Human interaction with the environment has gone through several stages of evolution. Being a product of the natural evolution of living organisms in the biosphere, Homo sapiens as a species has evolved in the geochemical conditions of the virgin biosphere. The rapid development of intellectual abilities of this genus allowed, first, to survive in adverse environmental conditions around the whole world, then, to cultivate the land, transform the entire system of biocenoses, and now to create a new habitat for man exclusively. The result was a significant geochemical transformation of the virgin biosphere, but a kind of punishment for the achieved progress was the emergence of a number of endemic diseases of a geochemical nature. Nowadays a variety of anthropogenic sources of pollution and their location in various natural geochemical conditions require not only constant monitoring of the chemical state of soil, water, air and food products, but also the development of spatially differentiated approaches to assessing the risk of provoked diseases. To solve this problem it is necessary concertedly interpreting a geochemical and medical information in order to assess the risks to human health associated with modern natural and anthropogenic geochemical features in urban and rural habitats. During session we propose to discuss:
1) global trends of health transformation in new geochemical environment of modern noosphere;
2) criteria for determining pollution level depending on environmental and geochemical constrains;
3) new approaches to assess the risk of diseases of geochemical nature in different countries;
4) the problem of mapping the risk zones, related to negative medical effects due to deficiency or excess of certain chemical elements or compounds.
Session co-sponsored by the European Association of Geochemistry.
Human interaction with the environment has gone through several stages of evolution. Man as a species first survived in adverse environmental conditions around the world, then he began to cultivate the land, exploit other species and develop industry, changing the structure and composition of natural ecosystems, and now creates a new habitat exclusively in accordance with his own requirements. This activity leads to significant chemical pollution of the environment at the local, and in some cases at the regional level, which leads to disruption of natural food chains. This process is followed by the negative biological reactions of living organisms, including the man himself. These reactions and, in particular, endemic diseases of a geochemical nature can be regarded as a kind of punishment for the progress made. Emerging environmental problems require not only constant monitoring of the chemical state of soil, water, air and food products and identification of anthropogenic induced negative reactions, but also the development of spatially differentiated approaches to assessing the risk of triggered negative reactions and diseases. During our session, we will discuss:
1) global trends in health status in the new geochemical environment of the modern noosphere (the anthropogenic stage of biosphere evolution);
2) methods and criteria for determining the level of environmental pollution by metals, pesticides, radionuclides and pharmaceutical substances;
3) new approaches to assessing the risk of pollution and diseases of a geochemical nature in different countries;
4) the problems of identifying and mapping risk zones.
We kindly invite all interested parties to our session.
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Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 14:00–15:45
Since the dawn of civilization, the anthropic activity has lead to a legacy of increased land degradation/contamination. Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) are among the most effective environmental contaminants, and their release into the environment is rising since the last decades. Interest in trace elements has been increased as a major scientific topic over the last 50 years when it was realized that some elements were essential to human health (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn). In contrast, some others were toxic (e.g., As, Hg, Pb), and likely responsible for serious human diseases and lethal consequences. Since that time, great progress in knowledge of links between environmental geochemistry and human health has been achieved. The urban environment (nowadays the main habitat for the human population) is a potential PHEs source, with high risk for residents’ health. Indeed, PHEs concentration and distribution are related to traffic intensity, distance from roads, local topography, and heating. Industrial emissions also contribute to the release of toxic elements. Understanding the extent, distribution and fate of PHEs in the urban environment is therefore imperative to address the sustainable management of urban soils and gardens in relation to human health.
Despite the extensive researches addressed to this topic, the effects of most trace metals on human health are not yet fully understood. Uncertainty is still prevailing, particularly with non-essential elements that are “suspected” to be harmful to humans, causing severe health problems as intoxication, neurological disturbances and also cancer. Some of them (e.g., As, Cd, Hg, Pb) have attracted most attention worldwide due to their toxicity towards living organisms. Other elements (Al, B, Be, Bi, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, W) are likely harmful, but may play some beneficial functions not yet well known, and should be more investigated.
Keywords: Urban soils; PHEs; Human health
How to cite: Bini, C. and Wahsha, M.: Urban soils and human health, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11255, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11255, 2020.
Lead pollution is a global problem, known to be neurotoxic, especially to children because of its incompatibility and ability to replace essential elements in the body. However, lead in the environment is derived from multiple (natural and anthropogenic) sources over long time periods. Anthropogenic Pb pollution mainly originates from mining, smelting, industrial uses, waste incineration, coal and leaded gasoline combustion.
Identification of contamination and source apportionment of lead within the surface urban environment is a challenging task mostly because of coexistence of multiple factors contributing to the elevated concentrations. Lead has four natural stable isotopes (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) and due to the small fractional mass differences among these isotopes, ordinary chemical, physical or biological reactions cannot obviously influence the isotopic composition of Pb . Thus, it is possible to use stable Pb isotopic composition and/or ratio to trace its sources and transports in the environment. The main aim of this study is to determine the ratios of lead isotopes in urban soil samples to assess contamination sources and finding their connections in two former industrial cites Salgótarján and Ózd, Hungary.
Urban soil samples were collected from residential areas (houses, parks, playgrounds and kindergartens) of Salgótarján and Ózd cities (36 and 60 samples, respectively) where both exposed to the harmful effects of industrial pollutants. The cities are situated in the same geological formation (e.g. brown coal deposit) and the distance between them is around 40 kilometers and both cities experienced similar industrial history.
Results showed that the average stable lead isotopic ratio of analyzed soil samples is 206Pb/207Pb:1.19 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.47 for Salgótarján and 206Pb/207Pb:1.19 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.40 for Ózd. In both cities, high significant correlation noted in 206Pb/204Pb vs 207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb vs 208Pb/204Pb ratios (R2=0.7 and R2=0.8) reflecting the enrichment of Pb from anthropogenic sources. As the endmembers, stable isotopic ratio of local coal, slag and central European leaded gasoline (206Pb/207Pb:1.11 and 208Pb/207Pb: 2.37) were used. Surprisingly, the stable isotopic ratio depicted considerable difference for coal (206Pb/207Pb: 1.18 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.47 and 206Pb/207Pb:1.26 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.46) and slag (206Pb/207Pb: 1.18 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.46 and 206Pb/207Pb:1.16 vs 208Pb/207Pb: 2.41) from Salgótarján and Ózd. A particular anomaly in Salgótarján was observed for 206Pb/204Pb ratio around the coal-fired power plant where local coal was used as an energy source that might be a part of the explanation for the high ratio. Based on the comprehensive isotopic analysis, data suggested that coal combustion emissions and steelworks were the predominant Pb source in both cities, whereas, vehicular emissions and additional sources (e.g. leaded paint) are no exception.
 M. Komárek, V. Ettler, V. Chrastný, and M. MihaljeviÄ, “Lead isotopes in environmental sciences: A review,” Environ. Int., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 562–577, 2008.
How to cite: Abbaszade, G., Tserendorj, D., Le, T., Salazar, N., Zacháry, D., Völgyesi, P., and Szabó, C.: Use of lead isotope ratios to assess sources of lead (Pb) dispersed in the urban environments during former industrial activity in the cities of Salgotarjan and Ozd (Hungary) , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1202, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1202, 2019.
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are important elements of the life system. China is the most populous country and the population continues to grow, causing an increasing demand for food. But China's arable land resource is limited, and as is the effective means to improve crop yields, fertilization also has resulted in the excessive use of nitrogen and phosphorus in crop planting systems at the same time. Non-point source pollution of planting industry is becoming more and more serious, which poses a great threat to water quality.
In this study, 14 kinds of major crops accounting for 76% of the sown area and 87% of the yield in China were selected. Based on land use/cover data, crop spatial distribution data and agricultural economic statistical survey data (from the 2010 China Statistical Yearbook), the data were distributed by spatial allocation model according to the county code, and the results of different crop fertilizer application rates were obtained. Then, the results were summed up to get the overall fertilizer application status of N and P in China.
Under this premise, combined with terrain data (DEM), arable land information (distribution of paddy fields and upland), planting patterns of 14 kinds of crops and non-point source pollution control division classified by climate types, the cropland is divided into 56 different N and P loss modes. In the first national agricultural non-point source pollution census, N and P loss coefficients under different modes were obtained through field monitoring and local investigation. On the basis of the coefficient table and fertilizer application rate, the N and P loss of planting industry in 2010 was calculated, and the results were analyzed to reach the following conclusions:
1.Fertilization of cultivated land in China covers a wide range, and the amount of fertilization varies greatly between different regions. The basic distribution law of N and P fertilizer application is relatively consistent across the country, and both more in the north than in the south, more in the east than in the west, more in the plain than in the mountain and plateau, and more in the dry land than in the paddy fields. The areas with high fertilization account for about 1/4 of the total fertilizing area in China, presenting a state of spatial aggregation.
2.Fertilizer loss amount of each kind of crops are not identical. Taking winter wheat, one of the most important major food crops in China, as an example, its P loss mainly concentrated in the semi-humid plains of the Huang-Huai-Hai Sea, the Chengdu Plains in the southern wet plain area and parts of Jiangsu Province and Anhui Province, while the central and southern are of Henan and Hebei provinces and Hanzhong plain area suffered the most severe loss.
The above research can provide scientific theoretical basis and decision-making support for the formulation of sustainable agricultural development strategy in China, and it can also be for the reduction of N and P loss and the control of water eutrophication worldwide.
How to cite: Yafei, W., Lijun, Z., Xiaoli, Z., and Zengxiang, Z.: Estimation and temporal-spatial variation analysis of non-point source pollution in China's planting industry, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20950, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20950, 2020.
A main cause of water eutrophication in lakes or reservoirs are nutrient enrichment, of which variations can be influenced by climatic changes and anthropogenic activities. It was reported that rainfall may lead to a short-term increase in nutrients that threaten the water quality of lakes or reservoirs. Daily meteorological data collected over the last few years in the Lake Qiandaohu basin highlight an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall events. The relationships between nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in the lake and external loading discharged into the lake during 2013-2016 were analyzed. Meanwhile, the fluid movement and the diffusion of the pollutants from the catchment were simulated by the ELCOM model. These were in order to evaluate the possible role of extreme precipitation events in affecting the nutrient availability in the lake. Our results show that, for the largest inflow (the Xinanjiang River), 32.5% of annual TN and 32.8% of annual TP were caused by rainstorm, respectively. The time of pollutant migration could be greatly shortened by heavy rains. For lakes and reservoirs, extreme precipitation will not only lead to a sharp increase in inflow but also result in a significant increase in nutrient loading in a short period of time. Therefore, rainstorms can be an important factor of climate-induced eutrophication in lakes or reservoirs.
How to cite: Li, H., Luo, L., and Zhang, Y.: The impact of rainstorms on nutrient loading for a large and deep reservoir, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6729, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6729, 2020.
The soil utilized for grape growing not only has faced the pollution problems but also could be suffered ecological risk by heavy metals from chemical fertilizers and Cu-fungicides. Hétszőlő vineyard (1.4 ha) with an alkaline reaction in soil (the average soil pH of the 0-10 cm soil layer was 8.02), which is located along and on the southern slope of Tokaj-hill, Tokaj-Hegyalja, Hungary was chosen as study area of this study. The total concentration of heavy metals, enrichment factors (EFs), pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (CF) were used to assess the current status and pollution degree of heavy metals in vineyard soil. Besides, the potential ecological risk would be evaluated via the ecological risk factor (Ei) of an individual metal (Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu) and the potential ecological risk index (PER) of all studied metals.
Analysis results showed that all of the heavy metals had lower total contents on average compared with the Hungarian background and pollution limits (Joint Decree (6/2009. (IV. 14) KvVM-EüM-FVM and 10/2000. (VI. 2) KöM-EüM-FVM-KHVM), except for Cu (36.19 mg/kg), Ni (36.50 mg/kg) and Cr (60.26 mg/kg). Thus, the topsoil of Hétszőlő vineyard in Tokaj was contaminated by Ni, Cr, and Cu at a moderate level. EF analysis (Sc as reference element) reflected that Cu (EF = 2.70) was enriched moderately, in contrast Zn (EF = 1.22), Pb (EF = 1.05), Co (EF = 1.00) were not enriched in the vineyard topsoils. Although EF of Ni and Cr obtained at Tokaj were 1.66 and 2.30 respectively, EFmin of these studied metals were around 1 and they EFmax were higher than 2 demonstrated that these elements were enriched at some positions. The general assessment of EFs of all soil samples illustrated the anthropogenic origin of Cu, Cr, and Ni while Zn, Pb, and Co were enriched mainly from the geogenic process; and the enrichment process of heavy metals occurred more strongly at the bottom of the slope. CF, which was determined, could be divided into two groups in value, in which CF ≤ 1 presented a low contamination for Pb (CF = 0.71); Co (CF = 1.00), and 1 < CF < 3 was a moderate contamination for remaining metals Zn, Ni, Cr and Cu with CF figures were 1.06, 1.68, 2.28 and 2.08, respectively. Besides, the topsoil of Hétszőlő vineyard was considered in the moderate pollution status with FLI was 1.35. The results of Ei indicated that all heavy metal in the topsoil of vineyard showed a low ecological risk, with the descending order of contaminants was Cu (10.38) > Ni (10.07) > Co (4.98) > Cr (4.55) > Pb (3.54) > Zn (1.06). In addition, the mean PER was 34.59 and it revealed a low ecological risk for all metals in the vineyard soil. Even though there was a low potential ecological risk, the moderate level pollution of heavy metals, enrichment process, and the continuous using chemical compounds in viticulture could cause serious risk pollution by heavy metals in the future.
How to cite: Pham, N. T. H., Babcsányi, I., and Farsang, A.: Soil contamination and ecological risk of heavy metals in alkaline vineyard soil, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1587, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1587, 2019.
The aim of this work is to study the 131I biological effects on sheep at different concentrations of stable iodine in the diet. The problem of the absorbed dose estimation in the sheep thyroid gland (TG) after a radiation accident at the Chernobyl NPP in the conditions of natural micronutrient deficiency is considered. To determine the 131I critical dose in the sheep TG, leading to its dysfunction and subsequent destruction, complex laboratory studies were performed to refine the compartmental model parameters, based on reliable experimental and theoretical data. Modern technologies are used to model the TG area. The solution of the radiation transport equation is performed by the Monte Carlo technique, which takes into account both the γ - and β-radiation of the 131I immanent source and the contribution of all secondary radiations.
The studies were carried out on 64 sheep, divided into 10 groups based on the general clinical condition and body weight. The first 5 groups included animals from the Gomel region (32 sheep, iodine content in the daily diet was 0.08 mg/kg ), in the 6–10th groups (32 sheep; 0.43 mg/kg ) – from the Vladimir region. Tests for iodine content in feed and water were performed in the Belarusian Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, Minsk, 1989). For sheep 1–3rd , 6–8th groups (9 sheep in the group) once peroral the 131I was injected with activity: for the 1st and 6th groups 3 µCi, for the 2nd and 7th 15 µCi, from the 3rd and 8th – 72 µCi per capita. The surviving sheep were vaccinated against Rift Valley fever and then exposed to infection with an epizootic strain of the virus of this disease.
The main theoretical result is the conversion factor of the 131I activity to the average dose rate in thyroid. The main practical result is the evaluation of the lower limit of absorbed dose in the TG (~ 300 Gy), which leads to its destruction. Animals with a reduced content of stable iodine in the diet were characterized by an increased number of cells in venous blood, reduced levels of thyroxine in the serum, altered structure and functional activity of the thyroid and liver. In animals with low levels of iodine nutrition, a large capture of the isotope by the TG was noted, which provided larger (2–5 times) doses. In sheep with iodine deficiency, a decrease in the number of leukocytes, thyroxine levels; survival is reduced. After the 131I intake, sheep developed a radiation-induced immunodeficiency, but the main mechanisms of the infectious process in animals remained: post-vaccination reactions proceeded without complications, were characterized by antibody formation and immune development.
How to cite: Denisova, E., Zenkin, A., Snegirev, A., Kurachenko, Y., Kozmin, G., and Budarkov, V.: Biological consequences of the spatial-differentiated level of the 131I accumulation in sheep thyroid after Chernobyl accident, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1602, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1602, 2019.
Texas has the largest population of cattle farming and the highest production of poultry farming across the United States. In northeastern region, antibiotics have been widely used in Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) as veterinary pharmaceuticals (VP). Not fully metabolized and excreted antibiotics have caused soil pollution and resulted groundwater contamination. Sulfonamides’ high excretion rate from animals, low sorption to soils, and impact on nitrate-reducing bacteria for nitrate reduction capabilities, enhance leaching and secondary pollution from inherent nitrate-N contamination. However, there is a limited understanding of sulfonamides transport from the surface to groundwater. This research assessed the Trinity Aquifer vulnerability by incorporating major hydrogeological factors that affect and control the groundwater contamination using GIS-based DRASTIC along with major chemical factors using HYDRUS solute transport modeling. The study reclassified and refined subareas with different vulnerability potentials by overlaying various spatially referenced digital data layers. Additionally, sulfonamides transport was simulated for different vulnerable scenarios to estimate persistence of the antibiotic and potential concentrations reaching the aquifer, developing predicted methods to prevent, mitigate and remediate groundwater contamination caused by sulfonamides antibiotics.
How to cite: Zhang, K. and Mendoza, I.: Vulnerability assessment of the Trinity Aquifer in Texas due to sulfonamides antibiotics leaching to groundwater for, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1214, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1214, 2019.
Over the last half century, society’s dependence on insect-assisted pollination of crops has risen by over 300% globally, while recent findings have estimated a 76% decline in flying insect biomass over the last 27 years. These losses in invertebrate numbers are thought to be due to a possible combination of various factors including parasites and diseases, agricultural intensification, climate change and possible chemical exposure including pesticides such as neonicotinoids.
Neonicotinoids are one of the most widely used insecticides on the global market. Their systemic mechanisms allow for ease of application and relatively successful outcomes in controlling biting and sucking invertebrates, however neonicotinoids have been strongly associated with recent declines in non-target organisms. Many neonicotinoids come directly in contact with the soil, either through application as a seed coating or soil drench, or through spray drift and drip from foliar applications. Relatively little research has focussed on the movement, fate and interactions of these chemicals in UK soils under general field management strategies, although evidence suggests that the addition of soil bio-amendments, such as fertilisers, can influence the mechanisms behind pesticide mobility.
My study aims to quantify the effects of Acetamiprid-based pesticide mixtures on below-ground soil functions, through the analysis of their movement and behaviour in soils of contrasting organic matter contents. A secondary aim is to assess the impact of neonicotinoids on select non-target organisms.
We used 14C labelled Acetamiprid to track the behaviour of the mixtures compared to the pure active ingredient. Previous research has only used the pure active ingredient, however this isn’t representative of true field scenarios. These spiked pesticides were added to soils of contrasting organic matter content collected from a long-term experiment at Woburn Experimental Farm, Rothamsted Research. We assessed the behaviour of these mixtures across a range of leaching, sorption and mineralisation experiments.
The mineralisation of all mixtures was found to be comparatively slow, with <23% of any given chemical/SOM combination being mineralised over the 60 day experimental period. The highest mineralisation rates were in samples with the highest SOM levels. The preliminary leaching data found that >80% of each chemical was recovered from the soil during the experiment. This, combined with low sorption and mineralisation rates, suggests that neonicotinoids are highly persistent within the environment.
Ongoing work is being conducted to investigate the knock-on impacts and biological implications of acetamiprid use under true field conditions.
How to cite: Potts, J., Jones, D., Pywell, R., Macdonald, A., and Cross, P.: Neonicotinoids in the Environment- Fate and Impact, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-4746, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-4746, 2020.
Geogenic Cr(VI) contamination is a worldwide environmental issue which mainly occurs in areas where ophiolitic rocks crop out. In these areas Cr (VI) can reach high concentrations into groundwaters becoming highly dangerous for human health. Indeed Cr(VI) is recognized as highly toxic element with high mobility and bioavailability . Due to these features, starting from July 2017, Italian government has lowered the Cr(VI) limit value for drinking water to 10 µg/L. To improve the living standards in contaminated areas, it is needed (i) to understand the release and fate of contaminant during the water-rock interaction and (ii) to develop efficient remediation systems for natural polluted waters. In this regard, a complementary study on genesis and treatment of a Cr-rich groundwater coming from Italian ophiolitic aquifers was conducted. Reaction path modelling is a proven geochemical tool to understand the release of Cr and its oxidation from Cr(III) to Cr(VI) during the water-rock interaction. The generally accepted hypothesis of scientific community is that geogenic Cr(III) oxidation is driven by the reduction of trivalent and tetravalent manganese (Mn(III); Mn (IV))  whereas in this work the role of trivalent Fe hosted in serpentine minerals was re-evaluated. Unlike Mn, Fe is the main oxidant present in suitable amount in these rocks. Literature data confirmed the presence of Fe(III) into serpentine minerals hence reaction path modelling was performed varying the Fe (III)/Fe(tot) ratio ranging from 0.60 to 1.00. The theoretical paths, reproduce the analytical concentrations of relevant solutes, including Cr(VI), in the Mg-HCO3 water type hosted in the ophiolitic aquifers of Italy . With increasing of Fe(III)/Fe(tot) ratio in serpentine minerals, high Cr(VI) concentration hold into solution until high alkalinity values. In addition, the spring with the highest Cr(VI) content (75 µg/L) was treated to lower its concentration below the threshold values. In this work membrane technologies were used as innovative method considering their many benefits, like the improvement of product quality without using chemicals . A laboratory-scale set-up was used to carry out both Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) experiments. The experiments were conducted on different commercial membranes: one NF membrane module named DK (polyamide) and two RO membrane modules named AD (polyamide) and CD (cellulose).Tests were performed varying the operating pressures, and high Cr(VI) rejections (around 95%) were reached for all tested membranes, leading to a water containing Cr(VI) in concentrations below the threshold limits. The high flux, obtained already at lower operating pressures (27 L/m2h-10bar), combined with high selectivity towards Cr(VI) makes NF a favorable remediation option. The results obtained in this work are in line with the few data available in the literature for natural contaminated waters and there are quite promising for future scientific developments and application.
Marinho B. A. et al., 2019. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 26(3), 2203-2227
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How to cite: Fuoco, I., Figoli, A., Criscuoli, A., De Rosa, R., Gabriele, B., and Apollaro, C.: Geochemical modeling of chromium oxidation and treatment of polluted waters by RO/NF membrane processes, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19709, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19709, 2020.
The current research builds on the findings of a systematic literature review by the authors which recommends the need to work towards a standardised method for measuring the in vitro dermal absorption of HMW-PAH in soils. One part of the method is understanding the partitioning of the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAH) from soil to sebum found in skin. In vitro HMW-PAH soil-sebum partition coefficients (KSS) were measured for twelve soils collected from former UK gasworks. Concentrations of ∑16 USEPA PAH in the soils ranged from 51 to 1440 mg/kg, benzo[a]pyrene ranged from 3.2 to 132 mg/kg. Time series extractions (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h) at skin temperature (32°C) of HMW-PAH from sebum to soil for two samples were conducted to determine the maximum release time-step. The maximum HMW-PAH release time-step was determined as 4 h, which was subsequently used as the extraction time for the remaining samples. Evaluation of KSS data for the 4 h extractions showed that soil type and selected HMW-PAH properties (literature based molecular weight and octanol-carbon partition coefficients) affect the amount of HMW-PAH released from soil into sebum. Characterisation of soil properties was limited to total organic carbon, which showed no relationship to KSS. Selected soils showed distinctly higher K¬SS than others. The relationship between MW and KSS was statistically significant while the relationship between KOC and KSS was not statistically significant. Further research effort is required to improve our understanding of which soil and HMW-PAH properties affect the release of HMW-PAH from soil into sebum and the reasons why.
How to cite: Beriro, D. J., Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Thomas, R., Taylor, C., Craggs, J., Kim, A. W., Nathanail, P., and Vane, C. H.: Measurement of soil-sebum partition coefficients for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present at former gasworks, UK, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22446, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22446, 2020.
Pesticides are heavily used in agriculture to reduce crop losses due to pests, weeds and pathogens. The intensive and long-term use of pesticides raises major health and environmental concerns since a substantial part of applied pesticides does not reach the target and is distributed into the environment instead. Exposure data (i.e. data on occurrence and levels of different pesticide residues), a pre-requisite to perform comprehensive and cumulative pesticide risk assessments, are scarce and fragmented, especially for soil. As analysing all EU soils for pesticide residues is not realistic, the contamination status of EU soils has to be inferred. Given pesticide use data limitations, the representative uses of the active substances (a.s.) allowed in the EU market, which cover different application schemes and recommended application rates, can be used as a proxy to estimate the type and amount of pesticide residues in EU soils. These representative uses are also considered in the calculation of predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECs), the closest to a soil quality indicator when it comes to residues in soils of currently used pesticides. Although both pesticide representative uses and PECs are publicly available, this information is presented for individual a.s., in respective EU dossiers, which up to now were never compiled into a database and explored as such. Therefore, our study provides the first predictions on the total pesticide content in EU soils, calculated for 8 different crops (i.e. cereals, maize, root crops, non-permanent industrial crops, permanent crops, grapes, dry pulses-vegetables-flowers, and temporary grassland), 3 EU regions (i.e. Northern, Central and Southern Europe), and 2 pesticide use scenarios (i.e. all pesticides applied and no herbicides used). Such predictions are integrated into the Soil Quality Mobile App SQAPP, a recently launched and freely available tool that integrates existing soil quality information (covering both soil properties and soil threats) and provides tailored recommendations to improve soil quality. Furthermore, we present soil quality thresholds for all these crop-region-use combinations in terms of the number of active substances and the total pesticide content expected in soil. Our results indicate a much higher variety of products allowed in cereals than in other crops, yet the highest pesticide load is expected in dry pulses-vegetables-flowers and in grapes. At the most heavy use scenario (i.e. all allowed substances are applied, at the same time, and at the worst recommended use patterns), pesticide input can exceed 1,200 kg a.s. ha-1 year-1 (dry pulses-vegetables-flowers). Pesticide input is expected to be the highest in Southern Europe, and the lowest in Northern Europe or Central Europe, depending on crop type. Predicted pesticide levels in soil were in line with application data, with the highest contents in dry pulses-vegetables-flowers, and in Southern Europe. Predictions-based thresholds resulted in very low soil protection, especially when compared to measured data in literature, and measurement-based thresholds. Finally, our results reinforce the need of monitoring and surveillance programs for pesticide residues in soil, proper risk evaluation procedures for mixtures, as well as the need to establish threshold methodologies for pesticides.
How to cite: Silva, V., Yang, X., Fleskens, L., Ritsema, C., and Geissen, V.: Soil contamination by pesticide residues – what and how much should we expect to find in EU agricultural soils based on pesticide recommended uses? , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-16476, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-16476, 2020.
Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide, especially in conservation agriculture, where the lack of mechanical weed control often necessitates chemical inputs. In conservation agriculture, the elimination of tillage operations leads to changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Consequently, herbicide environmental fate may be potentially altered relatively to conventional tillage systems. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of conservation agriculture and conventional tillage on the adsorption of glyphosate and on the dissipation of glyphosate and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) at two depths, 0−5 and 5−20 cm.
The field trial was conducted from October 2018 to April 2019 at the Padua University Experimental Farm, North-East Italy. Glyphosate was applied as a formulated product (Roundup Power 2.0) at a dose of 1.44 kg/ha of the active ingredient. The dissipation of glyphosate and the formation/dissipation of AMPA were followed for 182 days after their application. The concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in the soil were analysed by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The dissipation of glyphosate was described by the first-order multicompartment model (FOMC), whereas the model for AMPA was composed of an FOMC degradation model for glyphosate and the single first-order degradation model for AMPA. The estimated trend of concentrations over time for both glyphosate and AMPA were used to derive their DT50 (time required for 50% dissipation of the initial concentration).
The results indicate an increase in glyphosate adsorption in non-tilled soil compared to the tilled soil, at both depths. Glyphosate initial dissipation was fast, followed by a slower decline. At 0–5 cm no significant difference was observed in glyphosate persistence between the two soil managements, whereas at 5–20 cm glyphosate was more persistent in non-tilled soil (DT50 18 days) than in tilled soil (DT50 8 days). The fast initial dissipation of glyphosate was reflected in an increase in the concentration of AMPA. AMPA persisted longer than glyphosate but, for this metabolite, no apparent effect was observed in response to the different soil management. The higher persistence of glyphosate under conservation tillage might increase the risk of on-site soil pollution due to the accumulation of this chemical, especially in the case of repeated applications of glyphosate. Nevertheless, high glyphosate adsorption observed in non-tilled soil may reduce the leaching potential to lower soil depths.
This abstract falls in the group “Soil contamination” and the subgroup “Experimental assessment”.
How to cite: Carretta, L., Cardinali, A., Zanin, G., and Masin, R.: Glyphosate and AMPA dissipation at different depths in conventional and conservation agriculture, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3348, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3348, 2020.
In year 1974, Monsanto introduced the glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] product RoundUp and in the 1990s also glyphosate resistant crops. Since then, and increasingly after the expiry of the patent, glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide. The estimation of the worldwide use of glyphosate as an active ingredient amounts to more than 800,000 tons/year (estimation from 2014). A herbicide of such wide spread use, commercial in agriculture and for personal use in gardens, has been found in many different environmental compartments (e.g. surface waters and food) and with negative impact on non-target organisms (e.g. glyphosate resistance in weeds, or bactericidal effects). Glyphosate persistence and degradation of the compound differ between strongly between soils. In this study, we focus on elucidating the factors contributing to the persistence and degradation of glyphosate in two contrasting soils. Different chemical additives (N, P, DOM), as well as pH change and microbial transfer alongside glyphosate application were investigated in a 14C-glyphosate multi-labeling approach, upon their effect on the glyphosate degradation. The study shows that pH initially has a strong positive impact the mineralization in both soils and the DOM addition only increased the mineralization slightly. On the other hand, phosphate addition shows contrasting results in both soils, and nitrate addition lowered the mineralization significantly. Microbial transfer did not have any significant effect on the mineralization. Furthermore, we identify the impact of adsorption of glyphosate in soil as one of the major factors reducing glyphosate degradation.
How to cite: Karlsson, A. S., Weihermüller, L., Köppchen, S., Vereecken, H., Dippold, M., and Spielvogel, S.: Analyzing the impact of soil properties on glyphosate degradation, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6667, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6667, 2020.
Broad contamination of systemic herbicide glyphosate –GLP– (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water has become one of the main environmental issues worldwide, raising awareness of the potential harmful effects to human health and ecosystems. Physical, chemical, and biological soil properties contribute to the complex interaction between GLP and the environment, that makes any prediction of adsorption, transport, and degradation dynamics still challenging.
Within a wide project –SWAT– that tries to link GLP and AMPA dynamics through the vadose zone with groundwater contamination, the specific goals of this work are: 1. monitoring soil and water contamination of GLP and AMPA in agricultural lands; 2. identifying the driving factors leading to site-specific soil-water contaminant interactions.
Two experimental sites were located in northeastern Italy (Conegliano and Valdobbiadene municipalities) in the winegrowing terroir of the Prosecco wine production, recently included in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Each site was equipped with two soil-water monitoring stations (25 m2 each), multi-sensor soil probes (temperature and water content) and suction lysimeters to monitor the full soil profile. Undisturbed soil cores were also collected and later analyzed for hydraulic, physical and chemical properties down to 70 cm. After GLP field contamination on November 2018 (0.188 g m-2), soil and water were systematically sampled from each site, starting immediately after contamination and thereafter at each rain event for 6 months. Adsorption coefficients (Kf) were estimated in laboratory in order to get information about GLP sorption to soil particles at different soil layers along the full soil profile. Site-specific dissipation kinetics (DT50) were also evaluated to better understand its decay rate.
First results revealed that GLP transport was highly site specific and locally affected by preferential flows when intense rainfall events occurred (12 mm h-1 max rainfall intensity): GLP showed strong binding affinity to soil particles in the topsoil layer and it likely bypassed the porous matrix towards the deepest layers, where it was detected as in the surface one. The GLP dissipation dynamic was completed after 6 months of experimentation, whereas AMPA was still detected in the topsoil layer, attesting the full degradation after almost 300 days. Site-specific laboratory and field data will be integrated and further discussed to better understand the fate of glyphosate and AMPA in the vadose zone.
How to cite: Mencaroni, M., Dal Ferro, N., Cardinali, A., Carretta, L., Costa, L., Mazzega Ciamp, S., Morari, F., Salanin, P., and Zanin, G.: Fate of glyphosate and AMPA in the vadose zone: dissipation, transport and adsorption , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13165, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13165, 2020.
Modern problems of acceptable limits of techno-sphere impact on the biosphere, optimizing the interaction of techno-sphere and the biosphere, forecasting consequences of technogenic accidents in the environment and organization of rehabilitation in the post-accident period, place absolutely new demands for knowledge. These challenges require urgent development of new methodological foundations to study mass transfer and transformation of substances, the structure of global biogeochemical systems in the biosphere. Chemical composition of oceans and seas is a result of substance migration and transformation on biogeochemical river-sea and ocean- atmosphere “barriers”, i.e. in sites of “life condensation”. Stability of these processes is the main prerequisite of the hydrosphere ecosystem stability. The use of a methodology of empirical generalization has resulted in establishing a system of chemical elements’ distribution in the hydrosphere which possesses great predictive potentials.
A comparison of elements’ composition of different phases on the global level within the hydrosphere-lithosphere-soil-atmosphere systems enabled to reveal non-linear character of redistribution of different elements between these phases which reflects a general relative increase of concentration of trace elements in the environment of living organisms due to biogeochemical processes. These processes are most active at the biogeochemical barriers, i.e. in the localities of "concentrated life" and are therefore inferred to result from the geologic activity of the ubiquitous living matter regulating its environment. The proposed nonlinearity index exhibits definite stability of the resulting living matter impact for different systems approximating 0.7: 1) 0.75 for proto lithosphere - sediment system; 2) 0.67 for river – ocean system; 3) 0.7 for ocean –– atmosphere system. The obtained value is believed to present a universal constant of biosphere reflecting biogenic stabilization of elements’ global cycles in the biosphere in the course of its evolution and corresponds to the biosphere concept of V.I. Vernadsky. The obtained values may be used as a reference values in estimation of the biosphere stability and anthropogenic contribution to transformation of the global biogeochemical cycles.
Vernadsky V.I. (1994) Living Matter and Biosphere. Moscow, Nauka, 672p. (in Russian).
Korzh V.D. (1974) Some general laws governing the turnover of substance within the ocean-atmosphere-continent-ocean cycle //Journal de Recherches Atmospherioques. France. Vol.8. N.3-4. P. 653-660.
Korzh V.D. (1991) Geochemistry of the Elemental Composition of the Hydrosphere. Moscow, “Nauka”, 243 p. (in Russian).
Korzh V.D. (2017) Biosphere. The formation of elemental compositions of the hydrosphere and lithosphere. Saar-Brucken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 63 p. (in Russian).
Korzh V.D. (2019) Transfer of trace elements in the ocean-atmosphere-continent system as a factor in the formation of the elemental composition of the Earth’s soil cover.//J. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. Vol.41. P. 1-7.
How to cite: Korzh, V.: Non-linear character of redistribution of chemical elements in the biosphere components as a result of the living matter activity, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8375, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8375, 2020.
Most part of the existing encyclopedic dictionaries and reference books define the notion of “toxic substances” as a certain group of elements and compounds capable of significantly worsening the physiological state of organism. With development of civilization the amount and variety of such substances is steadily increasing. The process is accompanied by a growing list of diseases of geochemical origin. Now the main efforts are focused on minimizing the consumption of the so-called toxicants although almost the whole world population is practically subjected to their impact. The prevailing inductive-empirical approach towards solution of the problem of toxicity, of course, gives useful results, but leads to an economically unacceptable increase in costs of its realization and, moreover, due to a specific spatial and temporal variability of the controlled objects the effective application of MPC (TLV) standards is significantly reduced.
The mentioned approach dominates but it does not exclude a deductive decision capable of providing the general solution of the problems of this class without a significant loss of accuracy and address capacity of the results. Such a solution can be found on the basis of theoretical biogeochemistry. Performed analysis enabled to draw to the following important inferences.
- Objectively “toxic” elements or compounds existed neither in the initial biosphere nor in modern noosphere, there existed only toxic concentrations.
- Diseases of a geochemical nature can be caused not only by toxic excess concentration of elements or substances but may also result from an artificial deficiency due to strict following of MPC prescriptions.
- The final result of the ecological and geochemical impact on living organisms is determined by specificity of spatial interference of the geochemical fields of natural and technogenic genesis.
- The problem of creating a universal algorithm for assessing the ecological and geochemical quality of the territory can be reduced to fixation of the difference between the ideal and the observed state of the environment.
The proposed approach does not have obvious contraindications, and the achieved level of development in measuring elements and compounds as well as that of computer technology makes it possible to practically implement the creation of a specialized technique.
A unique opportunity to test the hypothesis presented has appeared after the Chernobyl disaster, when the geochemical field of stable 127I has been shortly overlain by the field of the technogenic radioactive 131I.
Application of this approach opens up a new path to eliminating diseases of a geochemical nature and in the future will allow the creation of specialized decision-making systems for the safe organization of territories, the formation of the strategy an environmental-geochemical regulation and the prevention of microelementoses.
How to cite: Romanov, S. and Korobova, E.: Toxicity as a biogeochemical problem, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20726, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20726, 2020.
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China is around 11%, which is a serious public health challenge. Air pollution and personal habits have been cited as major causes of chronic kidney disease, but a number of studies have suggested that urbanization and meteorological factors may also play a role. Therefore, this study established a longitudinal population cohort composed of 47,204 Chinese residents, combined with geographical means to obtain PM2.5 and temperature data, and used multiple regression model and random forest algorithm to explore the impact of air pollution, urbanization and temperature on chronic kidney disease. The results showed that the contribution of temperature, urbanization and PM2.5 to CKD was second only to individual factors such as age and BMI, and the contribution of temperature and urbanization to eGFR was higher than that of PM2.5. This provides a new way of thinking for the study of non-communicable diseases such as chronic kidney disease. With the acceleration of climate warming and urbanization, more attention should be paid to the impact of urbanization and temperature on diseases.
How to cite: Liang, C.: Effects of air pollution, urbanization and temperature on chronic kidney disease, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3540, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3540, 2020.
Soils of urbanized and mining areas succeeded the main geochemical features of parent materials, as well as accumulate potentially toxic elements (PTE) from different anthropogenic sources. The latter resulted in the change of soil chemical composition and high level of PTE which may have negative reflection on people’s health. In this study 207 soil samples were collected from the entire territory of the city of Alaverdi hosting Alaverdi copper smelter. After the determination of Fe, Ba, Mn, Co, V, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, As and Mo concentrations by XRF the established data set was subjected for the PTE induced health risk assessment. In this study two commonly used health risk assessment approaches - Summary pollution index (Zc) – and Hazard Index (HI, US EPA)  were used to assess human health risk posed by the content of studied PTE in soil of Alaverdi city. The result showed that the detected concentrations are mainly the result of superposition of PTE contents introduced into the environment from natural mineralization processes and Alaverdi copper smelter related activities. The health risk assessment showed that the Zc values belonging to the extremely hazardous level has point-like shape and are surrounded by the hazardous and moderately hazardous levels, respectively. Summary pollution index showed that approximately 53 % of the city territory including the residential part is under the risk suggesting the increase in the overall incidence of diseases among frequently ill individuals, functional disorders of the vascular system and children with chronic diseases . The US EPA method were in line with the results of the Zc and indicated that the observed contents of elements are posing non-carcinogenic risk to adult mainly near the copper smelter. In the case of children single-element non-carcinogenic risk values greater than 1 were detected for As, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Mo in 122, 95, 86, 10, 10, 9 and 6 samples out of 207 soil samples and the mean HQ values decrease in the following order: As(2.41)>Fe(1.14)>Co(1.09)> Mn(0.61)>Pb(0.41)>Cu(0.32)>V(0.19)>Mo(0.11)>Cr(0.05)>Ba(0.03)>Zn(0.02). The multi-elemental non-carcinogenic risk observed in the entire territory of the city indicating an adverse health effect to children. The results of this study suggesting the need of immediate risk reduction measures with special attention to arsenic.
 E. K. Burenkov and E. P. Yanin, “Ecogeochemical investigations in IMGRE: past, present, future,” Appl. Geochemistry, vol. 2, pp. 5–24, 2001.
 C. C. Johnson, A. Demetriades, J. Locutura, and R. T. Ottesen, Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas. 2011.
 Y. E. Saet, B. A. Revich, and E. P. Yanin, Environmental geochemistry. Nedra, 1990.
 RAIS, “Risk Exposure Models for Chemicals User’s Guide,” The Risk Assessment Information System, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://rais.ornl.gov/tools/rais_chemical_risk_guide.html. [Accessed: 01-Jan-2020].
How to cite: Tepanosyan, G., Sahakyan, L., and Saghatelyan, A.: Application of two different health risk assessment approaches to detect soil potentially toxic element induced risk, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7812, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7812, 2020.
Nitrogen is an indispensable nutrient for the growth of plants and animals. It is also one of the key elements controlling the structure and function of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study of the nitrogen amount in the food chain system “crop-livestock-household” could safeguard human health and lay the foundation for food production. In this paper, we focused on Jiangsu Province county in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River as the research target area. The material flow analysis and mass balance method combined with field research were used to construct a food chain production-consumption nitrogen flow model, for analyzing quantitatively the nitrogen in the crop-livestock-household system. During 2000~2016, the total inputs of nitrogen in the food chain of Jiangsu Province area decreased from 3.38×106 t N yr-1 to 3.15×106 t N yr-1. The crop production subsystem has become the main nitrogen input source in the food chain (77.84%). This may be caused by the ever-increasing urbanization rate and the shrinkage of farmland.
Compared with 2000, the amount of waste nitrogen produced by the “crop-livestock-household” system in 2016 decreased by 31.17%. During this period, the poultry breeding subsystem contributed dominantly to the total waste nitrogen, which was 36.84%, followed by the household consumption subsystem of 35.90%, and 27.25% from the crop production subsystem. The waste nitrogen is mainly recycled through returning to the field and as feed. The nitrogen circulation rate is low (18.46~21.85%). The main sources of environmental nitrogen load include chemical fertilizer application, manure, straw and kitchen waste. The waste nitrogen utilization may recycle effectively the resources, and conform to the concept of building a resource-saving and environment-friendly society. The measures are benefits for sustainable development in society.
How to cite: Zhang, Y.: Quantification of Nitrogen in Food Chain Wastes in Jiangsu Province and Its Environmental Effects, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3825, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3825, 2020.
The present work proposes a novel screening tool to improve the quality of recreational coastal water. Indeed, the recreational potential of beach resort depends on its health status, which in marine cities may be threatened by increasing stress produced by anthropogenic activity. In particular, we focus on the beach near an estuary, which may be affected by a considerable load of contaminants, especially when the urban sewage system is combined and designed to spill untreated wastewater directly in the coastal water. In a few words, when the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) are activated, the bacterial concentration in the estuary increases, thereby resulting in a potential hazard for the swimmers’ health. In the present work, the bacterial transport is modelled through a physically-based stochastic framework, whereas the human health risk is evaluated by means of the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). As the human health risk is quantified, it is used to evaluate the Carrying Capacity indicator of the recreational coastal water. This indicator is defined as the number of swimmers that can be sustained by coastal water with an acceptable risk threshold. The results indicate that the Carrying Capacity increases by dilution processes and by reduction of the source concentration. This indicator may be viewed as a screening tool for policy-makers and other stakeholders. For instance, it can help to balance the resources needed to improve the sewage-system and the benefits coming from tourism and sustainable environmental policies, given that the beach quality, in turn, depends on the improvements in the sewage system.
How to cite: Galešić, M., Di Dato, M., and Andričević, R.: Why should we care about Carrying Capacity? A novel screening tool for the health risk in recreational waters near estuary, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6024, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6024, 2020.
Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 16:15–18:00
According to the framework of Pressure-State-Response, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).
How to cite: jing, Z. and shujie, Z.: Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-4426, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-4426, 2020.
The Chelyabinsk region is located in various geographical countries and zones: the Ural-mountainous country and the West Siberian low-lying country, which, in turn, occupy the mountain-forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones. The tense ecological situation of the region is associated with radioactive and intense technogenic pollution of the territory. Excess of the natural radiation background in the territory occurred after a major radiation accident in Kyshtym, which formed the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT), which was formed mainly in the Ural-mountain physiographic region in the north of the region. Industrial pollution caused by industrial emissionslarge enterprises and soil degradation as a result of mining operations. In general, the EURT covered 384 settlements ( 29.7%) in the Chelyabinsk region .
The aim of this work is to assess the contribution of natural, radionuclide, and technogenic factors to the level and risk of the spread of cattle leukemia in the Chelyabinsk region , one of the most disadvantaged Russian regions for this disease. cattle. Objects of research: cattle of black-motley breed, calves of different ages, fattening young animals, lactating cows. The monitoring duration was 1993-2018 years. On the EURT and in the zone of influence of the Techa and Bagaryak rivers, 5 regions of the Chelyabinsk region were investigated: Argayashsky, Kaslinsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Kunashaksky and Sosnovsky. The control for them was another 23 districts that were not contaminated with radioactive fallout after the accident at the Mayak Production Association.
A statistically significant association was established between the degree of radioactive contamination of the territory of the Chelyabinsk region and the intensity of the epizootic situation in cattle leukemia. The degree of influence of factors of the natural and socio-economic background on the frequency of occurrence and the extent of damage to animals from the disease is calculated. For the first time, simulation models are presented reflecting the relationship between the density of radionuclide contamination and the frequency of registration of dysfunctional sites, the number of infected VLCKR, patients rejected due to leukemia of animals. Cartograms of the spatial distribution of indicators of the relative registration frequency (stationarity index) and leukemia livestock infection rate were compiled. A comparative analysis of the cartograms of the epizootic situation with the maps of technogenic pollution, the state of the natural and socio-economic background established the confinement of the highest values of the situation tension to regions of high technogenic pollution, including radioactive (urbanized areas), with intensive dairy farming of forest and forest-steppe landscape zones. Using elements of logical modeling in the form of a logical function of nonlinear logical multiplication of the probability model of the occurrence of the disease and the model of the possible infection of the livestock with leukemia, 5 zones of epizootological risk were identified in the Chelyabinsk region for the period until 2020 . The areas of highest epizootological risk are the northern most urbanized areas of the region.
How to cite: Shkaeva, N., Shkaev, A., and Budarkov, V.: Assessment of the contribution of natural, technogenic and radionuclide factors to the spread of cattle leukemia in the Chelyabinsk region, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1995, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1995, 2020.
Association between PM2.5 exposure by inhalation and brain damages of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic mice
Pengfei Fu a,b,
Corresponding author⁎: Ken Kin Lam Yung a,b, ⁎ (email@example.com)
a Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.
b Golden Meditech Center for NeuroRegeneration Sciences
Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure increases the risk of neurological disorders. However, the relevance between PM2.5 and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) needs to be identified and the effect of PM2.5 exposure on the brain in AD mice remains unclear.
Objective: To assess the effects of PM2.5 exposure on AD and investigate the brain damage in AD transgenic mice exposed to PM2.5.
Methods: We searched articles from the database of PubMed for meta-analyses on the association between PM2.5 exposure and AD. Further, using a novel real-world whole-body inhalation exposure system, wild type (WT) and APP/PS1 transgenic mice (AD mice) were respectively exposed to filtered air (FA) or ambient PM2.5 for 8 weeks in Taiyuan, China. The pathological and ultrastructural changes and levels of Aβ-42, TNF-α, and IL-6 in brains in FA-WT mice, FA-AD mice, FA-PM2.5 mice, and PM2.5-AD mice were measured.
Results: Long-term PM2.5 exposure had the association with increased risks of dementia and AD by OR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.07–1.26) and 3.26 (95% CI 0.84–12.74) via meta-analysis. Both lightly- and heavily polluted countries showed such increased risks. In the open field test, the PM2.5-AD mice showed more significant degenerative symptoms of AD by the behavioral change in movement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that noticeable histopathological injury such as structural disorder, hyperemia, and sporadic inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain of PM2.5-AD mice, and transmission electron microscope results displayed that serious damage in the brain in PM2.5-AD mice, which maintained disorder of cristae and vacuolation of mitochondria, synaptic abnormalities, and loose myelin sheaths. Aβ-42, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in brains of PM2.5-AD mice had raised more strongly than that of FA-WT or FA-AD mice.
Conclusion: This study indicated a strong association between PM2.5 exposure and AD risks. PM2.5 significantly aggravated the severity of neuronal pathomorphological changes and inflammation in AD mice when Aβ-42 levels in the brain were visibly increased.
Car-SCs Treatment Technology and Study the Application of Inorganic Nanomatrices on MSC T-cells Proliferation (Project Ref: RMGS-2019-1-03).
How to cite: fu, P. and Yung, K. K. L.: Association between PM2.5 exposure by inhalation and brain damages of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic mice , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8360, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8360, 2020.
In geosciences, high precision isotope ratio determination provides essential information about processes in geological systems. Novel ambitions evolve closer to biological applications. Copper is an essential metal for human body taking part of several cellular processes (e.g. respiratory chain, enzyme function, iron metabolism, elimination of reactive oxygen species, cell signalling pathways etc). However, the disorder of copper homeostasis causes serious diseases like Wilson disease (Cu accumulation in liver caused by genetical disorder) and it could also promote tumour growth by supporting angiogenesis and metastasis formation [Denoyer et al., 2015]. Despite numerous experiments, focusing on copper concentration determination in different tumour tissues (e.g. breast, lung cancer, etc.) hoping to assist in tumour diagnosis, the results are not convincing enough. However, previous studies on hepatocellular cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma showed that tumour tissue appears to be relatively enriched in 65Cu compared to normal tissue whereas the δ65Cu in blood of tumorous patient decreased according to data obtained from control population [Balter et al., 2015, Lobo et al., 2017]. Our main aim is to elaborate a method to understand better the change in 63Cu/65Cu stable isotope ratio during tumour growth. In this approach, we present our first results on copper isotope ratio determination in a xenograft mouse model. Our model was established in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) mice by injecting human cancer cells (1x107 cells) subcutaneously. After the tumour reached approximately 2-3 cm diameter, the tumour mass was cut it in small, equal pieces and transplanted further into 10 mice increasing the experimental set-up homogeneity. All the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture under deep terminal anaesthesia within four weeks. Tumour and organs were removed by ceramic knife then were frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C. We measured the copper concentration and δ65Cu in the tumour tissue, blood, liver, kidney and brain. A clean laboratory ambience was chosen to perform the sample preparation processes decreasing the environmental contamination. Separation of copper from other biologically essential element (Na, Mg, Fe, Zn) interfering the copper isotope measurement is a serious condition of the preparation [Lauwens et al., 2017]. Effects of sodium (23Na40Ar+) and magnesium (25Mg40Ar+) on copper isotope ratio were solved by choosing not the peak center but the interference-free plateau. Our measurements have been carried out on a Thermo Neptune PLUS multicollector mass spectrometer equipped with 9 moveable Faraday detectors, 3 amplifiers with a resistance of 1013 Ohm, and 6 amplifiers with a resistance of 1011 Ohm, in wet plasma conditions. The mass spectrometric measurement of the copper isotope ratio is doped either with Ni or Ga reference material which have a well-known isotope ratios.
Balter V. et al. PNAS 2015; 112: 982−985.
Denoyer D. et al. Metallomics 2015; 7: 1459−76.
Lauwens S. et al. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2017; 32: 597−608.
Lobo L. et al. Talanta 2017; 165: 92−97.
How to cite: Kiss, G., Vetlényi, E., Varga, L., Krencz, I., Dankó, T., Rácz, G., Szabó, C., and Palcsu, L.: Geomedical application of copper isotope ratios: change of δ65Cu in xenograft model of human cancers, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18582, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18582, 2020.
The comparative assessment of the levels of content and migration parameters of biologically active chemical elements in the biogeochemical food chains of the main localities of the Urov endemic disease in the Eastern Transbaikalia: rocks-soils-plants-animal hair, milk was conducted. The differentiated polyelement microelementosis with an excess of Sr , Mn, Cr, Ni, in some cases – P, Ba, As, Zn and deficiency of Se, J, Cu, and Mo is typical in Urov biogeochemical provinces of Eastern Transbaikalia against the background territories. Soil landscapes are not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease. Parameters of migration of chemical elements in the soil-plant complex reflected on their content in wheat, hair cover of animals and milk cows. The sources of this imbalance are soil-forming rocks, specific conditions of soil formation (accumulation of organic matter in freezing soils of narrow valleys with a high degree of moisture and low flow, and selective concentration by plants). For floodplain soils with a high level of organic matter is characterized by a high content of micromycetes of the genus Fusarium as their species composition and abundance. The data obtained are consistent with the results of research by Chinese scientists on the assessment of the chemical elemental composition of hair in healthy children and with Urov Kashin-Beck pathology  and considered as risk factors in the genesis of this endemic disease.
- Ermakov V.V., U. A. Gulyaeva, S. F. Tyutikov, T. G. Kuz’mina, and V. A. Safonov. Biogeochemistry of Calcium and Strontium in the Landscapes of Eastern Transbaikalia. Geochemistry International, 2017, 55 (12). P. 1105–1117. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0016702917090026
- Wang X., Ning Y., Zhang P., Li C., Zhou R., Guo X. Hair multi-bioelement profile of Kashin-Beck disease in the endemic regions of China. J Trace Elem Med Biol., 2019. 54 (July 2019). P. 79-97. https://rareomics.healx.io/disease/kashin-beck-disease.
How to cite: Ermakov, V., Gulyaeva, U., Danilova, V., Safonov, V., Tyutikov, S., and Degtyarev, A.: Urov endemic disease: peculiarities of biogeochemical food chains, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2206, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2206, 2020.
In Estonia, natural remedies were commonly used during the first half of the 19th century. Thanks to its specific geological and geomorphological characteristics, Estonia has several significant deposits of lacustrine and marine curative (or therapeutic) mud, which has public health and commercial benefits. Many Estonian spas have traditionally incorporated a combination of natural remedies with a range of physical therapies, including gentle exercise, massage and heat and water therapies. Yet, the mud research in Estonia has been stagnating since the 1990s, and therefore one of the main limiting factor for the redevelopment of the public and commercial use is a lack of up-to-date scientific understanding about the sediment composition and deposit characteristics.
There is a long-term tradition in using fine-grained sediments (mud) for cosmetic and medical purposes but more precise information about the characteristics of such sediments is lacking. Since there are no specific standards regarding the bio-geo-chemical composition of curative mud, only the different geochemical and bioactive compound groups could be identified.
We reviewed the regional history of curative mud and the existing scientific rationale for the public and commercial applications of mud for healing purposes. We mapped spatial distribution organic and mineral matter, heavy metals in the surface sediments Estonian deposits of curative mud. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were controlled for the Haapsalu curative mud. Importantly, the geochemical characterisation is used to provide insights into all of the mud deposits and the broader ecosystem services of muds. The presence of heavy metals in mud is not always dangerous because many factors can affect their toxicity, including pH, and the oxygen, mineral and organic content. Muds can be used in assessing environmental quality, since the pollutants contained in them reflect the conditions of the water-body they were deposited in. The mechanisms of action of the curative mud are not fully elucidated; the net benefit is probably the result of a combination of mechanical, thermal and chemical effects. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of balneology.
How to cite: Kapanen, G. and Terasmaa, J.: Balneology in Estonia: importance of the geochemical backgound information of the Estonian curative mud , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8165, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8165, 2020.
Modern geoinformation technologies are widely used in spatial data analysis including medical geography locating spatial distribution of site-specific diseases. Following obviously essential problems the major part of such maps have been constructed for the most dangerous diseases. Although thyroid goiter has been known since ancient times, but it was not earlier than the middle of XIXth century when Chatain has related this disease to deficiency of the particular chemical element (iodine). And not earlier than 1938 Vinogradov has coined the notion of biogeochemical provinces to distinguish areas of specific endemic disease of geochemical origin and summarized natural factors causing iodine deficiency in local diets and contributing to goiter manifestation. The Chernobyl accident has highlighted the problem of a combined negative impact of radioiodine contamination and stable iodine deficiency. Technogenic and natural isotopes of iodine have specific spatial structure and this fact opened new prospects in identification of areas under different risk levels by using GIS technology. To study the geochemical factors responsible for distribution of the thyroid gland diseases in Chernobyl fallout area we have created and develop a specialized geographic information system basing on the idea of a two-layers spatial structure of modern noosphere (Korobova, 2017) according to which the natural geochemical background reflected in the soil cover structure is overlain by technogenic contamination fields. As a result an interferential imagery is produced. This image can be interpreted as a risk map which in turn may be verified by health effects. The study was performed for 4 regions subjected to the Chernobyl accident (Bryansk, Oryol, Kaluga and Tula oblast’s). An overlay of natural iodine deficiency and technogenic iodine fallout map layers classified by 6 zones from minimum to maximum risk allowed to identify 12 zones and to evaluate a combined risk for 93 rural districts. Comparison of the created combined risk map and radionuclide contamination map with regional medical data on standardized incidence of thyroid cancer (code C-73 ICD-10) had a higher correlation (r = 0.493, n = 93) compared to the map of the levels of radionuclide loss. All this, obviously, demonstrates that the proposed GIS technology will be useful to adequately minimize in any case thyroid diseases.
Korobova, E.M. Principles of spatial organization and evolution of the biosphere and the noosphere. Geochem. Int. 55, 1205–1282 (2017) doi:10.1134/S001670291713002X
How to cite: Baranchukov, V., Korobova, E., and Romanov, S.: Application of Geoinformation Technologies for minimization of thyroid gland diseases in the impact areas of the radioiodine fallout, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9000, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9000, 2020.
Soil and sediment contamination by heavy metals (HMs) can create a significant risk to human health. Quite a few human activities produce waste, much of which is discharged in soils as well as rivers and other water bodies where they accumulate in sediments. The behavior of pollutants in the terrestrial ecosystems is characterized by their fractional composition rather than their total content in the soil and sediments. To determine HMs there are different sample preparation techniques: sifted through a sieve with a hole diameter of 1 mm (AAB; McLaren, Crawford 1973; Miller et al, 1986; etc), of 2 mm (EDTA, EDTPA, etc), of 0.25 mm (Tessier et al, 1979). Another problem is the readsorption of metals that depends on the extraction conditions. Due to the fact that there are a number of difficulties in comparing the results obtained by different methods of extraction.
The main objective of this work was to study the influence of sample preparation and readsorption processes on the extractability of HMs from soil and bottom sediments in the model experiment. The experimental design included the control (original uncontaminated soil - Haplic Chernozem), treatments with the addition of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb at a rates of 2, 10 and 20 maximum permissible concentration. The metal compounds extracted with the 1 N CH3COONH4 (AAB) are classified as exchangeable. Different sample preparation techniques has been used: the air-dry soil was sieving through a sieve with holes in 1 mm and with holes in 0.25 mm. The assessment of HM readsorption processes in soil was based on the comparative analysis of the results of multiple extraction of metals by AAB static extraction (shake for 1 hour and set aside for a day, 10 times) and dynamic conditions (10 times continuous processing).
It was found that the extraction of HM during sample preparation through a sieve of 0.25 mm was higher than through a sieve of 1 mm (to 3-17%). This is due to the larger surface of soil particles. These differences were manifested both in unpolluted soil and sediments and at different levels of their pollution. With the increasing contamination level the differences were more noticeable. Under static conditions a single AAB extraction does not extract the entire stock of mobile forms of HMs. Dynamic extraction of heavy metals from the soil and sediments, when conditions do not allow to achieve equilibrium, the processes of metal readsorption are eliminated, which leads to greater HM extraction from the soil and sediments.
Thus, the state of the analyzed sample has a significant influence of HMs extraction. To analyze and compare the results of fractionation of HM compounds from soils, it is necessary to take into account the sample preparation used and extraction time required in each method.
This work was supported by grant of the Russian Scientific Foundation, project no. 19-74-00085.
How to cite: Burachevskaya, M., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., and Kalinichenko, V.: Methodological aspects of extracting heavy metals from soils and sediments, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-635, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-635, 2019.
The aim of the research was to study iodine in natural waters of different age aquifers in the Bryansk and Oryol regions (Russia), primarily in the waters used by local residents of these regions for drinking purposes. The low iodine concentration in food and drinking water can lead to the development of thyroid gland pathologies, which is typical for the non-Chernozem zone of Russia, including the Bryansk and Oryol regions.
The analysis was based on the original data on the sample collected the field work in the Bryansk region (2007-2013) and in the Oryol region (2016-2017). In addition to iodine concentration, the main geochemical parameters (pH, Eh, salinity) were determined in the selected waters.
The results confirmed the previously established significant variation of iodine concentration, both in the Bryansk region (0.7 - 41.19 mcg/l, n=267) and in the Oryol region (1.12 - 36.8 mcg/l, n=23). The most contrasting values of iodine are found for groundwater’s originating from upper Devonian and Cretaceous aquifers. The dependence of iodine concentration in the waters of the Bryansk region on salinity (r=0.39, n=267), as well as on the content of Ca (r=0.38, n=119, wells) and Mg (r=0.33, n=110, water supply), was shown earlier . The relationship of the iodine concentration in waters of the Oryol region to their salinity appeared to be also significant (r=0.32, n=23).
Surface waters of the Oryol region were characterized by low iodine concentration (median-7.40 mcg/l, n=8). Even the maximum value (9.32 mcg/l) does not exceed the lower limit of the hygienic standard, equal to 10 mcg/l. The obtained value is rather close to median one found for the Bryansk region (6.76 mcg/l, n=110). The lowest median iodine concentration in the Oryol region was registered in borehole waters (2.96 mcg/l, n=9), which is likely to be due to their aquifer features. In the Bryansk region, iodine concentration in borehole waters is lower than in surface and well waters (5.82 mcg/l, n=30). This seems to be due to the fact that the ground water of Quaternary alluvial and fluvioglacial deposits are used for decentralized water supply in both areas. High iodine level of the concentration Oryol region was observed in tap water (median-27.16 mcg/l, n=6). Similar values of iodine concentration were found in deep-lying groundwater in the North-Eastern area of the Bryansk region. The higher amount of iodine in the underground waters of deep-lying areas can be explained by their chemical composition high salinity this was proved the Bryansk region [1, etc.].
The study was carried out with partial financial support by RFBR grant No. 13-05-00823.
- Kolmykova L. I., Korobova E. M., Korsakova N. V., Berezkin V. Yu., Danilova V. N., Khushvakhtova S. D., Sedykh E. M. Assessment of iodine and selenium content in drinking waters of the Bryansk region depending on water-bearing rocks and migration conditions. "Actual problems of ecology and nature management" Collection of scientific works. 2014. Pp. 140-144.
How to cite: Berezkin, V., Kolmykova, L., Korobova, E., and Kulieva, G.: A study of iodine concentration in drinking waters of Bryansk and Oryol regions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21934, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21934, 2020.
Introduction: Podoconiosis, a form of non-filarial elephantiasis, is a geochemical disease associated with individuals exposed to red clay soil from alkalic volcanic rock. It is estimated that globally 4 million people suffer from the disease, though the exact causal agent is unknown. This study is the first analysis in Cameroon to compare high resolution ground-sampled geochemical soil variables and remote sensing data in relation to podoconiosis prevalence and occurrence.
Aim: To investigate the associations of soil mineralogical and element variables in relation to podoconiosis prevalence and occurrence in Cameroon.
Methods: In this study, exploratory statistical and spatial data analysis were conducted on soil and spatial epidemiology data associated with podoconiosis. The studied soil data was comprised of 194 samples from an area of 65 by 45 km, containing 19 minerals and 55 elements. Initial proximal analysis included a spatial join between the prevalence data points and the closest ground-sampled soil variables. In addition, the soil variables were interpolated to create a continuous surface. At each prevalence data point, soil values from the interpolated surfaces were extracted. Correlation and logistic regression analysis were carried out on both the proximal analysis data set and the interpolated soil variables. The interpolated soil variables were also analysed using principal component analysis, to identify any patterns or clusters, regarding podoconiosis occurrence.
Results: Bivariate analysis of the proximal and interpolated data set identified several statistically significant soil variables associated with podoconiosis. Correlation analysis identified several soil variables with a statistically significant positive Spearman rho value in relation to podoconiosis prevalence. Logistic regression analysis identified several statistically significant soil variables with odds ratio values greater than 1, with respect to the podoconiosis occurrence data. The significant variables included barium, beryllium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, strontium, thallium, potassium feldspar, mica and quartz. Barium, beryllium, potassium, sodium, quartz, mica and potassium feldspar have been previously identified in the literature in relation to podoconiosis occurrence. The PCA biplots showed no definite groupings of soil compositions with respect to podoconiosis occurrence. However, the envelope of the 95% confidence ellipse, representing prevalence data with at least one case of podoconiosis, does begin to separate as the soil variables suggested to be associated with podoconiosis occurrence increase and reach maximal values.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that the key minerals and elements identified in this study may play a role in the pathogenesis of podoconiosis or could be disease covariates. These significant results have led to ongoing research within this project to examine the utilisation of medium and high-resolution hyperspectral methods to identify if podoconiosis-associated soil variables, such as quartz, are detectable remotely. Data can then be used to predict areas at risk using multivariate machine learning techniques theorising a link between prevalence, presence and combinations of multiple soil related variables.
This study is supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Health Research Unit on NTDs at BSMS (16/136/29). The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.
How to cite: Gislam, H., Burnside, N., Brolly, M., Deribe, K., Davey, G., Wanji, S., and Suh, C. E.: Links between soil composition and podoconiosis occurrence and prevalence in Cameroon, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7624, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7624, 2020.
To achieve the goals set by the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development, it is imperative to create sustainable solutions to recovery marginal lands (e.g. landfills or abandoned mining areas) and create conditions for agriculture activities, but most importantly is a concern that deserves political priority. Landfills, poses health and environmental concerns due to the presence of potentially hazardous elements (PHE), among other contaminants that cannot be degraded leading to soil and water contamination, with increasing concern in the African continent. In 2018, a Report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the Republic of Guinea-Bissau reported that waste management is one of the major problems that the country faces. Thus, it is essential to create solutions, beyond contaminated wastes management, such as the rehabilitation of such areas. A potential rehabilitation strategy is the combination of phytostabilization with Technosols. Phytostabilization uses plants to decrease mobility or immobilize PHE in the rhizosphere. These plants should also have low PHE translocation factors from the soil/roots to the shoots. For the Technosols construction it can be used a mixture of different kinds of wastes from different origins (e.g. landfill, construction) to obtain a anthropic soil whose properties (e.g. fertility, water-holding capacity, structure) decrease PHE availability and promote plant growth, minimizing the risk to both human health and the environment. A possible strategy for the rehabilitation of contaminated areas, could be the establishment of an agroforestry system - by intercropping legumes, towards phytostabilization, using cashew as a case study due to its importance as a revenue commodity in West Africa countries (e.g.Guinea-Bissau). However, it is of utmost importance to identify the nature/quantity of PHE and wastes as well as climatic conditions for each contaminated/degraded site, before creating an agroforestry system in those areas, thus ensuring the sustainability of the phyto-geo-technology towards food security. Furthermore, potential alternative revenues obtained from the agroforestry system arise. As such, we present a potential rehabilitation agroforestry system that can in the future be useful for African countries attain the goals set for 2030 and beyond.
How to cite: Monteiro, F., Abreu, M. M., Correia, A. M., and Vidigal, P.: Agroforestry systems towards rehabilitation of West Africa marginal areas through an integrated green biotechnology approach, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11355, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11355, 2020.
Land degradation is a major challenge, particularly in intensive agriculture areas such as typical vineyards. Soil contamination with heavy metals is a widespread phenomenon in vineyards, due to the intensive use of pesticides, fertilizers, manure and slurry. As a result, vineyard soils have accumulated heavy metals and other trace elements that may be phytotoxic, non-biodegradable and persistent, which represents a long term threat to the crop system and to the food chain. In Portugal, vineyard area represents the fourth largest area in Europe (178770 ha), being one of the most relevant crops. Different approaches, such as, environmental programs and innovative management practices have been adopted over the last years, in order to minimize soil contamination by heavy metals. However, the establishment of quality standards for heavy metals in agriculture soils are mainly based on their total content, which is insufficient to estimate their environmental potential risk. The toxicity of metals does not depend only on their total concentration, but rather on their availability. Nevertheless, knowledge on the “bioavailable fraction” of heavy metals on agriculture soils, and particularly in vineyards, is still limited. This study, developed under iSQAPER research project, aims to assess the total and available heavy metal content in vineyards managed under different management practices: (1) no tillage, (2) integrated production, and (3) conventional farming. The integrated production and the conventional farming in the study sites have been intensively managed for more than 5 years, and more than 30 years in the no tillage vineyard. The study was performed in 2018, based on soil sampling before and after pesticide application (April and July, respectively). Soil samples were also analyzed for pH, soil organic matter content (SOM), total and available (DTPA-extractable) heavy metals content (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni). Preliminary results show higher content of total Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni in the vineyard managed under no tillage than in the farms with conventional and integrated production practices. Cupper is the heavy metal with highest total concentrations, mainly due to the intensive application of Cu-based fungicides. In the vineyards with no tillage, the long term practices have led to total levels of Cu above the soil quality standards. Moreover, similar contents in total Zn were also observed in no- tillage and integrated production practices. The higher content of SOM observed in vineyards under integrated production may have favored the Zn accumulation in the topsoil layer of vineyards. Higher content of organic matter, were found in integrated production farming than in no-tillage and conventional practices, 2.6%, 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Understanding total and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals in vineyards is crucial to assess their potential toxicity on plants, animals and humans. The assessment of the best agricultural management practices is a key factor to mitigate land degradation in vineyards.
How to cite: Veiga, A., Carla Ferreira, C., Boulet, A.-K., Caetano, A., Gonzalez-Pelayo, Ó., Abrantes, N., Keizer, J., and Ferreira, A.: Assessment of total and available heavy metal contents in vineyards managed under different agriculture practices, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20543, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20543, 2020.
It is estimated that the world population reach 9.1 billion in 2050 resulting in increasing food demand and consumption, but also waste production. Moreover, to help achieve the goals set by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is imperative to develop sustainable strategies for the recovery marginal lands (e.g. landfills or abandoned mining areas) and create conditions for agriculture activities. Thus, there is a need to increase agricultural production and to create sustainable waste management approaches. Several landfills pose health and environmental concerns associated to non-selective deposition of wastes, which present potentially hazardous elements (PHE), and inexistence of environmental management systems. Therefore, leachates rich-in PHE can spread to adjacent areas leading to soil and water contamination. This is particularly concerning considering the growing rate of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) population that will be living in urban or peri-urban areas, and practice subsistence farming in those areas. For SSA it is estimated that by 2050 about 50% of the population will be living in towns and cities. The recovery of landfills, in addition to other environmental management measures, can involve the development of a secure plant cover that creates conditions for agriculture activities, while protecting the food-chain, but also improve environmental and landscape impacts. Plant species selected for green cover should have the ability to decrease the mobility or immobilize PHE in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, these plant species should also have low PHE translocation factors from the soil/roots to the shoots. Plants with these characteristics are not common, and it is necessary to increase our efforts to identify them. Moreover, in the scope of SSA it is important that these species should be native and known by the population. The study of African crops behaviour, such as Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, can be a promising option since Lablab shows the ability to accumulate PHE in the roots and low translocation factors from the soil/roots to the shoots, resulting the concentrations present in the shoots safe for animal consumption. It is important to point that the characteristics of each landfill can be totally different as well as climatic conditions where is located the landfill, thus the initial and multidisciplinary characterization of the study area is crucial. Moreover, the ecophysiological plant behaviours, namely PHE accumulation in the edible part, depends on plant species and edafoclimatic conditions, so more studies should be done in order to assess the impact in the food-chain.
How to cite: Vidigal, P., Santos, E. S., Correia, A. M., Monteiro, F., and Abreu, M. M.: Perspective of the rehabilitation of marginal areas: the case of Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11421, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11421, 2020.
We studied the case of the Andean region in Colombia as example of non-mechanized small farming systems in which farmers use handheld sprayers to spray pesticides. This is the most common technique to spray pesticide in developing countries. To better understand the spatial distribution of airborne pesticide drift deposits on the soil surface using that spray technique, nine different spatial interpolation methods were tested using a surrogate tracer substance (Uranine) i.e. classical approaches like the linear interpolation and kriging, and some advanced methods like spatial vine copulas, the Karhunen-Loève expansion of the underlying random field, the integrated nested Laplace approximation and the Empirical Bayesian Kriging used in ArcMap (GIS). This study contributes to future studies on mass balance and risk assessment related to environmental drift pollution in developing countries.
How to cite: Garcia-Santos, G., Scheiber, M., and Pilz, J.: Testing statistical methods to predict pesticide drift deposition, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11014, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11014, 2020.
Predicting the fate of pesticides released into the natural environment is necessary to anticipate and minimize adverse effects far from the contamination source. These effects arise due to the movement of pesticides in surface water and can take place via drift, surface runoff and subsurface flow. A number of models have been developed to predict the behavior, mobility, and persistence of pesticides. These models should account for key hydrological processes, such as crop growth, pesticide application, transformation processes and field management practices.
In this work, Pesticide Water Calculator PWC model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is applied to simulate the fate and transport of pesticides in the unsaturated zone of an aquifer. The model is used to estimate the daily concentrations of pesticides in the Valencia aquifers (Spain). In these aquifers, pesticide concentration values have been found to be greater than the Maximum Concentration Levels (MCLs) established by Spanish Legislation.
The simulations carried out in this work address different environmental scenarios and include a sensitivity analysis of the parameters used in the model. Results of the PWC model provide a crucial first step towards the development of pesticide risk assessment in Valencia region. Results also show that numerical simulation is a valid tool for the analysis and prediction of the fate and transport of pollutants in soil and groundwater.
How to cite: Pérez Indoval, R., Cassiraga, E., and Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.: Modelling fate and transport of pesticides: the case study of the contamination in Valencia aquifers., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21704, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21704, 2020.
Glyphosate (GLP) has been the most frequently used herbicide worldwide, including Europe. Due to its systemic, post-emergence, and non-selective characteristics, it offers optimal weed control without the need of mechanical treatments. Therefore, it is widely used in no-till practices. However, increasing awareness of its potential harmful effect to human health and ecosystems has led numerous countries to restrict or, even, ban its use. The EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate mode) model has been selected as a screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater to glyphosate contamination under different pedo-climatic and agronomic conditions across the Veneto Region (NE Italy), an area where the interaction of different pedo-climatic and agronomic conditions makes it difficult to predict site-specific GLP movement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a modified version of EPIC that includes a fast solution of Richards’ equation to predict GLP dynamics under shallow water table conditions. The experimental site was in Northeastern Italy and consisted of eight drainable lysimeters; 4 treatments, replicated twice, in factorial combination of two management practices (conventional -CV- and conservation -CA- agriculture) and two water table levels (60 and 120 cm). Degradation and movement of GLP in the soil profile were monitored in 2019 from May to September. The herbicide (144 mg m-2) was applied on bare soil in CV and on the cover crop (Secale cereale) in CA. Water samples were systematically collected at 15, 30 and 60 cm depth using suction cups, whose suction was regulated by an automated system that combined matric potential readings, provided by electronic tensiometers, with a vacuum regulator. Water samplings from groundwater were also performed. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth every other week. Weather and soil data were used as input to EPIC, while the GLP experimental results, along with yields, soil water content, evapotranspiration and water percolation data, were used to calibrate (from 2011 to 2017) and validate (from 2018 to 2019) the model. In all lysimeters, GLP reached the groundwater the day after the first irrigation event, with higher leaching in CV than in CA and at 120 than at 60 cm. After 40 days, GLP was almost completely dissipated in CA soil, while it was still detected in CV. EPIC was able to acceptably reproduce evapotranspiration (R2=0.76), yields (R2=0.74) and water percolation (R2= 0.59-0.90). In general, GLP predictions compared well with observations but the predictions in CV treatments were closer to observations than in CA treatments. This work showed the robustness of the modified EPIC, suggesting its use as a tool to assess the potential vulnerability of the groundwater under different management scenarios and water table levels.
How to cite: Longo, M., Dal Ferro, N., Izaurralde, R. C., Cabrera, M., Grillo, F., Lazzaro, B., Cardinali, A., Zanin, G., and Morari, F.: Calibration and validation of the EPIC model to predict glyphosate movement with different agronomic practices under shallow water table conditions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11210, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11210, 2020.
Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is a metabolite of microbial degradation of the widely used herbicide glyphosate and other phosphonate compounds, such as detergents. In the soil, AMPA has a strong adsorption than the glyphosate. No studies have been reported on adsorption of AMPA in the soil profile. There are only a few studies of retention in superficial horizons of the soil. In this sense, the objective of this study is to determine the adsorption coefficients of AMPA in the three main horizons of a typical Argiudoll.
The adsorption isotherms were performed by shaking 1 g of soil in 10 ml of CaCl2 (0,01M) at different concentrations of AMPA (0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 ppm). Six replications were performed for each main horizon (A-B-C). The samples were incubated and agitated at 25 °C for 24 hours to reach equilibrium. Then it was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. The concentration of AMPA was quantified in UPLC MS/MS (Waters®). The experimental data was adjusted following the Freundlich model. At the same time, physical-chemical determinations of each horizon were made in order to characterize the soil.
The percentage of AMPA adsorption was greater than 91, 85 and 74% of the concentration applied, for all concentration, in horizons A, B and C, respectively. These percentages decreased for each horizon from lower to higher concentration. If the adsorption between horizons is compared for each applied concentration, horizon B is the one that presents the highest percentages of adsorption of AMPA, followed by A, and then C. Only in the highest concentration used (100 ppm), horizon A registers the highest percentage of adsorption with respect to the other horizons. In this sense, the Kf values obtained were 295, 329 and 152 for the horizons B, A and C, respectively, with significant differences for the latter.
When looking for correlations between Kf values and the soil properties, it was found that the cation exchange capacity, K content and percentage of clays are the properties that correlate most strongly with the Kf value. On the other hand, the percentage of sand and the pH showed a strong negative correlation with Kf.
The results obtained indicate that, in soils (or horizons) with a high clay content, the AMPA is strongly retained, decreasing the probability of being transported to the underground water.
How to cite: Gonzalo Mayoral, E., Aparicio, V., Costa, J. L., and De Gerónimo, E.: Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) retention in different soil profile horizons, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1742, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1742, 2019.
Agricultural land is the first pesticide recipient after application. Even if the pesticides are applied in accordance with the regulations, only a smaller amount reaches their objectives (weed or pest), while the rest represents possible environmental pollutants (Hvězdová et al., 2018). In this case, the pesticides they become the non-point source of contamination.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of summer crop practices on the concentration of pesticides in surface water and groundwater. In soybean and corn crops, next to surface water courses, 2 freatimeters were installed. Groundwater depth was evaluated in six moments (19/12/2018, 4/1/2019, 14/1/2019, 8/2/2019, 15/2/2019 and 25/2/2019). Water samples were extracted and the concentration of 45 organic molecules (pesticides and degradation products) was determined with a UPLC MS / MS. Once the concentration of each molecule was quantified, it was added to establish the proportion corresponding to the total of a) glyphosate + AMPA; b) Atrazine + hydroxy-atrazine + desetyl-atrazine + desisopropyl-atrazine; c) 2,4D and d) other molecules.
The groundwater was always at a depth greater than 1.30 m in the freatimeters. On average, the proportion of the sum of molecules was: glyphosate metabolite > atrazine metabolite > 2.4D > other organic molecules. The sum of molecules ranged from 0.17 to 39.1 µg l-1. On the other hand, the sum of molecules ranged from 1.3 to 12.5 µg l-1 during the evaluation period. On average, the proportion of the sum of molecules was: glyphosate + metabolite > Atrazine + metabolite > 2.4D other organic molecules.
These preliminary results indicate that the grain production system generates an impact evidenced by the presence of synthetic organic molecules in the water. It is important to adjust crop management practices to avoid and / or minimize that impact and its environmental consequences.
How to cite: Costa, J. L., Angelini, H., De Geronimo, E., and Aparicio, V.: Summer crops and the impact of pesticides on surface and underground water in the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1775, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1775, 2019.
Soil losses due to water erosion exceed the tolerance in the edafoclimatic conditions of the rolling pampas. Erosion sediments transport pesticides outside their own limits. Increased knowledge about its polluting potential would allow agronomic practices to be redirected towards sustainability. The objectives of this work were to: a) analyze herbicide distribution patterns frequently used in agricultural production and b) evaluate some herbicide and soil properties to explain their landscape distribution pattern. In an area under exclusively agricultural production of the upper basin of Pergamino stream, rain simulations were carried out in different landscape positions (upland, mid slope, and lowland). In the upland and mid slope (well-drained Mollisols) agriculture is practiced with soybean monoculture tendency under no tillage; in the lowland (Mollisols and alkaline and saline Alfisols), cattle breeding and rearing is carried-out on improved grasslands. Sediments were obtained using a rain simulator for one hour at high intensity (60 mm h-1) at 23 sampling points. In the sediments, 2.4-D, acetochlor, atrazine and metabolites, flurochloridone, glyphosate and AMPA, and s-metolachlor concentrations were determined. In addition, the following variables: basic infiltration, runoff coefficient (%), slope, amount of sediments, texture, soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium at 0-5 cm were obtained. Non-parametric tests of herbicide concentrations between landscape positions and correlations with the analyzed variables were performed. The production systems practiced in the landscape different positions, even with low grade slopes, against heavy rains, favor surface runoff (between 45 and 64%) and generate significant sediment losses. No differences were found in the amount of sediment between landscape positions. There was also no relationship between sediment quantity and herbicide concentration. The herbicides applied in agriculture were moved to the lower parts of the landscape, where they are not applied. Three patterns of distribution of concentrations were found that corresponded to some herbicides and soils properties. The average concentrations of 2.4-D, acetochlor and s-metolachlor were higher in the lowland than in the upland and mid slope. The low/moderate adsorption coefficients, the moderate/high solubilities and their relationship with higher sand content and SOC led to their accumulation in the lowland. On the contrary, the average concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were higher in the upland and mid slope positions, as a consequence of their high adsorption coefficient in soils with higher clay and silt content. Finally, the average concentrations of atrazine-OH and flurochloridone did not differ between landscape positions. Its moderate adsorption to the soil, low solubility and lack of relationship with soil properties caused a relatively homogeneous distribution in the landscape. It is necessary to implement crop rotations that improve soil surface properties to increase its retention and degradation and, therefore, decrease the runoff, the herbicides load in runoff and the associated environmental risks.
How to cite: Caprile, A. C., Aparicio, V., Darder, M. L., De Gerónimo, E., and Andriulo, A.: Herbicides distribution in sediments of the Argentina rolling pampas landscape , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1772, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1772, 2019.
Particulate material less than 10 microns (PM10) is important because it is related to negative effects on human health. The soil is one of the most important sources of PM10 which can be emitted by wind erosion, tillage and traffic on unpaved roads. In agricultural soils different fertilizers and agrochemicals are used to produce food. Glyphosate is the main herbicide used in Argentina and in the world, being the dose and the number of applications per year variable in different management system. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of glyphosate and its main metabolite, AMPA, in PM10 emitted by soils with different management and uses of the herbicide. For this, the first 5 cm of the following soils were sampled: 9 soils with harvest crop (HC) mostly resistant to glyphosate, under direct sowing and with at least 3 applications of glyphosate per year; 5 soils with forage crops (FC) mostly non-glyphosate resistant, under conventional tillage and one application of glyphosate per year; and 2soils with permanent pasture (PP) that did not receive glyphosate and tillage during the last 30 years. From the soil samples were extracted and collected the PM10 using the easy dust generator coupled to an electrostatic precipitator. The glyphosate and AMPA content were determined in the soils and PM10. The results showed that the percentage of glyphosate detection in PM10 was 100% in HC and FC, and 83% in PP; whereas that AMPA detection was 100% in all management systems. In the soil the detection of glyphosate was 100% in HC, 80% in FC and 0% PP. For AMPA the percentage of detection was 100% in HC and FC, and 66% in PP. Contents of glyphosate and AMPA in the soil were higher in HC (87.1 ug kg-1 and 1015.5 ug kg-1) than in FC (4.4 ug kg-1 and 140.3 ug kg-1) and PP (0 ug kg -1 and 8.5 ug kg-1) (p <0.05). The same results were found in PM10, where glyphosate and AMPA contents in HC (279.5 ug kg-1 and 4690.5 ug kg-1) were higher than in FC (21.1 ug kg-1 and 503.4 ug kg-1 ) and PP (33.5 ug kg-1 and 128.4 ug kg-1) (p <0.05). Content of AMPA was higher than that of glyphosate in the soil and PM10 of the three managements studied. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in the PM10 were higher than in the soil. This study shows that the most frequent use of glyphosate increases its content and that of AMPA in the soil and PM10. It is confirmed that the contents of glyphosate and AMPA in PM10 are greater than in the soil under different management systems. Our results suggest that is highly probably the existence of glyphosate and AMPA in the PM10 emitted from agricultural soils and that, in this way, glyphosate and AMPA be transported to not target areas. All those results should by confirmed under field condition.
How to cite: Ramirez Haberkon, N. B., Aparicio, V., Aimar, S. B., Buschiazzo, D. E., De Geronimo, E., Costa, J. L., and Mendez, M.: Management effects on glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in the PM10 emitted by soils of the central semiarid region of Argentina, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1773, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1773, 2019.