comprehension of the generation mechanisms (e.g., cyclotron maser instability) and the acceleration processes (e.g., Alfven waves). Further preparations, evaluations, investigations, analyses of forthcoming space missions (like BepiColombo, Juice, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe, SunRISE, Taranis) are also welcome.
Originally the term ‘space weather’ referred to the way in which “the variable conditions on the Sun can influence, throughout space and in the Earth’s magnetic field and upper atmosphere, the performance of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and endanger human life or health”(1). In the last years it has been extended to all the objects of the Solar Systems, becoming “Planetary Space Weather”.
The different aspects of the interactions induced by the Sun with the many objects of the Solar System should be studied in comparison with the Earth case, to help understanding the processes involved. In fact, possible comparative studies have already proven to be a powerful tool in understanding the different effects and interactions of space weather occurring around all the bodies of the Solar System.
In the present session, we welcome abstracts from all planets’ upstream solar wind activities and their relation to planetary space weather, including especially magnetized bodies (like Mercury, the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter) as well as comparisons with unmagnetized bodies (Mars and Venus).
Since in these years many operative missions have among their science goals the planetary space weather, such as BepiColombo that will have soon two Venus Flybys and then six Mercury flybys, or Solar Orbiter that will have diverse Venus flybys as well, special focus of this session will be on Venus and Mercury and on the possible studies related to multi spacecraft observations.
In this frame, we welcome studies on:
• magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling dynamics (and auroras where present);
• the solar wind interaction with planets and moons
• inter-comparisons of planetary environments;
• observations of space weather effects from space probes and Earth-based instrumentation;
• theoretical modeling and simulations, especially in view of measurement analysis and interpretation;
• potential impacts of space weathering on technological space systems.
Machine Learning in Planetary Sciences and Heliophysics
The increasing amount of data from an increasing number of spacecraft in our solar system shouts out for new data analysis strategies. There is a need for frameworks that can rapidly and intelligently extract information from these data sets in a manner useful for scientific analysis. The community is starting to respond to this need. Machine learning, with all of its different facets, provides a viable playground for tackling a wide range of research questions. Algorithms to automatically detect and classify special features in time series data of the solar wind or in 2D images of planetary surfaces are examples of where machine learning approaches can support and improve existing models. Further, modern learning methods can encode properties of interest in lower dimensional space, and thus making them more searchable.
We encourage submissions dealing with machine learning approaches of all levels in planetary sciences and heliophysics. The aim of this session is to provide an overview of the current efforts to integrate machine learning technologies into data driven space research, to highlight state-of-the art developments and to generate a wider discussion on further possible applications of machine learning.
Cosmic rays across scales and disciplines: the new frontier in environmental research
Cosmic rays carry information about space and solar activity, and, once near the Earth, they produce isotopes, influence genetic information, and are extraordinarily sensitive to water. Given the vast spectrum of interactions of cosmic rays with matter in different parts of the Earth and other planets, cosmic-ray research ranges from studies of the solar system to the history of the Earth, and from health and security issues to hydrology and climate change.
Although research on cosmic-ray particles is connected to a variety of disciplines and applications, they all share similar questions and problems regarding the physics of detection, modeling, and the influence of environmental factors.
The session brings together scientists from all fields of research that are related to monitoring and modeling of cosmogenic radiation. It will allow sharing of expertise amongst international researchers as well as showcase recent advancements in their field. The session aims to stimulate discussions about how individual disciplines can share their knowledge and benefit from each other.
We solicit contributions related but not limited to:
- Health, security, and radiation protection: cosmic-ray dosimetry on Earth and its dependence on environmental and atmospheric factors
- Planetary space science: satellite and ground-based neutron and gamma-ray sensors to detect water and soil constituents
- Neutron monitor research: detection of high-energy cosmic-ray variations and its dependence on local, atmospheric, and magnetospheric factors
- Hydrology and climate change: low-energy neutron sensing to measure water in reservoirs at and near the land surface, such as soils, snow pack, and vegetation
- Cosmogenic nuclides: as tracers of atmospheric circulation and mixing; as a tool in archaeology or glaciology for dating of ice and measuring ablation rates; and as a tool for surface exposure dating and measuring rates of surficial geological processes
- Detector design: technological advancements for the detection of cosmic rays
- Cosmic-ray modeling: advances in modeling of the cosmic-ray propagation through the magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their response to the Earth's surface
- Impact modeling: How can cosmic-ray monitoring support environmental models, weather and climate forecasting, irrigation management, and the assessment of natural hazards
PS5 – The Giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
Ice Giant System Exploration
This session welcomes papers addressing the exploration of the ice giant systems, including the composition, structure, and processes of ice giant atmospheres, internal structure, and ice giant systems including magnetospheres, satellites, and rings. Potential concepts for future ice giant system exploration, instrumentation, mission concepts, technology developments, and international cooperation are also topics of high interest. We especially would like to encourage authors of Decadal Survey White Papers focused on ice giant system science, exploration, mission concepts, and instruments and instrument technologies to contribute to this session.
The Juno and Cassini missions investigated Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Juno is on-going and continues to obtain data from its polar orbit with the goal of understanding Jupiter's origin and evolution by investigating the interior, atmosphere and magnetosphere. As the largest and most massive planets in our solar system, Jupiter and Saturn offer unique insight in the history of our solar system and how planetary systems in general form and evolve. Juno has provided new observations of the global atmospheric structure and composition, storm and lightning distribution and cloud morphology and dynamics. Our view and understanding of Jupiter¹s and Saturn¹s auroras and magnetosphere are ever-changing as we explore these regions in situ with coordinated efforts from Earth-based observatories such as Hubble, Hisaki, Keck, etc. Constraining the present-day interior structure and dynamics of giant planets is critical to understanding the formation and evolution of planets in our Solar System and beyond. Both the Juno and Cassini have provided a wealth of new measurements, revealing key aspects of the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn for the first time. This session will bring together both observations and theoretical interpretations to improve our understanding of giant planets interiors, atmospheres and magnetospheres. We welcome submissions on wide range of topics, including: gravity science; strong differential rotation (zonal flows); properties of intrinsic (dynamo) magnetic fields; the existence and properties of the central core; bulk composition (including helium and heavy element abundance); as well as formation scenarios and evolutionary pathways. This session includes results from atmospheric and magnetospheric observations (Juno, Cassini and Earth-based) as well as theoretical modeling of atmospheric structure, composition, dynamics, planetary aurorae, magnetospheric dynamics and processes and comparative planetology.
Cartography and mapping are at this time the only means to conduct basic geoscientific studies (on planetary surfaces). The field of Planetary Cartography and Mapping has been stepping out of its niche existence in the last 15 years due to the availability of an unprecedented amount of new data from various planetary exploration missions from different countries and the advent of internet technology that allows to manage, process, distribute, analyze, and collaborate efficiently. Geospatial information system technology plays a pivotal role in this process and essentially all planetary surface science research in this field benefits from this technology and frequent new developments.
With the availability of data and connection, however, comes the challenge of organizing and structuring available data and research, such as maps and newly derived and refined (base) data that is about to enter its new research life cycle.
This session welcomes presentations covering planetary data and its development into cartographic products and maps. This covers aspects of data archival, dissemination, structuring, analyzing, filtering, visualizing, collaboration, and map compilation but is not limited to these topics.
It should also be emphasized that the exchange of knowledge and experiences from the Earth Sciences would be highly beneficial for the Planetary Data Sciences.
Various space agencies around the world, the scientific community, and industrial partners are currently making advancements with a number of anticipated missions to the Moon, Mars, and other Solar System bodies. Each mission has a unique set of goals that calls for strategically selected instruments accommodating a diverse set of platforms, such as but not limited to, rovers, orbiters, and human explorers. This session invites presentations on a broad topic of future planetary missions and instruments, including those already in development. Our aim is to share latest progress, discuss preflight scientific results, and increase awareness for potential cooperation.
Open session on planetary and space instrumentation
This session aims to inform the geoscientists and engineers regarding new and/or improved instrumentation and methods for space and planetary exploration, as well as about their novel or established applications.
The session is open to all branches of planetary and space measurement tools and techniques, including, but not limited to: optical, electromagnetic, seismic, acoustic, particles, and gravity.
Please, kindly take contact with the conveners if you have a topic that may be suitable for a review talk.
This session is also intended as an open forum, where discussion between representatives of different fields within planetary, space and geosciences will be strongly encouraged, looking for a fruitful mutual exchange and cross fertilization between scientific areas.
Analogue research and data analysis supporting and preparing lunar and planetary space missions
Analogue planetary research (APR) describes the development and testing of space exploration strategies including scientific, technical, operational, social and medical aspects in terrestrial environments under simulated space or planetary conditions [Hettrich S. et al. (2015), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15982-9_34]. As such, APR can be performed in analogue planetary simulation, for example Lunar or Martian analogue missions, where future crewed or robotic space exploration missions are simulated and evaluated towards their performance.
With increasing popularity of analogue planetary simulations as test-beds to develop and test technologies, techniques and operational procedures for planetary missions in facilities such as HiSeas, MDRS, LunAres or similar facilities, this session invites contributions in the field of analogue planetary research including, but not limited to:
- data analysis about sites for future exploration
- results and lessons-learned from Lunar / Martian analogue missions
- field tests for space exploration hardware, software and techniques
- scientific contributions through analogue research
- geological field work during planetary simulations
- future analogue mission concepts
- transferring APR results into actual space exploration missions
Planetary Geomorphology aims to bring together geomorphologists who study the Earth with those who work on other bodies such as Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, icy satellites of the outer solar system, comets, and/or asteroids. Studies applicable to landscapes on any scale on any solid body are welcome. We particularly encourage those who use Earth analogues or laboratory/numerical simulation to submit their work. Considered processes could include aeolian, volcanic, tectonic, fluvial, glacial, periglacial, or "undetermined" ones. We especially welcome contributions from early-career scientists and geomorphologists who are new to planetary science.
Advances in geomorphometry and landform mapping: possibilities, challenges and perspectives
Geomorphometry and geomorphological mapping are important tools used for understanding landscape processes and dynamics on Earth and other planetary bodies. The recent rapid advances in technology and data collection methods has made available vast quantities of geospatial data for such morphometric analysis and mapping, with the geospatial data offering unprecedented spatio-temporal range, density, and resolution, but it also created new challenges in terms of data processing and analysis.
This inter-disciplinary session on geomorphometry and landform mapping aims to bridge the gap between process-focused research fields and the technical domain where geospatial products and analytical methods are developed. The increasing availability of a wide range of geospatial datasets requires the continued development of new tools and analytical approaches as well as landform/landscape classifications. However, a potential lack of communication across disciplines results in efforts to be mainly focused on problems within individual fields. We aim to foster collaboration and the sharing of ideas across subject-boundaries, between technique developers and users, enabling us as a community to fully exploit the wealth of geospatial data that is now available.
We welcome perspectives on geomorphometry and landform mapping from ANY discipline (e.g. geomorphology, planetary science, natural hazard assessment, computer science, remote sensing). This session aims to showcase both technical and applied studies, and we welcome contributions that present (a) new techniques for collecting or deriving geospatial data products, (b) novel tools for analysing geospatial data and extracting innovative geomorphometric variables, (c) mapping and/or morphometric analysis of specific landforms as well as whole landscapes, and (d) mapping and/or morphometric analysis of newly available geospatial datasets. Contributions that demonstrate multi-method or inter-disciplinary approaches are particularly encouraged. We also actively encourage contributors to present tools/methods that are “in development”.
Planetary core structure, dynamics and evolution: observations, models, experiments
Our understanding of the iron cores in Earth and other bodies is progressing rapidly thanks to cross-fertilization between a number of observational, theoretical and experimental disciplines.
Improved seismic observations continue to provide better images and prompt refinements in structural and geodynamic models. Mineral physics provides constraints for dynamic, structural, and thermodynamic models. Improved constraints on the core heat budget, paleomagnetic observations of long-term magnetic field variations, and high-resolution numerical simulations promote the exploration of new dynamo mechanisms. Geomagnetic observations from both ground and satellite, along with magneto-hydrodynamic experiments, provide additional insight to our ever expanding view of planetary cores.
This session welcomes contributions from all disciplines, as well as interdisciplinary efforts, on attempts to proceed towards an integrated, self-consistent picture of planetary core structure, dynamics and history, and to understand their overwhelming complexity.
Dear all, we intend to use the EGU plattform for the 2 min presentations at least. Then depending on the server load we may continue with their breakout rooms system.
In case the server breakdown, we have setup our own Zoom session with breakout rooms, it will be open 15 mins before the session.
Advances in theoretical seismology and computational inverse problems
Innovative forward and inverse modeling techniques, advances in numerical solvers and the ever-increasing power of high-performance compute clusters have driven recent developments in inverting seismic and other geophysical data to reveal properties of the Earth at all scales.
This session provides a forum to present, discuss and learn the state-of-the-art as well as future directions in seismic tomography, computational inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification.
We welcome contributions focusing on, but not limited to:
- innovative modeling techniques and advancements in numerical solvers,
- seismic tomography and full-waveform inversion from local to global scales,
- multi-scale, multi-parameter and joint inversions of Earth structure and sources,
- statistical inverse problems and uncertainty quantification,
- homogenization and effective medium theory,
- machine learning algorithms for seismic problems,
- big data (seismic & computational) problems on emerging HPC architectures.
Sensing ground translation, rotation, and strain - instrumentation, theory and applications
New developments in translation, rotation and strain sensing (such as fibre-optic gyroscopes and fiber-optic cables) enable the complete observation of seismic ground motion and deformation. Applications are manifold, ranging from the reduction of non-uniqueness in seismic inverse problems over the correction of tilt effects to the characterization, separation and reconstruction of the seismic wavefield.
Instrumental developments in ground-motion sensing overlap with considerable improvements in optical and atom interferometry for inertial rotation and gravity sensing which has led to a variety of improved sensor concepts over the last two decades.
We invite all contributions on theoretical advances to the seismic wavefield gradient analysis, on novel measurement techniques, and on all aspects of applications in seismology, geodesy, planetary exploration, gravitational wave detection and fundamental physics.
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