Programme group scientific officer:
Faults and fractures in geoenergy applications 1: Monitoring, laboratory and field work results
Faults and fracture zones are fundamental features of geological reservoirs that control the physical properties of the rock. As such, understanding their role in in-situ fluid behaviour and fluid-rock interactions can generate considerable advantages during exploration and management of reservoirs and repositories.
Physical properties such as frictional strength, cohesion and permeability of the rock impact deformation processes, rock failure and fault/fracture (re-)activation. Faults and fractures create fluid pathways for fluid flow and allow for increased fluid-rock interaction.
The presence of fluids circulating within a fault or fracture network can expose the host rocks to significant alterations of the mechanical and transport properties. This in turn can either increase or decrease the transmissibility of a fracture network, which has implications on the viability and suitability of subsurface energy and storage projects. Thus, it is important to understand how fluid-rock interactions within faults and fractures may alter the physical properties of the system during the operation of such projects. This is of particular interest in the case of faults as the injection/ remobilisation of fluids may affect fault/fracture stability, and therefore increase the risk of induced seismicity and leakage.
Fieldwork observations, monitoring and laboratory measurements foster fundamental understanding of relevant properties, parameters and processes, which provide important inputs to numerical models (see session “Faults and fractures in geoenergy applications 1: Numerical modelling and simulation”) in order to simulate processes or upscale to the reservoir scale. A predictive knowledge of fault zone structures and transmissibility can have an enormous impact on the viability of geothermal, carbon capture, energy and waste storage projects.
We encourage researchers on applied or interdisciplinary energy studies associated with low carbon technologies to come forward for this session. We look forward to interdisciplinary studies which use a combination of methods to analyse rock deformation processes and the role of faults and fractures in subsurface energy systems, including but not restricted to outcrop studies, monitoring studies, subsurface data analysis and laboratory measurements. We are also interested in research across several different scales and addressing the knowledge gap between laboratory scale measurements and reservoir scale processes.
Advances in Numerical Modelling of Geological Processes: Methods and Applications
Geological and geophysical data sets are in essence the result of physical processes governing the Earth’s evolution. Such data sets are widely varied and range from the internal structure of the Earth, plate kinematics, composition of geomaterials, estimation of physical conditions, dating of key geological events, thermal state of the Earth to more shallow processes such as natural and “engineered” reservoir dynamics and waste sequestration in the subsurface.
Combining such data with process-based numerical models is required for our understanding of the dynamical Earth. Process-based models are powerful tools to predict the evolution of complex natural systems resolving the feedback among various physical processes. Integrating high-quality data into numerical simulations leads to a constructive workflow to further constrain the key parameters within the models. Innovative inversion strategies, linking forward dynamic models with observables, is therefore an important research topic that will improve our knowledge of the governing physical parameters.
The complexity of geological systems arises from their multi-physics nature, as they combine hydrological, thermal, chemical and mechanical processes (e.g. thermo-mechanical convection). Multi-physics couplings are prone to nonlinear interactions ultimately leading to spontaneous localisation of flow and deformation. Understanding the couplings among those processes therefore requires the development of appropriate tools to capture spontaneous localisation and represents a challenging though essential research direction.
We invite contributions from the following two complementary themes:
1. Computational advances associated with
- alternative spatial and/or temporal discretisation for existing forward/inverse models
- scalable HPC implementations of new and existing methodologies (GPUs / multi-core)
- solver and preconditioner developments
- AI / Machine learning-based approaches
- code and methodology comparisons (“benchmarks”)
- open source implementations for the community
2. Physics advances associated with
- development of partial differential equations to describe geological processes
- inversion strategies and adjoint-based modelling
- numerical model validation through comparison with observables (data)
- scientific discovery enabled by 2D and 3D modelling
- utilisation of coupled models to explore nonlinear interactions
Anisotropy from crust to core: Observations, models and implications
Many regions of the Earth, from crust to core, exhibit anisotropic fabrics which can reveal much about geodynamic processes in the subsurface. These fabrics can exist at a variety of scales, from crystallographic orientations to regional structure alignments. In the past few decades, a tremendous body of multidisciplinary research has been dedicated to characterizing anisotropy in the solid Earth and understanding its geodynamical implications. This has included work in fields such as: (1) geophysics, to make in situ observations and construct models of anisotropic properties at a range of depths; (2) mineral physics, to explain the cause of some of these observations; and (3) numerical modelling, to relate the inferred fabrics to regional stress and flow regimes and, thus, geodynamic processes in the Earth. The study of anisotropy in the Solid Earth encompasses topics so diverse that it often appears fragmented according to regions of interest, e.g., the upper or lower crust, oceanic lithosphere, continental lithosphere, cratons, subduction zones, D'', or the inner core. The aim of this session is to bring together scientists working on different aspects of anisotropy to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. We encourage contributions from all disciplines of the earth sciences (including mineral physics, seismology, magnetotellurics, geodynamic modelling) focused on anisotropy at all scales and depths within the Earth.
Geomechanics – From field data to models and uncertainties
Geomechanics has been demonstrated over the past 30 years as having key importance for the safe and sustainable usage of underground environments. In particular, knowledge of geomechanics is critical for exploration and production of geothermal energy, groundwater, hydrocarbon, and mineral resources. Geomechanics play the central role in any underground storage (such as natural gas, CO2 and H2) and disposal of nuclear or toxic waste. The main goal of this session is therefore to bring together researchers from various engineering and geo-disciplines to share their knowledge in recent advancements in experimental, numerical, theoretical and field application of geomechanics. A particular focus is on the large uncertainties that are often associated with geomechanical measurements or models. In addition to abstracts that exclusively aim at uncertainty quantification and/or reduction at least a discussion of uncertainties is encouraged in every abstract.
Current and past stress in the crust: quantitative techniques, case studies and rheological implications ?
Understanding the current and past state of stress is key to comprehend the rheological behavior of the crust, with numerous implications spanning from geodynamics to microstructure developments, and applications spanning from seismogenesis to resource distribution. The current state of stress is mainly assessed on seismic focal mechanisms, fault monitoring and slip inversion, borehole failure and imaging, and methods such as hydraulic fracturing to determine the magnitude of the applied stress. Paleopiezometry techniques rely on experimental and/or analytical approaches that link a finite deformation to an applied stress magnitude. Such technique allows to reconstruct past stress magnitude, orientation and regime on long time-scales. This session aims at picturing the state-of-the-art of the stress determination in the crust, whether it is the current stress or the past stress. We welcome any contribution that reconstructs regional state of stress in the crust by the mean of current measurement or paleopiezometry techniques, and that uses experimental or analytical/numerical approaches to predict stress distribution in rocks.
From Earth and Planetary Interiors to Atmospheres: Minerals, Melts and Volatiles Across Disciplines
Processes controlling the global cycles of volatiles (e.g., C, H, O, S) across reservoirs regulate planetary climate and habitability. Their cycling pathways and efficiency are dependent on numerous factors including the presence of liquid water and the tectonic mode; and involves the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust, mantle and even the core.
On Earth, major volatile cycles are balanced to first order through ingassing and outgassing, mainly occurring at subduction zones, and major sites of volcanism (i.e., mid-ocean ridges and hotspots), respectively. In planetary interiors, volatiles are partitioned into the existing minerals, or stabilize minor phases such as diamond or various hydrous phases in the mantle and crust, something that directly influences the spatial distribution of melt formation as well as rock properties. Conversely, melt transport induces volatile exchanges between planetary reservoirs and favours outgassing. Outgassing, in turn, will regulate planetary climates, hence influencing the habitability.
The aim of this session is to bring together numerical, experimental and observational expertise from Earth and Planetary Sciences to advance the understanding of interior-atmosphere coupling and volatile exchange and evolution on Earth and terrestrial (exo)planets, as well as the role of those volatiles on the interior composition and dynamics. This session features contributions on topics including volatile cycling, melt and volatile transport, mineral-melt phase relations, geophysical detections, tectonic regimes, outgassing, atmospheric composition and planetary habitability.
Short-term Earthquakes Forecast (StEF) and multi-parametric time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH)
From the real-time integration of multi-parametric observations is expected the major contribution to the development of operational t-DASH systems suitable for supporting decision makers with continuously updated seismic hazard scenarios. A very preliminary step in this direction is the identification of those parameters (seismological, chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose space-time dynamics and/or anomalous variability can be, to some extent, associated with the complex process of preparation of major earthquakes.
This session wants then to encourage studies devoted to demonstrate the added value of the introduction of specific, observations and/or data analysis methods within the t-DASH and StEF perspectives. Therefore, studies based on long-term data analyses, including different conditions of seismic activity, are particularly encouraged. Similarly welcome will be the presentation of infrastructures devoted to maintain and further develop our present observational capabilities of earthquake related phenomena also contributing in this way to build a global multi-parametric Earthquakes Observing System (EQuOS) to complement the existing GEOSS initiative.
To this aim this session is not addressed just to seismology and natural hazards scientists but also to geologist, atmospheric sciences and electromagnetism researchers, whose collaboration is particular important for fully understand mechanisms of earthquake preparation and their possible relation with other measurable quantities. For this reason, all contributions devoted to the description of genetic models of earthquake’s precursory phenomena are equally welcome.
Fri, 27 May, 08:30–11:47 (CEST), 13:20–14:05 (CEST)
Rockfalls, rockslides and rock avalanches
Rockfalls, rockslides and rock avalanches are among the primary hazards and drivers of landscape evolution in steep terrain. The physics of rock slope degradation and dynamics of failure and transport mechanisms define the hazards and possible mitigation strategies and enable retrodictions and predictions of events and controls.
This session aims to bring together state-of-the-art methods for predicting, assessing, quantifying, and protecting against rock slope hazards across spatial and temporal scales. We seek innovative contributions from investigators dealing with all stages of rock slope hazards, from weathering and/or damage accumulation, through detachment, transport and deposition, and finally to the development of protection and mitigation measures. In particular, we seek studies presenting new theoretical, numerical or probabilistic modelling approaches, novel data sets derived from laboratory, in situ, or remote sensing applications, and state-of-the-art approaches to social, structural, or natural protection measures. We especially encourage contributions from geomechanics/rock physics, geodynamics, geomorphology and tectonics to better understand how rockfall, rockslides and rock avalanches act across scales.
Mon, 23 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–14:50 (CEST)
Induced/triggered seismicity in geo-energy applications: monitoring, modeling, mitigation, and forecasting
Numerous cases of induced/triggered seismicity associated with anthropogenic activity resulting either directly or indirectly from injection/extraction related to geo-resources exploration have been reported in the last decades. Induced earthquakes felt by the general public can often negatively affect public perception of geo-energies and may hinder future geo-energy development. Furthermore, large earthquakes may jeopardize wellbore stability and damage surface infrastructure. Thus, monitoring and modeling processes leading to fault slip, either seismic or aseismic, are critical to developing effective and reliable forecasting methodologies during deep underground exploitation. The complex interaction between injected fluids, subsurface geology, stress interactions, and resulting fault slip requires an interdisciplinary approach to understand the triggering mechanisms and may require taking coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes into account.
In this session, we invite contributions from research aimed at investigating the interaction of the above processes during exploitation of underground resources, including hydrocarbon extraction, wastewater disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, hydraulic fracturing, gas storage and production, mining, and reservoir impoundment for hydro-energy. We particularly encourage novel contributions based on laboratory and underground near-fault experiments, numerical modeling, the spatio-temporal relationship between seismic properties, injection/extraction parameters, and/or geology, and fieldwork. Contributions covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of induced and triggered seismicity at multiple spatial and temporal scales are welcome.
Mon, 23 May, 13:20–14:40 (CEST), 15:10–18:27 (CEST)
Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological media
Geological media are a strategic resource for the forthcoming energy transition and constitute an important ally in the fight to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. Several energy and environmental processes in the subsurface involve multi-physical interactions between the porous and fractured rock, and the fluids filling the voids: changes in pore pressure and temperature, rock deformation and chemical reactions occur simultaneously and impact each other. This characteristic has profound implications on the energy production and the waste storage. Forecasts are bounded to the adequate understanding of field data associated with thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes and predictive capabilities heavily rely on the quality of the integration between the input data (laboratory and field evidence) and the mathematical models describing the evolution of the multi-physical systems. This session is dedicated to studies investigating THMC problems by means of experimental, analytical, numerical, multi-scale, data-driven and artificial intelligence methods, as well as studies focused on laboratory characterization and on gathering and interpreting in-situ geological and geophysical evidence of the multi-physical behavior of rocks. Welcomed contributions include approaches covering applications of carbon capture and storage (CCS), geothermal systems, gas storage, energy storage, mining, reservoir management, reservoir stimulation, fluid injection-induced seismicity and radioactive waste storage.
Multiscale rock damage in geology, geophysics and geo-engineering systems
Rock deformation at different stress levels in the brittle regime and across the brittle-ductile transition is controlled by damage processes occurring on different spatial scales, from grain scale to fractured rock masse. These lead to a progressive increase of micro- and meso-crack intensity in the rock matrix and to the growth of inherited macro-fractures at rock mass scale. Coalescence of these fractures forms large-scale structures such as brittle fault zones and deep-seated rock slide shear zones. Diffuse or localized rock damage have a primary influence on rock properties (strength, elastic moduli, hydraulic and electric properties) and their evolution across multiple temporal scales spanning from geological times to highly dynamic phenomena as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. In subcritical stress conditions, damage accumulation results in brittle creep processes key to the long-term evolution of geophysical, geomorphological and geo-engineering systems.
Damage and progressive failure processes must be considered to understand the time-dependent hydro-mechanical behaviour of faults (e.g. stick-slip vs aseismic creep), volcanic systems and slopes (e.g. slow rock slope deformation vs catastrophic rock slides), as well as the response of rock masses to stress perturbations induced by artificial excavations (tunnels, mines) and static or dynamic loadings. At the same time, damage processes control the brittle behaviour of the upper crust and are strongly influenced by intrinsic rock properties (strength, fabric, porosity, anisotropy), geological structures and their inherited damage, as well as by the evolving pressure-temperature with increasing depth and by fluid pressure, transport properties and chemistry. However, many complex relationships between these factors and rock damage are yet to be understood.
In this session we will bring together researchers from different communities interested in a better understanding of rock damage processes and consequence. We welcome innovative contributions on experimental studies (both in the laboratory and in situ), continuum / micromechanical analytical and numerical modelling, and applications to fault zones, reservoirs, slope instability and landscape evolution, and engineering applications. Studies adopting novel approaches and combined methodologies are particularly welcome.
Petrophysics and rock physics across the scales: integrating models, laboratory experiments and field geophysical studies
Geophysical methods have a great potential for characterizing subsurface properties and processes to inform geological, reservoir, hydrological, and biogeochemical studies. In these contexts, the classically used geophysical tools only provide indirect information about subsurface heterogeneities, reservoir rocks characteristics, and associated processes (e.g. flow, transport, biogeochemical reactions). Petrophysical relationships hence have to be developed to provide links between physical properties (e.g. electrical conductivity, seismic velocity or attenuation) and the intrinsic parameters of interest (e.g. fluid content, hydraulic properties, pressure conditions). In addition, geophysical methods are increasingly deployed as time-lapse, or even continuous, and distributed monitoring tools on more and more complex environments. Here again, there is a great need for accurate and efficient physical relationships such that geophysical data can be correctly interpreted (e.g. included in fully coupled inversions).
Establishing such models requires multidisciplinary approaches since involved theoretical frameworks differ. Each physical property has its intrinsic dependence to pore-scale interfacial, geometrical, and biogeochemical properties or to external condition (such as pressure or temperature). Each associated geophysical method has its specific investigation depth and spatial resolution which adds a significant level of complexity in combining and scaling theoretical developments with laboratory studies/validations and/or with field experiments. Ultimately, as inferred from geophysics, one needs to know the poroelastic properties and effective stress in place at depth.
This session consequently invites contributions from various communities to share their models, their experiments, or their field tests and data in order to discuss about multidisciplinary ways to improve our knowledge on reservoir and near surface environment.
This session provides the opportunity for contributions that fall within the broad spectrum of Rock Physics, but are not directly appropriate to any of the other proposed sessions. We solicit contributions on theory and simulations, instrumentation, laboratory experiments and field measurements, data analysis and interpretation, as well as inversion and modelling techniques.
The interplay between brittle and ductile deformation – the semi-brittle regime from Earth layers and laboratory experiments
This session aims to discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanical, structural, and seismic properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. Earth’s lithosphere is defined by its rheological and mechanical stability. Both shear localization and seismic instabilities are frequently observed through regional seismicity, laboratory experiments, numerical models,, and field observations, e.g., pseudotachylyte-bearing faults. In contrast to the shallow crust, dominated by brittle deformation, localized faulting, and frictional sliding, deformation observed in the mid- to lower- crust and upper mantle often displays localized faulting alongside more distributed flow and evidence for a variable mix of brittle and plastic deformation mechanisms. Because brittle and plastic deformation take place simultaneously over different time scales, the interplay between them is complex, and the resulting semi-brittle deformation style is still poorly understood. However, numerous enigmatic deformation phenomena, including slow-slip and lower crustal earthquakes, coincide with depths that either fall within, or mark the boundaries of, the semi-brittle field -- the brittle to ductile and the ductile to plastic transitions. We encourage geoscientists from across experimental geophysics, structural geology, seismology, and geodynamics with an interest in the interplay between different deformation mechanisms to contribute to this session.
Rock physics modelling and inversion using multiple physical properties
The integrated analysis and inversion of multiple types of geophysical data has become increasingly popular in recent years. This is largely due to its proven ability to reduce uncertainty in subsurface characterisation. These multiphysics studies often analyse seismic and controlled source electromagnetic data simultaneously, but the inclusion of geological, petrological, magnetic, or gravity measurements is also not uncommon.
On the lithospheric scale, multiphysics inversion has applications in estimating the composition of the Earth’s crustal and upper mantle, while on the reservoir scale, its proven and potential applications lie in characterising hydrocarbon, CO2, groundwater and hydrothermal reservoirs. On a more localised scale, its uses range from mineral mapping to geotechnical studies for windfarm development, and on the core scale, cross-property modelling and experimentation is continually advancing our understanding of the relationships linking a rock’s various physical properties as a function of pressure.
This session invites contributions on the topics of multiphysics, joint rock physics and geophysical inversion, and cross-property modelling. Field applications, experimental studies, modelling, and theoretical advances are especially welcome.
Deformation processes from grain- to planetary-scales: experiments, observations, and models
The dynamics and evolution of Earth’s surface and interior are controlled by a spectrum of processes covering a wide range of length (i.e. from kilometers down to a few ångströms) and time scales (i.e. from billions of years down to picoseconds). Microstructures in planetary materials (e.g., fabrics, textures, grain sizes and distributions, shapes, cracks etc) can be used to infer, identify, and quantify metamorphic, magmatic or diagenetic processes. Coupling these microscale processes with larger scale, planetary phenomena (e.g. formation of plate boundaries or mantle convection) remains one of the key challenges in solid Earth geosciences. Fundamentally, processes such as grain size reduction, grain growth, phase changes, and the development of crystallographic preferred orientations modify the rheological properties of rocks and minerals, providing key information on the dynamics of small- to large-scale geodynamic processes. In this session, we invite contributions investigating microstructures and textures in field samples, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling with the aim to constrain deformation processes of Earth’s surface and interior across multiple length scales.
This session includes the TS Division Oustanding ECS Award Lecture
Programme group scientific officer:
Earth's and planetary cores: structure, dynamics, evolution and their magnetic fields from numerical simulations and observations.
Understanding the structures and dynamics of the core of a planet is essential to construct a global geochemical and geodynamical model, it has implication on its thermal, compositional and orbital evolution.
Remote sensing of planets interior from space and ground-based observations is entering a new era with perspectives in constraining their core structures and dynamics. Meanwhile, increasingly accurate seismic and magnetic data provides unprecedented images of the Earth's deep interior. Unraveling planetary cores structures and dynamics requires a synergy between many fields of expertise, such as mineral physics, geochemistry, seismology, fluid mechanics or geomagnetism. In such a cross-disciplinary context, we identify the need to combine observations, e.g. from geo/paleo/rock magnetism, to generate field models and carefully compare their properties with numerical simulations of the dynamo process. This requires community-wide efforts to share data and models in standardized formats, which we aim to address.
This session welcomes contributions from all the disciplines mentioned following theoretical, numerical, observational or experimental approaches, with the aim to proceed towards an integrated, self-consistent picture of planetary core's structure, dynamics, magnetic field and their evolution.
Long term observations are of vital importance in the Earth Sciences, yet often difficult to pursue and fund. The distinction of a fluctuation from a long-term change in Earth processes is a key question to better understand processes within the Earth and in the Earth system. Likewise, it is a prerequisite for the assessment of the Earth's climate change as well as risk assessment. In order to distinguish fluctuations from a steady change, knowledge on the time variability of the signal itself and long term observations are required. Exemplarily, due to the decadal variability of sea level, reliable sea level trends can only be obtained after about sixty years of continuous observations. Reliable strain rates of deformation require a minimum of a decade of continuous data, due to ambient and anthropogenic factors leading to fluctuations. This session invites contributions demonstrating the importance of long term geophysical, geodynamic, oceanographic, geodetic, and climate observatories. Advances in sensors, instrumentation, monitoring techniques, analyses, and interpretations of data, or the comparison of approaches are welcome, with the aim to stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion among those dedicated to the accumulation, preservation and dissemination of data over decadal time scales or beyond. Studies utilizing novel approaches such as AI for analysis of long time series are very welcome. Likewise, studies that show the mutual transfer of knowledge of terrestrial and satellite observations are a topic of interest. With this session, we also would like to provide an opportunity to gather and exchange experiences for representatives from observatories both in Europe and worldwide.
Data fusion, integration, correlation and advances of non-destructive testing methods and numerical developments for engineering and geosciences applications
Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are employed in a variety of engineering and geosciences applications and their stand-alone use has been greatly investigated to date. New theoretical developments, technological advances and the progress achieved in surveying, data processing and interpretation have in fact led to a tremendous growth of the equipment reliability, allowing outstanding data quality and accuracy.
Nevertheless, the requirements of comprehensive site and material investigations may be complex and time-consuming, involving multiple expertise and multiple equipment. The challenge is to step forward and provide an effective integration between data outputs with different physical quantities, scale domains and resolutions. In this regard, enormous development opportunities relating to data fusion, integration and correlation between different NDT methods and theories are to be further investigated.
This Session primarily aims at disseminating contributions from state-of-the-art NDT methods and new numerical developments, promoting the integration of existing equipment and the development of new algorithms, surveying techniques, methods and prototypes for effective monitoring and diagnostics. NDT techniques of interest are related–but not limited to–the application of acoustic emission (AE) testing, electromagnetic testing (ET), ground penetrating radar (GPR), geoelectric methods (GM), laser testing methods (LM), magnetic flux leakage (MFL), microwave testing, magnetic particle testing (MT), neutron radiographic testing (NR), radiographic testing (RT), thermal/infrared testing (IRT), ultrasonic testing (UT), seismic methods (SM), vibration analysis (VA), visual and optical testing (VT/OT).
The Session will focus on the application of different NDT methods and theories and will be related –but not limited to– the following investigation areas:
- advanced data fusion;
- advanced interpretation methods;
- design and development of new surveying equipment and prototypes;
- real-time and remote assessment and monitoring methods for material and site inspection (real-life and virtual reality);
- comprehensive and inclusive information data systems for the investigation of survey sites and materials;
- numerical simulation and modelling of data outputs with different physical quantities, scale domains and resolutions;
- advances in NDT methods, numerical developments and applications (stand-alone use of existing and state-of-the-art NDTs).
Analysis of complex geoscientific time series: linear, nonlinear, and computer science perspectives
This interdisciplinary session welcomes contributions on novel conceptual and/or methodological approaches and methods for the analysis and statistical-dynamical modeling of observational as well as model time series from all geoscientific disciplines.
Methods to be discussed include, but are not limited to linear and nonlinear methods of time series analysis. time-frequency methods, statistical inference for nonlinear time series, including empirical inference of causal linkages from multivariate data, nonlinear statistical decomposition and related techniques for multivariate and spatio-temporal data, nonlinear correlation analysis and synchronisation, surrogate data techniques, filtering approaches and nonlinear methods of noise reduction, artificial intelligence and machine learning based analysis and prediction for univariate and multivariate time series.
Contributions on methodological developments and applications to problems across all geoscientific disciplines are equally encouraged. We particularly aim at fostering a transfer of new methodological data analysis and modeling concepts among different fields of the geosciences.
Geoid determination, gravity and magnetic field data and their interpretation
Gravity and magnetic field data contribute to a wide range of geo-scientific research, from imaging the structure of the earth and geodynamic processes near surface investigations. The first part of this session is dedicated to contributions related to spatial and temporal variations of the Earth gravity and magnetic field at all scales. Contributions to modern potential field research are welcome, including instrumental issues, data processing techniques, machine learning, interpretation methods, innovative applications of the results and data collected by modern satellite missions, potential theory, as well as case histories.
The second part of this session will focus on the practical solution of various formulations of geodetic boundary-value problems to yield precise local and regional high-resolution (quasi)geoid models. Contributions describing recent developments in theory, processing methods, downward continuation of satellite and airborne data, treatment of altimetry and shipborne data, terrain modeling, software development and the combination of gravity data with other signals of the gravity field for a precise local and regional gravity field determination are welcome. Topics such as the comparison of methods and results, the interpretation of residuals as well as geoid applications to satellite altimetry, oceanography, vertical datums and local and regional geospatial height registration are of a special interest.
Wed, 25 May, 10:20–11:47 (CEST), 13:20–15:48 (CEST)
Advances in the understanding of the crustal structure through passive and active seismological methodologies
Active and passive seismological methods are largely employed for characterizing the crustal structure in tectonic or volcanic settings, from the near-surface down to several kilometers of depth and at a global scale.
Active seismic methods (mainly reflection and refraction seismic) have shown to be particularly effective in providing images of the crust, in terms of velocities, seismic tomography, reflection coefficient, and seismic attributes. Although they are commonly used for mineral prospecting purposes, these techniques also provide a fundamental tool for studying the structural and stratigraphic patterns in different geological settings. Nonetheless, active seismic methods show several issues and limitations, mainly due to the cost and availability of the instruments, the difficulties in exploring remote areas, and the loss in resolution with depth.
In this perspective, a fruitful synergy can arise from the combination of active and passive seismic methods, which use earthquakes or ambient noise as a source. For instance, passive seismic is fundamental to detect seismogenic crustal regions, and their attitude to release seismic energy with frequent low-energy earthquakes or few strong events, by studying the b-value of the Gutenberg & Richter Frequency-Magnitude Distribution. Such information could be compared to some extent with the seismo-stratigraphic and structural model inferred from the analysis of active seismic data, for a deeper understanding of the crustal structure.
As a final issue, other geophysical data (e.g. gravimetric, magnetic, or geo-electric) could also provide further useful information, to better constrain the interpretation of seismological data.
Contributions to the session may include challenging applications, where the joint inversion and interpretation of both active and passive seismic data, corroborated by the results deriving from other methodologies, are employed to shed light on not-straightforward complexities in different geological contexts.
Ground Penetrating Radar: Applications and Advancements
The never-ending growth of the ground penetrating radar applications reserves continuously small and less small discoveries, and deserves a space for discussion and reciprocal listening also at the EGU conference.
The pandemic has meaningfully hindered many activities but to our knowledge not too much the interest in the GPR instrumentation and technique at an applicative level, even if exchanges of experiences at international conferences have been of course necessarily reduced. So, we hope that this session can meet the interest of many researchers, professionals, PhD students as well skilled GPR users as geologists, engineers, geophysicists and possibly archaeologists and architects.
Contributions are welcome with regard to all the aspects of the GPR technique, ranging from the hardware of the systems to the data processing and any theoretical aspect, including innovative applications or procedures as well as results of particular relevance, possibly achieved within an integrated measurement campaign including also different data.
Hope to see you in Vienna.
Underground research facilities for science, research and development
The history of underground research facilities has started with physics experiments looking for shelter from cosmic noise. Nowadays underground facilities are multi- and interdisciplinary, providing a home for geosciences, physics, engineering, biology, architecture, analogue space studies and social sciences to name a few.
We are welcoming all underground research facilities, laboratories, test sites alike to bring your sites to the light.
The history of underground research facilities has started with physics experiments looking for shelter from cosmic noise. Nowadays underground facilities are multi- and interdisciplinary, providing a home for geosciences, physics, engineering, biology, architecture, analogue space studies and social sciences to name a few. We are welcoming all underground research facilities, laboratories, test sites alike to bring your sites to the light.
Mathematical methods for the analysis of potential field data and geodetic time series
The analysis of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields is becoming increasingly important in geosciences. Modern satellite missions are continuing to provide data with ever improving accuracy and nearly global, time-dependent coverage. The gravitational field plays an important role in climate research, as a record of and reference for the observation of mass transport. The study of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal variations is yielding new insights into the behavior of its internal and external sources. Both gravity and magnetic data furthermore constitute primary sources of information also for the global characterization of other planets. Hence, there continues to be a need to develop new methods of analysis, at the global and local scales, and especially on their interface. For over two decades now, methods that combine global with local sensitivity, often in a multiresolution setting, have been developed: these include wavelets, radial basis functions, Slepian functions, splines, spherical cap harmonics, etc. One purpose of this session is to provide a forum for exchange of research projects, whether related to forward or inverse modeling, theoretical, computational, or observational studies.
Besides monitoring the variations of the gravity and magnetic fields, space geodetic techniques deliver time series describing changes of the surface geometry, sea level change variations or fluctuations in the Earth's orientation. However, geodetic observation systems usually measure the integral effect. Thus, analysis methods have to be applied to the geodetic time series for a better understanding of the relations between and within the components of the system Earth. The combination of data from various space geodetic and remote sensing techniques may allow for separating the integral measurements into individual contributions of the Earth system components. Presentations to time frequency analysis, to the detection of features of the temporal or spatial variability of signals existing in geodetic data and in geophysical models, as well as to the investigations on signal separation techniques, e.g. EOF, are highly appreciated. We further solicit papers on different prediction techniques e.g. least-squares, neural networks, Kalman filter or uni- or multivariate autoregressive methods to forecast Earth Orientation Parameters, which are needed for real-time transformation between celestial and terrestrial reference frames.
Nonlinear Processes in Geosciences: from past methods to novel approaches
Observations and measurements of geophysical systems and dynamical phenomena are obtained as time series or spatio-temporal data whose dynamics usually manifests a nonlinear multiscale (in terms of time and space) behavior. During the past decades, nonlinear approaches in geosciences have rapidly developed to gain novel insights on weather and climate dynamics, fluid dynamics, on turbulence and stochastic behaviors, on the development of chaos in dynamical systems, and on concepts of networks, nowadays frequently employed in geosciences.
In this short course, we will offer a broad overview of the development and application of nonlinear concepts across the geosciences in terms of recent successful applications from various fields, ranging from climate to near-Earth space physics. The focus will be on a comparison between different methods to investigate various aspects of both known and unknown physical processes, moving from past accomplishments to future challenges.
Peter Ditlevsen: "The paleoclimatic record, a tale of dynamics on many time scales: what can be learned about climate change"
Tommaso Alberti: "From global to local complexity measures: learning from dynamical systems and turbulence"
Reik Donner: "Harnessing causal discovery tools for process inference from multivariate geoscientific time series"
This session provides the opportunity for contributions that fall within the broad spectrum of Geomagnetism, but are not directly appropriate to any of the other proposed sessions. We solicit contributions on theory and simulations, instrumentation, laboratory experiments and field measurements, data analysis and interpretation, as well as inversion and modelling techniques.
Modelling and measuring Geomagnetically Induced Currents in grounded infrastructure
Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) can damage grounded infrastructure such as high voltage transformers, gas pipelines and rail networks. Understanding their impact is vital for protecting critical national infrastructure from harm and reducing any economic consequences. GICs are caused by geoelectric fields induced in the resistive subsurface during periods of rapid change of the magnetic field, typically in geomagnetic storms; however, an increasing body of evidence shows they occur in nominally quiet times too. We seek contributions from studies that measure (directly or indirectly) or model GICs in grounded infrastructure to assess the potential hazard and vulnerability of the infrastructure and to produce reliable models with which to forecast the potential effects of severe space weather events.
Measuring space weather condition with geomagnetic data
It is well known that solar activity influences the state of the circumterrestrial space and can affect technological systems in many different ways and with different degrees of damage severity.
Geomagnetic data, both from ground-based observatories and low Earth orbit satellites, represent a powerful tool to monitor space weather events, such as magnetic storms, substorms and geomagnetically induced currents.
Geomagnetic field monitoring makes it possible to improve internal geomagnetic field models and gain better knowledge on the dynamics of solar-terrestrial events and ionospheric and magnetospheric geomagnetic sources (both internal and external). Furthermore, geomagnetic field data provide proxies to nowcast and forecast different ground effects due to space weather events.
In this session we therefore encourage submissions focussing on the use of geomagnetic data (from ground observatories to satellites such as CHAMP, Swarm, CSES, ePOP and others) as a tool to gain insight both into the physics of the processes involving the Earth's magnetic field in response to space weather events and into their effects as the degradation of satellite signal, perturbation in radio communications, disruption of power system devices, just as some known examples.
Electromagnetic induction in Geophysics: Methodology, Data, Modelling and Inversion
This session asks for contributions in the field of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods that are applied on various scales ranging from the near-surface to the deep mantle. This includes new instrumentation and data acquisition methods, as well as mathematical and numerical improvements to data processing, modelling, and inversion applied to ground-based and off-shore measurements, airborne and satellite missions. We are interested in studies of EM applied to global induction, imaging regional scale tectonic, magmatic, or volcanic systems, in the search for hydrocarbon, geothermal, or mineral resources, and the investigation of near surface structure relevant to environmental, urban, and hydrological systems. Results from EM methods are often part of multi-disciplinary studies integrating data from rock physics and other geophysical, geochemical, and geological methods to investigate complex subsurface structures and their temporal evolution. Neighbouring fields of research encompass the study of natural and controlled EM sources, geo-magnetically induced currents, space weather, or geomagnetic field studies based on observatory data.
EMRP3 – Paleomagnetism and Environmental Magnetism
Programme group scientific officer:
Achievements and perspectives in scientific ocean and continental drilling
Scientific drilling through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) continues to provide unique opportunities to investigate the workings of the interior of our planet, Earth’s cycles, natural hazards and the distribution of subsurface microbial life. The past and current scientific drilling programs have brought major advances in many multidisciplinary fields of socio-economic relevance, such as climate and ecosystem evolution, palaeoceanography, the deep biosphere, deep crustal and tectonic processes, geodynamics and geohazards. This session invites contributions that present and/or review recent scientific results from deep Earth sampling and monitoring through ocean and continental drilling projects. Furthermore, we encourage contributions that outline perspectives and visions for future drilling projects, in particular projects using a multi-platform approach.
Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabrics: Recent advances and geological applications
The recent methodological and instrumental advances in paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric research further increased their already high potential in solving geological, geophysical, and tectonic problems. Integrated paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies, together with structural geology and petrology, are very efficient tools in increasing our knowledge about sedimentological, tectonic or volcanic processes, both on regional and global scales. This session is intended to give an opportunity to present innovative theoretical or methodological works and their direct applications in various geological settings. Especially welcome are contributions combining paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric data, integrating various magnetic fabric techniques, combining magnetic fabric with other means of fabric analysis, or showing novel approaches in data evaluation and modelling. We also highly solicit contributions showing all aspects of paleomagnetic reconstructions, acquisition of characteristic remanence and remagnetisations applied to solving geotectonic problems.
Wed, 25 May, 10:20–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–14:26 (CEST)
Magnetostratigraphy and Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy
Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic methods are important for assigning both absolute and relative time to geological sequences. Magnetostratigraphy and correlation to the Geological Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) constitute a standard dating and correlation tool in the Earth sciences, applicable to a wide variety of sedimentary rock types formed in different environments. Astronomically-forced climate cycles encoded by rock magnetics have enabled high-resolution time calibration of sedimentary sequences. These techniques allow improvement of the GPTS, better dating of the geological record, increased understanding of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes, and resolution of sedimentation dynamics in tectonically active basins. This session invites contributions that use magnetostratigraphy to date and correlate sedimentary sequences and rock magnetic measurements to assign high-resolution chronostratigraphy to sedimentary sequences.
Spatio-temporal characteristics of the geomagnetic field over longer timescales: from data to models
The Earth's magnetic field varies on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. During the last millennia, these variations have been characterized by some significant features, such as the Levantine Iron Age and South Atlantic anomalies. On longer timescales, variations are characterised by transitional events (i.e., geomagnetic excursions and reversals) associated with very low intensities and significant directional deviations. To decipher the past evolution of the geomagnetic field, paleomagnetic records from sediments, archaeological artifacts, and lava flows are needed. These records also allow the past reconstruction of the geomagnetic field at regional and global scales, and help to understand the geodynamo processes in the Earth’s core, providing constraints for geochronological applications and geodynamo simulations. In addition, records of cosmogenic isotope production rates can offer an independent proxy of the past geomagnetic field variations.
In this session, we invite contributions that present new knowledge of the past geomagnetic field. In that context, the session aims to bring new paleomagnetic records from globally distributed geographic areas and covering all timescales; and applications of new and novel techniques to develop regional and global models.
Open session in Paleomagnetism and Environmental Magnetism
This open session provides the opportunity for contributions that fall within the broad topic of Paleomagnetism but are not directly appropriate to any of the other proposed sessions. The session invites studies from all areas of paleomagnetism, rock and environmental magnetism which have an impact on climatic, stratigraphic, tectonic or environmental applications. This also includes new theoretical models or measurement techniques.
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