PS4 – Space Weather, Climate, Habitability, and Life in (Exo-) Planetary Context
Planetary Space Weather: fundamental plasma interactions in space environments
Planetary Space Weather: fundamental plasma interactions in space environments
The emphasis of the session is on crucial processes of planetary space weather, that is, plasma physics and interactions of the interplanetary medium with the Solar System bodies, including:
(a) magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling dynamics and auroras: from the Earth to other planets
(b) the solar wind interaction with planets, moons, asteroids and comets
(c) plasma interactions with exospheres, dust and surfaces
(d) surface space weathering
(e) potential impact of planetary environment on technological space systems
(f) inter-comparisons of planetary environments
Contributions are welcome which address previous (e.g. Chandrayaan-1, KAGUYA, Venus Express, MESSENGER, Rosetta, Cassini), present (e.g. Juno,
Mars Express, MAVEN, CHANG'E 2), forthcoming (e.g. BepiColombo, Parker Solar Probe) and planned (e.g. JUICE, Solar Orbiter) observations from space. Analyses of ground-based observations of neutral and ionized environments are welcome, as well as laboratory studies aiming to simulate the interactions on planetary analogues in space. Theoretical modeling and simulations are also strongly encouraged, both in themselves and as a basis for inter-comparisons and interpretation of measurements. Regarding that major breakthroughs on terrestrial space weather have been made with measurements from THEMIS, Cluster, AMPERE, MMS and Van Allen Probes, we very welcome the relevant topics at the Earth too, as comparative study has proven to be a powerful tool in understanding planetary space weather.
Space environments of unmagnetized or weakly magnetized solar system bodies and the effects of space weather on these systems.
The ionospheres and magnetospheres of weakly magnetized bodies with substantial atmospheres (e.g. Mars, Venus, Titan, Pluto and comets) are subject to disturbances due to solar activities, interplanetary conditions, or parent magnetospheric environments (e.g. solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles), sharing similarities with their magnetized counterparts but with scientifically important differences. As an integral part of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres are tightly coupled with the neutral atmosphere, exosphere and surrounding plasma environment, possessing rich compositional, density, and temperature structures. The interaction among neutral and charged components affects atmospheric loss, neutral winds, photochemistry, and energy balance within ionospheres. This session invites abstracts concerning remote and in-situ data analysis, modeling studies, comparative studies, instrumentation and mission concepts for weakly magnetized solar system bodies. Topics such as dayside and nightside ionospheric characteristics and variability, ion-neutral coupling, and responses of the ionized and neutral regimes to transient space weather events are especially encouraged.
The session solicits contributions that report on nonthermal solar and planetary radio emissions. Coordinated multi-point observations from ground radio telescopes (e.g., LOFAR, LOIS, LWA1, URAN-2, UTR-2) and spacecraft plasma/wave experiments (e.g., Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Galileo, Juno, Stereo, Ulysses and Wind) are especially encouraged. Presentations should focus on radiophysics techniques used and developed to investigate the remote magnetic field and the electron density in solar system regions, like the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and the magnetized auroral regions. Interest also extends to laboratory and experimental studies devoted to the comprehension of the generation mechanisms (e.g., cyclotron maser instability) and the acceleration processes (e.g., Alfven waves). Further preparations, evaluations, investigations, analyses of forthcoming space missions (like BepiColombo, Juice, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe, SunRISE, Taranis) are also welcome.
Turbulence, magnetic reconnection, shocks and particle acceleration: nonlinear processes in space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas
Turbulence, reconnection and shocks are fundamental non-linear processes observed in solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and laboratory plasmas. These processes are not separate, but rather appear to be interconnected. For instance, a close link exists between reconnection and turbulence. On the one hand the turbulence cascade favors the onset of magnetic reconnection between magnetic islands and, on the other hand, magnetic reconnection is able to trigger turbulence in the reconnection outflows and separatrices. Similarly, shocks may form in collisional and collisionless reconnection processes and can be responsible for turbulence formation, as for instance in the turbulent magnetosheath.
This session welcomes simulations, observational and theoretical works relevant for the study of these non-linear phenomena. Particularly welcome will be works focusing on the link between them in a range of scale going from fluid MHD to kinetic. The topic of this session is relevant for the understanding of solar atmosphere (from the photosphere to the solar wind), interaction of solar wind with planetary magnetospheres, planetary magnetospheric physics and particle acceleration and transport throughout the heliosphere. The session is also relevant to past and present space missions in plasma astrophysics such as Cluster, MMS and Parker Solar Probe.
Julia E. Stawarz will give a solicited talk
Cosmic rays across scales and disciplines: the new frontier in environmental research
'Cosmic rays’ collectively describe particles that bombard the Earth from space. They carry information about space and, once near the Earth, interact with the magnetosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Secondary cosmic rays created within the atmosphere can provide information about our planet that is vital to science and society. Secondary neutron radiation plays an extraordinary role, as it not only carries information about solar activity, but also produces short and long living tracer isotopes, influences genetic information of living organisms, and is extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen and therefore also to water. Given the vast spectrum of interactions of cosmic rays with matter in different parts of the Earth, cosmic-ray research ranges from studies of the solar system to the history of the Earth, and from health and security issues to hydrology and climate change.
Although research on cosmic-ray particles is connected to a variety of disciplines and applications, they all share similar questions and problems regarding the physics of detection, modeling, and environmental factors that influence the intensity. Questions that all disciplines have in common are, for example, “How does the cosmic-ray intensity and energy spectra change with time and location on Earth?”, “How to correct the signal for magnetospheric or atmospheric fluctuations?”, “What is the influence of local structures, water bodies, and surface conditions?”, “Which computer model for cosmic-ray propagation is correct?”, or “What can we learn from other types of cosmic-ray particles?”.
The session brings together scientists from all fields of research that are related to monitoring and modeling of cosmogenic radiation. It will allow sharing of expertise amongst international researchers as well as showcase recent advancements in their field. The session aims to stimulate discussions about how individual disciplines can share their knowledge and benefit from each other.
We solicit contributions related but not limited to:
- Health, security, and radiation protection: cosmic-ray dosimetry on Earth and its dependence on environmental and atmospheric factors
- Planetary space science: satellite and ground-based neutron and gamma-ray sensors to detect water and soil chemistry
- Neutron monitor research: detection of high-energy cosmic rays variations and its dependence on local and atmospheric factors
- Hydrology and climate change: low-energy neutron sensing to measure water in reservoirs at and near the land surface, such as soils, snow pack and vegetation
- Cosmogenic nuclides: as tracers of atmospheric circulation and mixing; as a tool in archaeology or glaciology for dating of ice and measuring ablation rates; and as a tool for surface exposure dating and measuring rates of surficial geological processes
- Detector design: technological advancements for the detection of cosmic rays
- Cosmic-ray modeling: advances in modeling of the cosmic-ray propagation through the magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their response to the Earth’s surface
- Impact modeling: How can cosmic-ray monitoring support environmental models, weather and climate forecasting, irrigation management, and the assessment of natural hazards
Water is the defining feature of the habitable Earth; it is essential for all life as we know it. Evolution and maintenance of life in extremely water limited environments, which cover significant portions of the Earth, is not well understood. Akin to life, water-driven processes leave unique marks on the Earth’s surface. Mars is the only other planet currently known to bear the marks of water-driven surface processes, albeit fossil and of great age. The slow biotic and abiotic surface processes that may operate even in the virtual absence of liquid water are still essentially unknown. What is evident is that transient episodes of increased water availability can leave long lasting traces in extremely water limited environments. Intriguingly, those traces of bursts in Earth surface evolution have rarely been related to bursts in biological colonization/evolution, and vice versa, although both relate to the same trigger: water.
The objective of this session is to showcase research on the mutual evolutionary relationships between Earth surface processes and biota in arid to hyper-arid systems, where both biota and Earth surface process are severely and predominantly limited by the availability of water (rather than by extreme temperatures).
Solicited topics include (not exhaustive):
• fingerprints of biological activity at the (water) limit of the habitable Earth
• surface processes operating in the (virtual) absence of liquid water on Earth or extraterrestrial analogues (e.g. Mars)
• thresholds for biological colonization and concurrent fluvial transformation of landscapes
• tipping point(s) of biotically and abiotically controlled Earth surface systems
• chronometric and spatial information on the colonization and radiation of biota
terrestrial climatic records of (hyper-) arid regions on Earth