The increase in frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events is one of the consequences of global warming. The character and severity of their impacts depend not only on the nature of the hazards but also on the vulnerability of communities to climate threats. Due to the high exposure of its coasts, the Mediterranean is considered as a climate change hotspot in terms of observed and projected magnitude as well as the frequency of extreme events such as heatwaves, droughts, and intense cyclones, which are often responsible for heavy precipitation and floods. In terms of localized severe convective events, the observed trends show more uncertainties.
The purpose of the session is to present novel research studies covering different temporal (from weather to climate) and spatial scales (from local to global). The session will include both present-day analysis (numerical simulations of individual case studies, reanalysis data, and machine learning approaches), climate change assessment (including climate model simulations), and attribution studies (such as pseudo-global warming simulations). The session also welcomes contributions aiming at improving our physical understanding of severe weather in a changing climate through improved parameterization schemes and numerical weather and climate model simulations.

Conveners: Mario Marcello Miglietta, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Stavros Dafis

This session aims at bringing together scientists working on the use of remote sensing observations and in situ measurements as well as physically-based or statistical/machine learning models, and retrieval techniques for the definition, characterisation, and the monitoring of natural hazards and extreme events in the Mediterranean area. The goal of the session is to foster the discussion about new types of observations and new approaches, also combining data and models, to contribute to the understanding of climate change effects on extreme events occurrence and trends. Studies related to the use of long-term data record and new methodologies able to describe and identify patterns and parameters of natural disasters and to define anomalous and rare features of extreme events are encouraged. Some examples include, but are not limited to, observation and monitoring of heavy precipitation systems, tornadoes and Medicanes, strong winds, droughts and forest fires, floods, debris-flows and landslides, volcanic events, earthquakes, coastal erosion, and glaciers.

Conveners: Giulia Panegrossi, Emmanouil Anagnostou, Yves Tramblay

The countries bordering the Mediterranean coast are affected each year by disasters that create economic damage and victims, with a serious impact on the economy and the development of the area. Among them hydro-geological disasters are among the worst. It is therefore of extreme interest to increase knowledge on the physical mechanisms that generate extreme hydro-geological effects, in order to improve the ability to model, evaluate and predict the risks associated with them. The session accepts contributions that present research on the observations, modeling and forecasting of the extreme hydro-geological processes typical of the Mediterranean and mediterranean-like climates, with special reference to the assessment, forecast and mapping of hazard scenarios, aimed at the assessment and forecast of the hydro-geological risks.

Conveners: Marco Borga, Giorgio Boni, Michalis Diakakis

The analysis of the societal impacts of natural hazards has an increasing interest, and many national and international projects have created specific working groups to cope with them. Accurate data on the economic, human, and social impacts of extreme weather events are needed to assess the associated loss and damage and the efficiency of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policies. The different expertise of scientists involved makes such a topic a strong example of a multidisciplinary approach. Observing and assessing the societal impact constitute major tools for improving DRR, including climate change adaptation and the community's resilience to storm risks in the framework of sustainable development. This session aims to provide a multidisciplinary forum for presentations and discussions of our current state of knowledge about the socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean Storms and their evolution in a context of global change, with special consideration of adaptation constraints and tipping points. Many studies have been developed to assess the vulnerability and exposure of societies facing hydrometeorological hazards, especially through impact data collection, back analysis and damage modelling. The last issue deals with the assessment of risk management and different responses developed from different societies and cultural backgrounds, including how the citizens react in front of failures of the authority in charge of their protection. The session also addresses how we communicate and educate the population, policymakers and relevant stakeholders about natural hazards and disaster risk reduction through media and social networks. Furthermore, the session intends to address innovative means and mechanisms developed to achieve effective participation of the citizens in the different phases of risk prevention and management. This session aims to be a meeting point between experts on these matters from universities, research centres, civil protection, and local authorities.

Conveners: Maria-Carmen Llasat, Katerina Papagiannaki, Olga Petrucci

This session aims to discuss progress with respect to research and initiatives on risk management of Cultural and Natural Heritage in the framework of climate extreme events. It also aims to increase the awareness, needs and requirements of stakeholders and policy makers who are involved in disaster risk reduction processes to become more integrated in their overall approach. Strengthening the resilience of Cultural and Natural Heritage from the impacts of climate change is increasingly becoming a major concern for decision-makers, stakeholders and citizens worldwide. Climate events may significantly impact the future well-being of our heritage assets, with each incident negatively affecting their cultural significance, historic, physical and artistic values. Such events also pose a significant risk to the safety of workers and visitors and, inevitably, affect the livelihood of local communities, especially in the event that they are linked to cultural tourism. Major objective of the session is to explore innovative methodologies, tools and strategies for strengthening the resilience of Cultural and Natural Heritage to climate change and its impacts.

Conveners: Alessandra Bonazza, Constantinos Cartalis, Dimitrios Alexakis

Changes in the Mediterranean climate are expected to increase extreme events such as droughts, floods, forest fires, frosts, heat waves, cold spells, strong winds, heavy storms, hailstorms, and other weather- and climate-driven events. Agricultural and natural ecosystems are impacted by climate change and associated extreme events. Impacts can be short- or long-lasting and include effects on crop yields, forest vitality as well as on pests and diseases. However, ecosystems are complex multitrophic systems where climate change affects each species both directly (e.g., climate favorability) and indirectly by altering biotic interactions with other species. This complexity makes the direction and magnitude of ecosystem impacts difficult to predict and requires enhanced use of increasingly available biophysical data, particularly Earth Observation (EO) data, together with the development of appropriate ecosystem indicators and models. This session will focus on the monitoring and assessment of changes in natural resources, ecosystems, and agriculture in the Mediterranean region, with links to adaptation to and mitigation of environmental changes and the associated biotic and abiotic risks. Special emphasis will be given to recent findings in the following topics:
• using EO for early detection and management of natural disasters affecting Mediterranean ecosystems and agriculture;
• indicators and models for assessing and forecasting climate change effects and risks in Mediterranean ecosystems and agriculture.

Convener: Nikolaos Nikolaidis

The objective of this session is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussions of our current state of knowledge about the interplay between multiple natural and anthropogenic environmental risks including heat and pollution and their impacts on human society (in a one-health approach) in the Mediterranean. This is one of the most controversial topics in current research. The Mediterranean region is affected by frequent dust episodes (originating from the Sahara region and crossing from South to North) and anthropogenic pollution (originating from South Europe and crossing from North to South). Therefore, air pollution in the Mediterranean region imposes complex physical-chemical characteristics for aerosols. At the same time, the accelerated warming and increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heat extremes in the Mediterranean basin result in more stressful bioclimatic conditions. Air pollution is one of the leading environmental risk factors for human health globally, especially concerning ambient fine particulate matter, ozone, and some non-criteria pollutants that are considered to have the highest toxicity such as metals, organics, black carbon, allergens, and their partitioning in both fine and ultrafine aerosol particles. This threat is magnified when combined with elevated heat conditions due to complex interactions which are not being fully understood yet. The assessment of the compound environmental risks of heat and air pollution on human and planetary health is challenging. An emerging consensus suggests that the time has come for science to establish novel transdisciplinary research partnerships based on cross-sectoral collaborations between different expertise, such as climate, air quality, biodiversity, meteorology, climatology, toxicology, physiology and epidemiology, governance and risk management. It is necessary to develop significant scientific evidence to guide the development of new recommendations, policies, and legislation. Rethinking science is necessary to meet today's priorities.

Conveners: Francesca Costabile, Tareq Hussein, Christos Giannaros

Fire is an integral component of Mediterranean ecosystems. Yet, wildfires are significant natural hazards that often result in loss of life and property while inducing adverse environmental, health, and economic impacts. Recent years have seen several Mediterranean regions experiencing more frequent and intense wildfires, including destructive and deadly events that exemplify the limitations of current land and fire management capabilities. Today, the risk that wildfires pose to human communities and the environment is changing because we are changing the conditions in which wildfires occur. Climate change, land abandonment, fuel management practices, and demographics are examples of factors whose interplay determines the likelihood of detrimental wildfire effects. In this dynamic context, advancing our understanding of the factors influencing fire activity is essential to overcome current and emerging challenges in wildfire prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery. In this session, we invite contributions that advance knowledge on current and emerging challenges of wildfires and expand the existing capabilities not only in the Mediterranean but also across the world. In particular, we encourage submissions on any of the following topics (non-exhaustive list):
• Fundamentals of fire behavior and its relationships with terrain, weather, and vegetation.
• Weather and climate interactions with wildfires.
• Wildfire simulation systems.
• Wildfire monitoring techniques, including remote sensing and Earth Observation (EO) tools.
• Fire danger rating systems and/or early warning systems.
• Extreme wildfire events, including fire-atmosphere interactions and wildfires at the WUI (case studies, predictive tools, conceptual models).
• Wildfire-related datasets.
• Wildfire management strategies (including fuel management practices), risk assessment, and risk reduction.
• Socio-economic implications of wildfires.

Conveners: Theodore Giannaros, Mario Miguel Valero Pérez, Apostolos Voulgarakis