Modern space missions, ground telescopes and modeling facilities are producing huge amount of data. A new era of data distribution and access procedures is now starting with interoperable infrastructures and big data technologies. Long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations but high-level functions need to be setup on top of theses repositories to make Solar and Planetary Science data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations.
The Virtual Observatory (VO) standards developed in Astronomy may be adapted in the field of Planetary Science to develop interoperability, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources. Other communities have developed their own standards (GIS for surfaces, SPASE for space plasma, PDS4 for planetary mission archives…) and an effort to make them interoperable is starting.
Planetary Science Informatics and Data Analytics (PSIDA) are also offering new ways to exploit the science out of planetary data through modern techniques such as: data exploitation and collaboration platforms, visualisation and analysis applications, artificial intelligence and machine learning, data fusion and integration supported by new big data architecture and management infrastructure, potentially being hosted by cloud and scalable computing.
We call for contributions presenting progresses in the fields of Solar and Planetary science databases, tools and data analytics. We encourage contributors to focus on science use cases and on international standard implementation, such as those proposed by Europlanet/VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium), the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) or the IHDEA (International Heliophysics Data Environment Alliance), as well as applications linked to the EOSC (European Open Science Cloud) infrastructure.
I will give a brief overview of NASA's Planetary Data Ecosystem (PDE) Independent Review Board's activities and Report and will discuss the Findings and Recommendations related to international collaborations for improving accessibility of data from archiving and preservation, searching and acquiring, and using NASA's Planetary Data.
How to cite:
Milazzo, M.: A Brief Overview of NASA's Newly-Instituted Planetary Data Ecosystem., Europlanet Science Congress 2022, Granada, Spain, 18–23 Sep 2022, EPSC2022-80, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2022-80, 2022.
Gerhard Paar, Christoph Traxler, Andreas Bechtold, Robert Barnes, Elisabeth Hausrath, Sanjeev Gupta, and Fred Calef
Background: Visualizing Mastcam-Z Stereo Reconstructions on Global-to-Local Scale
Mars 2020 Mastcam-Z  3D products enable the visualization and analysis of rocks, outcrops, and other geological and aeolian features. The Planetary Robotics Vision Processing framework PRoViP , among others, generates panoramas, textured meshes and derived products from Mastcam-Z sequences on tactical (Sol-by-Sol) time frame. OPCs (Ordered Point Clouds)  georeferenced by the cm-level accurate tactical rover localization provided by the Mapping Specialists on the Mars 2020 science team, are loaded in PRo3D (Planetary Robotics 3D Viewer; ) for interactive 3D exploration, measurement and annotation. A “scene” contains several OPCs, overlaid to textured HiRISE  Digital Terrain Models – DTMs – again OPCs – for large-scale spatial context (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Mastcam-Z Sol 369 OPCs on HiRISE OPC. NASA/JPL/CalTech/USGS/ASU/MSSS/JR/VRVis
Narrative Videos for Immersive Story Telling of Scientific Rationales
A typical workflow to explain physical processes on a planetary surface based on its 3D virtual representation incorporates the following steps:
A spatial and thematic overview shows the environment in large-scale context, typically in km-scale, involving also the mission progress such as Rover trajectory, local landmark features and scale bars. The latter is true of all steps to follow
Moving towards a specific region, zooming-in, letting new surface layers appear, or annotating a target of interest attracts attention to a more focused part of the landscape
Speed & timing of virtual motion (“Navigation” in the scene) varies tension, or allows time for spoken or annotated explanations
Different viewpoints and smoothly transiting between them highlights specific features.
PRo3D’s Sequenced Bookmarks: Key for Efficient Video Production
PRo3D implements such a workflow in a repeatable way. “Bookmarks” define 3D viewpoints, their sequence, duration and the transition times between them (Figure 2). Disabling/enabling the display of scale bars, individual surfaces and annotations, rover tracks and stations, dip-and-strike annotations, measurements and sky projections of annotations, in conjunction with the embedding of photospheres and multi-temporal surface layers, realizes a comfortable production of highly informative yet ergonomic video stories launched by a “play” button. Up to 8k resolution offline rendering produces smooth videos even on low-budget graphics cards.
Figure 2: PRo3D Sequenced Bookmarks user interface (Mastcam-Z Sol 422) ASU/MSSS/JR/VRVis
Science Case 1: Explaining the 3D Assessment of Soil Crust
Understanding the Martian soil is critical for future human exploration, and samples that will be returned . 3D observations of cracks, fractures and tracks sheds important light on the crust’s characteristics and extent of induration . Figure 3 shows key frames from a PRo3D video explaining a soil crust assessment process. Important building blocks are the Rover tracks’ depth or the steepness of micro slopes. The viewing direction should be parallel to the rills of the rover tracks, the viewing distance from the Rover and the virtual viewing distance shall be small.
Figure 3: Soil crust evaluation stages documented using PRo3D’s Sequenced Bookmarks video-rendering. a) Environment, b) approaching the rover tracks, c) side view parallel to track rills with numeric assessments, d) close-range numeric assessments of a micro slope. Two Mastcam-Z OPCs from Sol 329 (zcam07106) and Sol 333 (zcam08354) overlain on HiRISE DTM/Ortho OPC. NASA/JPL/CalTech/ASU/MSSS/ÖAW/JR/VRVis
Science Case 2: Explaining the Result of a Geologic Annotation
A Digital Outcrop Model’s nature can be difficult to convey in simple 2D images, due to the different types of data collected – interpreting layering characteristics by lines, the orientation or dip and strike of exposed layers and bedding, thickness of layers, variation in thickness (up and down as well as laterally), and locations to build the interpretation on the spatial distribution of key textural and geometrical characteristics . Collating such measurements carried out over multiple outcrops further increases the complexity of concisely sharing observations. Sequenced bookmarks allow for accessible visualisation of such multifaceted data presentation. This is highlighted in the interpretation of the Mure outcrop imaged by Mastcam-Z on Sols 168-169 (sequences 8180/8182/8183, Figure 4).