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The session General Contributions on Earthquakes, Earth Structure, Seismology features a wide range of presentations on recent earthquakes and earthquake sequences of local, regional, and global significance, as well as recent advances in characterization of Earth structure using a variety of methods.

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Convener: Philippe Jousset | Co-convener: P. Martin Mai
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| Attendance Tue, 05 May, 08:30–12:30 (CEST)

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Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 08:30–10:15

D1639 |
EGU2020-12702
| Highlight
| Arne Richter Award for Outstanding ECS Lecture
Wei-An Chao

The rapidly emerging field of Environmental Seismology (EnviroSeis) uses seismological techniques to monitor geomorphic processes at Earth’s surface, providing non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, continuous constraints on physical properties and dynamics of surface processes including landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches, river sediment transport, and variations in groundwater table. EnviroSeis has direct ties to real-time geohazards monitoring and provides timely warnings for the hazard mitigation and assessment. Nowadays, the places in world with real-time seismic networks are ready to implement EnviroSeis. The major topic focused on here is how to provide relevant information on the deep-seated landslides associated to the three-time stages:

  • Pre-slide: (1) seismic precursor and (2) seismic velocity changes corresponding to basal sliding behavior.
  • Sliding: A real-time landquake monitoring (RLMS; http://collab.cv.nctu.edu.tw/main.html)
  • After-slide: (1) near-real-time monitoring of river sediment transport and (2) early warning of the landslide-generated tsunami.

How to cite: Chao, W.-A.: Environmental seismology: Listening to landslides whispering, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12702, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12702, 2020

D1640 |
EGU2020-10161
Jaime A. Convers, Marcelo Assumpção, and Jose R. Barbosa

We update our analysis on the ongoing seasonal induced microseismic activity in southeastern Brazil, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo.  This is an area that not evidenced any active seismicity before 2016. We monitor this phenomenon as it is similar to other episodes of seasonal seismicity in other regions of Brazil, under similar aquifer and host rock conditions, commonly associated with those of the Parana Basin. 

This induced seismicity is seemingly triggered yearly during the high-rain season in Southeast Brazil, between December and May, and ceases as soon as the heavy rain season ends each year.  In these periods of increased precipitation during the annual onset of seismicity, we have found more than 1500 seismic events of magnitudes up to M2.0 in since 2017, after we deployed seismic stations in this area. Using phase weighing earthquake locations algorithms, we examine the clustering of the seismicity around recently drilled water wells, and seismicity rate changes, as it is modified by variations in the precipitation.

We perform full moment tensor analysis when possible to find the seismic activity is not only clustering horizontally, but at depth as well.  We identify two main regions where events are more frequently occurring and have mostly prevalent sub-horizontal dipping planes: The shallow events between 100 and 200 m and from 600 to 700 m depth. 

This phenomenon is facilitated mainly by the inadequate water well perforation practices in the region. Uncased water wells promote the transport of both rainwater and groundwater from upper to lower aquifers during higher precipitation months. The stress conditions of the fractured basaltic rock inside the confined aquifers are affected by the intrusion and percolation of significant amounts of water, which produce pore-pressure changes inside the host rock, and facilitates stress release though the microseisms.  This implies that the confined aquifer characteristics of intermittent sandstone layers and fractured basalt rocks from the Parana Basin condition the characteristics of the seismicity occurring in this region of Brazil. 

How to cite: Convers, J. A., Assumpção, M., and Barbosa, J. R.: Seismological Observations of the Seasonal Rain and Aquifer Induced Seismicity in Southeastern Brazil, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10161, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10161, 2020

D1641 |
EGU2020-10935
Xiaowei Chen, Rachel Abercrombie, and Qimin Wu

The average stress drop during an earthquake is a parameter fundamental to ground motion prediction and earthquake source physics, but it has proved hard to measure accurately. This has limited our understanding of earthquake rupture, as well as the spatiotemporal variations of fault strength. In this study, we investigate the resolution limits of spectral analysis based on synthetic spectra with similar magnitude range, average stress drop and frequency bands to a fluid-injection induced earthquake sequence in Oklahoma near Guthrie.

Synthetic tests using joint spectral fitting method define the resolution limit of corner frequency as a function of maximum frequency for both individual spectra and averaged spectra from multiple stations. Synthetic tests based on stacking analysis find that the improved stacking approach can recover the true input stress drop if the corner frequencies are within the resolution limit defined by joint spectral fitting.

The improved approach is applied to the Guthrie sequence, different wave types and different signal-to-noise criteria are examined to understand the stability of the stress drop distributions. The results suggest no systematic scaling relationship for stress drop for M≤ 3.1 earthquakes, but larger events M≥3.5 tend to have higher average stress drops. Results with lower signal-to-noise ratio requirement and direct P-wave tend to have higher scaling factor compared to results with high signal-to-noise ratio and S-waves.

Comparison of results from several different methods suggest that the average stress drop is well resolved and not subject to tradeoff with attenuation. Some robust spatiotemporal variations can be linked to triggering processes and indicate possible stress heterogeneity within the fault zone. Tight clustering of low stress drop events at the beginning stage of the sequence suggests that pore pressure influences earthquake source processes. Events at shallow depth have much lower stress drop compared to deeper events. The largest earthquake occurred within a cluster of high stress drop events, and involved cascading failure of several sub-events.   

How to cite: Chen, X., Abercrombie, R., and Wu, Q.: Earthquake stress drop: what can we resolve from observations, and what can we infer about earthquake triggering processes, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10935, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10935, 2020

D1642 |
EGU2020-5052
Lingling Ye, Hiroo Kanamori, and Thorne Lay

In the aftermath of a significant earthquake, seismologists are frequently asked questions by the media and public regarding possible interactions with recent prior events, including events at great distances away, along with prospects of larger events yet to come, both locally or remotely.  For regions with substantial earthquake catalogs that provide information on the regional Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship, Omori temporal aftershock statistical behavior, and aftershock productivity parameters, probabilistic responses can be provided for likelihood of nearby future events of larger magnitude (as well as expected behavior of the overall aftershock sequence). However, such procedures do not provide answers to inquiries about long-range interactions, either retrospectively for interaction with prior remote large events or prospectively for interaction with future remote large events. Dynamic triggering that may be involved in such long-range interactions occurs, often with significant temporal delay, but is not well-understood, making it difficult to respond to related inquiries. One approach to addressing such inquiries is to provide retrospective or prospective occurrence histories for large earthquakes based on global catalogs; while not providing quantitative understanding of any physical interaction, experience-based guidance on the (typically very low) chances of causal interactions can inform public understanding of likelihood of specific scenarios they are commonly very interested in.

How to cite: Ye, L., Kanamori, H., and Lay, T.: Responding to Media Inquiries About Remote Triggering Interactions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5052, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5052, 2020

D1643 |
EGU2020-15417
Alessandro Caruso, Aldo Zollo, Simona Colombelli, Luca Elia, and Grazia De Landro

For network-based Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), the real-time earthquake location is crucial for a correct estimation of event location/magnitude and therefore, for a reliable prediction of the potential expected shaking at the target sites in terms of predicted maximum ground shaking. Different approaches have been recently proposed for the real-time location which mainly use absolute (or differential) P-wave travel times at a set of minimum available stations or measurement of the initial P-wave arrival time (Elarms, Presto, Horiuchi), polarization (Eiserman and Bock) or amplitude and time (Yamada). In this work, we propose a new method which is able to exploit the continuous, real-time information available from both time, amplitude and polarization of initial P-wave signals acquired by dense three component arrays deployed in the source zones. The methodology we propose is an evolutionary and Bayesian probabilistic technique that combines three different observed parameters: 1) the differential arrival times of P-waves (which are computed using a 1D velocity model for the estimation of the theoretical arrival times); 2) the differential P-wave amplitudes in terms of P-wave peak velocity) [reference]  (which are computed using an existing P-peak motion prediction equation) and 3) the real-time estimation of back-azimuthal direction, measured shortly after the P-wave arrival. These three parameters are measured in real-time and are used as prior and conditional information to estimate the posterior probability of the event location parameters, e.g. the hypocenter coordinates and the origin time. The method is evolutive, since it updates the location parameters as new data are acquired by more and more distant stations as the P-wavefront propagates across the network. The output is a multi-dimensional Probability Density Function (PDF), which contains the complete information about the maximum likelihood parameter estimation with their uncertainty. The method is computationally efficient and optimized for running in real-time applications, where the earthquake location has to be retrieved in a very short time window (around 1 sec) after data acquisition. We tested the proposed strategy on a sequence of 29 earthquakes of the 2016-2017 central Italy seismic sequence acquired by the RAN (Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale) network with a magnitude range of 4.2-6.5. For the testing phase, we also simulated non-optimal conditions in terms of source-to-receiver geometry. Specifically, we tested the method  by ssimulating the case of “offshore” earthquakes recorded by a coastal network and in the case of a linear “barrier-type” geometry of the network. Our approach turned out to be suitable to work in condition of a sparse network, with a limited number of nodes and poor azimuthal coverage. In most of the cases, reliable location errors, less than 10 km, are achieved within few seconds from the first recorded P wave. As compared to other classical location techniques (i.e RTLOC in PRESTo) our approach shows an improvement of the solutions, especially for the first instants (2 seconds after the first P-wave arrival at network) when a poor number of stations (less than 4) is available.

How to cite: Caruso, A., Zollo, A., Colombelli, S., Elia, L., and De Landro, G.: A probabilistic, multi-parametric real-time earthquake location method, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-15417, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-15417, 2020

D1644 |
EGU2020-20059
Gianfranco Vannucci, Paolo Gasperini, Gulia Laura, and Lolli Barbara

The most of intensity assessments provided by the large (more than 100000 intensity observations) Italian macroseismic database (DBMI15) were made using the traditional Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg (MCS) scale but in most recent macroseismic surveys in Italy even the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS) scale was used by some research groups. In principle, MCS and EMS scales should give almost the same intensities if only damage to traditional masonry buildings is considered for MCS estimates. Some doubts remain on this equivalence even if MCS and EMS intensities were actually used as they were coincident, as in the case of or the compilation of the CPTI15 catalog used for seismic hazard assessment in Italy. In this work we compared intensity estimates made using both scales for the traditional (expert) estimates made for the same localities of some recent earthquakes as well as community intensities provided by on line questionnaires “Hai Sentito Il Terremoto” (HSIT) collected by INGV. We computed linear regressions between the two sets of intensity estimates and also compared the earthquake parameters (locations magnitude and fault orientations) computed by the Boxer code, using independently the two sets of intensities.

How to cite: Vannucci, G., Gasperini, P., Laura, G., and Barbara, L.: EMS and MCS macroseismic intensities assessed in Italy are equivalent?, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20059, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20059, 2020

D1645 |
EGU2020-19437
Frederick Massin, John Clinton, Roman Racine, Maren Bose, Yara Rossi, Griselda Marroquin, Wilfried Strauch, Mario Arroyo, Lepolt Linkimer, Esteban Chavez, Marino Protti, and Robin Yani

The national seismic networks in Central America have been developing network-based early warning since 2016 for Nicaragua, 2018 for El Salvador and 2019 for Costa Rica. This effort is part of a project with the Swiss Seismological Service (ETH Zurich) including funds for accelerograph deployment. At each network, delay for first earthquake parameter estimations have been significantly reduced by optimizing data acquisition, metadata quality, and configuration of the EEW algorithms implemented in SeisComP3, i.e. Virtual Seismologist and the Finite fault rupture Detector. Issues remain with significant numbers of deployed instrumentation that for a variety of reasons, do not optimally contribute to the EEW systems. Building on our experience so far, we design national network upgrades that will optimize the earthquake early warning performance in the Central America region, mitigating the current issues with velocimeter clipping during large events, datalogger delays, and incomplete network coverage. The new instruments have been selected after testing all available EEW-capable accelerographs natively compatible with SeisComP3 including class A force balance accelerometers as well as MEMs. To justify our instrument selection, we summarize the performance of these different instruments. We model and discuss reference maps for performance expectations, and present planned instrument vaults. Our primary focus is on minimizing first alert times but we also wish to accentuate the broad value of the network upgrade for seismological monitoring showing changes in the magnitude of completeness in the region. We demonstrate the value of the network upgrade for earthquake early warning with real-time processing simulation using synthetic data for the maximum magnitude earthquake expected for the Central America subduction zone.

How to cite: Massin, F., Clinton, J., Racine, R., Bose, M., Rossi, Y., Marroquin, G., Strauch, W., Arroyo, M., Linkimer, L., Chavez, E., Protti, M., and Yani, R.: The future strong motion national seismic networks in Central America designed for earthquake early warning., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19437, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19437, 2020

D1646 |
EGU2020-20668
Ioanna Triantafyllou, Gerassimos Papadopoulos, and Efthimios Lekkas

Strong earthquakes cause significant impact on both the built and natural environment. Impact databases are of fundamental importance for seismic risk assessment in a region. Such data include human and property losses as well as secondary effects including ground failures and tsunamis. The earthquake impact, EI, depends on many factors, one of the most important being the earthquake magnitude, M. To test the dependence of EI on M we selected the Greek seismicity which is the highest in the Mediterranean region with record of earthquakes since the antiquity. Although various descriptive and parametric earthquake catalogues as well as inventories of intensity observation points are available for Greece no database for EI has been organized so far. For a first time we organized a Greek Earthquake Impact Database (GEID) which covers the time interval from 1800 to 2019 and includes earthquake parameters and three main quantitative impact elements: building damage, fatalities and injuries. Data on tsunami impact are also included in the GEID. A long number of sources have been utilized, some of them remaining unknown so far in the seismological community. To select the most appropriate magnitude for each earthquake event occurring in the instrumental period of seismology, i.e. from 1900 onwards, we compared the catalogues produced by the ISC-GEM and by three academic institutions. After completeness testing and examination for magnitude homogeneity we performed magnitude closeness analysis and produced formulas for magnitude conversion from one catalogue to another. For the 19th century earthquakes we again compared various catalogues, collected new data from documentary sources and compiled a new catalogue by re-calculating macroseismic magnitudes equivalent to Mw from intensity/M relations developed for Greek earthquakes of the instrumental period. We found that for single earthquake events the level of impact generally depends on magnitude but this is not valid for offshore events. However, the time distribution of the three impact elements over the period examined showed a relative decrease of the totally collapsed buildings which implied drastic decrease of the fatality rate but not of the injuries rate. This is attributed to the gradual improvement of the building construction particularly after the enforcement of antiseismic building codes in the country. Τhe first author was supported by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (HFRI) and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT), under the HFRI PhD Fellowship grant (GA. no. 490).

How to cite: Triantafyllou, I., Papadopoulos, G., and Lekkas, E.: Impact of earthquakes and its dependence on magnitude: testing the Greek seismicity , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20668, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20668, 2020

D1647 |
EGU2020-13610
Shu-Chioung Chiu, Jer-Ming Chiu, Kwanghee Kim, and Suyoung Kang

Yellow Sea and East Sea regions near Korea are two of the most seismically active marginal seas in the Far East.  While offshore earthquakes in the Yellow Sea may be attributed to potential micro-plate boundaries, East Sea earthquakes may be associated to the seaward extension of many active faults on land or the deformation boundary between oceanic and continental crust.  However, offshore earthquake locations using local seismic network are always subjecting to large uncertainties due to poor spatial coverage of seismic stations, discrepancies on velocity models, and limitations on traditional location technologies.  For instance, it is not uncommon that the same earthquake within Yellow Sea may be reported independently more than tens to hundreds of km apart in Chinese and Korean catalogs while there is no mechanism for earthquake data exchange between the two countries.   Multiple seismic array method can be applied to improve epicenter location of offshore earthquakes.  Seismic stations in Korea can be integrated into three arrays based on their latitude. Apparent azimuths and apparent velocities of the incoming seismic waves (mainly Pn) from a regional earthquake to each array can be reliably determined.  Epicenter of a regional earthquake can thus be located by tracing seismic rays following the back azimuths derived from multiple arrays.  Offshore earthquakes in the East Sea and Yellow Sea regions are located at shallow depth within crust that Pn waves are expected to be the first arrival phase at many Korean stations.  Thus, offshore earthquakes can be reasonably located using Pn arrivals.  In the Yellow Sea case, the apparent velocity ~8.0 km/sec is observed for all arrays suggesting a typical continental Pn waves propagating across the continent-continent transition region into Korea.  In the East Sea case, the apparent velocity of ~6.8 km/sec or lower is observed for all arrays suggesting a typical oceanic Pn wave propagating across the oceanic-continental margin into Korea.  A better relocated earthquake location in the offshore region is essential for our understanding of regional tectonics and earthquake hazard assessment.

How to cite: Chiu, S.-C., Chiu, J.-M., Kim, K., and Kang, S.: Relocation of Offshore Earthquakes around the Korean Peninsula using Multiple Seismic Arrays: Case Examples for East Sea and Yellow Sea Regions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13610, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13610, 2020

D1648 |
EGU2020-12581
Akemi Noda, Tatsuhiko Saito, Eiichi Fukuyama, and Yumi Urata

Owing to developments of geodetic observation using satellite systems such as GNSS, we can now estimate slip-deficit rate distribution at plate interfaces. There are roughly two types of attempts to predict possible scenarios for future megathrust earthquakes based on the estimated slip deficit rates. One is kinematic modeling, in which coseismic slip distribution is modeled by multiplying the estimated slip deficit rates by the recurrence time (e.g., Baranes et al. 2018 GRL; Watanabe et al, 2018 JGR). The rupture area and seismic moment can be easily modeled, but the model is not always consistent with the mechanics of fault rupture. The other is dynamic modeling, in which source models are obtained via dynamic rupture simulations using shear stress calculated from the slip deficit rates and assuming frictional parameters (e.g., Hok et al., 2011 JGR; Lozos et al., 2015 GRL; Yang et al., 2019 JGR). The method reasonably predicts the rupture processes based on the mechanics of fault rupture, but generally needs a lot of computing resources for parametric studies of the frictional parameters because of the difficulty to estimate them. In this study, we propose a mechanics-based method to bridge the gap between the kinematic and dynamic modeling. The method predicts possible static slip models with a small computational load, and then examines whether each model actually happens from the viewpoint of the mechanics of fault rupture.

First, we calculated shear stress change rates at the plate interface from the slip-deficit rate distribution estimated from GNSS data (Noda et al., 2018 JGR). In each scenario, we assumed a rupture region and obtained stress drop distribution by multiplying the shear stress change rates in the region by accumulation period. The coseismic slip distribution of each scenario was estimated from the assumed stress drop distribution by using an inversion method. We created scenarios for various rupture regions and various accumulation periods. Next, we investigated the possibility that the scenario happens based on the conservation law of energy. Fault rupture releases shear strain energy accumulated in the lithosphere and the released strain energy is consumed as the radiated energy and the dissipated energy. We assumed some plausible frictional constitutive relations for the plate interface to evaluate the dissipated energy for each case. We calculated the strain energy released by shear faulting in each scenario and compared it with the dissipated energy considering that the released strain energy is necessarily larger than the dissipated energy in earthquake occurrence. If the released strain energy is smaller than the dissipated energy, we find that the scenario will not happen in terms of earthquake mechanics.

We applied this method to the subduction zone along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where great thrust earthquakes have repeatedly occurred with a recurrence time of about 100 years. Based on possible scenarios predicted in this region, we discussed the necessary condition of fault strength and accumulation period for earthquake generation.

How to cite: Noda, A., Saito, T., Fukuyama, E., and Urata, Y.: Mechanics-based scenarios for great thrust earthquakes in subduction zones using GNSS data analysis: Released strain energy and dissipated energy, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12581, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12581, 2020

D1649 |
EGU2020-20659
Yan Cai and Jianping Wu

North China Craton is the oldest craton in the world. It contains the eastern, central and western part. Shanxi rift and Taihang mountain contribute the central part. With strong tectonic deformation and intense seismic activity, its crust-mantle deformation and deep structure have always been highly concerned. In recent years, China Earthquake Administration has deployed a dense temporary seismic array in North China. With the permanent and temporary stations, we obtained the crust-mantle S-wave velocity structure in the central North China Craton by using the joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion. The results show that the crustal thickness is thick in the north of the Shanxi rift (42km) and thin in the south (35km). Datong basin, located in the north of the rift, exhibits large-scale low-velocity anomalies in the middle-lower crust and upper mantle; the Taiyuan basin and Linfen basin, located in the central part, have high velocities in the lower crust and upper mantle; the Yuncheng basin, in the southern part, has low velocities in the lower crust and upper mantle velocities, but has a high-velocity layer below 80 km. We speculate that an upwelling channel beneath the west of the Datong basin caused the low velocity anomalies there. In the central part of the Shanxi rift, magmatic bottom intrusion occurred before the tension rifting, so that the heated lithosphere has enough time to cool down to form high velocity. Its current lithosphere with high temperature may indicate the future deformation and damage. There may be a hot lithospheric uplift in the south of the Shanxi rift, heating the crust and the lithospheric mantle. The high-velocity layer in its upper mantle suggests that the bottom of the lithosphere after the intrusion of the magma began to cool down.

How to cite: Cai, Y. and Wu, J.: Crust-mantle velocity structure in Shanxi rift, Central North China Craton, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20659, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20659, 2020

D1650 |
EGU2020-20958
Harry Matchette-Downes, Robert D. van der Hilst, Jingchen Ye, Jia Shi, Jiayuan Han, and Maarten V. de Hoop

Although observations of seismic normal modes provide constraints on the structure of the entire Earth, the core-mantle boundary region remains poorly understood. Stoneley modes should offer better constraints, because they are confined near to the fluid-solid interface, but this property also makes them difficult to detect. In this study, we use recently-developed finite-element approach to show that Stoneley modes can be excited and detected, but only in certain special cases. We first investigate the physical explanation for these cases. Next, we describe how they could be detected in seismic data, and the sensitivity of these data to the material properties. We illustrate this sensitivity by calculating the modes of a three-dimensional Earth model containing a large low-shear-velocity province (LLSVP). Finally, we present some preliminary observations. We hope that this new understanding will lead to new constraints on the material properties and morphology of the core-mantle boundary region. In turn, this information, especially the constraints on density, should help to answer questions about the Earth, for example in mantle convection (are LLSVPs thermally or chemically buoyant? Primordial or slab graveyards? Passive or active?) and core convection (does the outermost core have a stable stratification?).

How to cite: Matchette-Downes, H., van der Hilst, R. D., Ye, J., Shi, J., Han, J., and de Hoop, M. V.: Improving Stoneley-mode constraints on the structures near the core-mantle boundary, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20958, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20958, 2020

D1651 |
EGU2020-18164
Rongjiang Wang, Shenjian Zhang, Torsten Dahm, and Sebastian Heimann

An earthquake causes a sudden rock-mass redistribution through fault rupture and generates seismic waves that cause bulk density variations propagating with them. For a large earthquake, both processes can induce global gravity perturbations, whose signals propagate with the speed of light and therefore can arrive at remote stations earlier than the fastest elastic P wave. In turn, the gravity perturbations generate secondary seismic sources overall within the earth, a part of which can cause ground motion prior to the direct P wave arrival, too. Recently, these prompt elasto-gravity signals (Vallée et al. 2017) for large earthquakes like Tohoku 2011 Mw 9.1 have been detected in records of  broadband seismometers and superconducting gravimeters. Though the physics of the PEGS has been well understood, the tools used so far for a realistic modelling of them are complicated and computationally intensive. In this study, we present a new and rather simple approach that solves the full-coupled elasto-gravitational boundary-value problem more accurately, but no more complicated than to compute synthetic seismograms in a conventional way. Using the new tool, we simulate the PEGS of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in both temporal and spatial scales, based on a realistic kinematic finite-fault source model. The temporal results show clearly how the ground motion is inspired by the gravity change in short- and long-term as well as how the combined PEGS behave at different epicentral distances from 400 to 3000 km. The spatial patterns of PEGS, especially that of gravity change, reveal the relationship between the PEGS and the focal mechanism. We also compare our simulation results with the predictions made before and with the observed waveforms and find a good agreement. Furthermore, we show particularly that the moment magnitude, rupture duration and focal mechanism of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake can be estimated robustly using the PEGS measured at a dozen selected stations, which could be helpful for the earthquake and tsunami early warning in the future.

How to cite: Wang, R., Zhang, S., Dahm, T., and Heimann, S.: Efficient simulation of prompt elasto-gravity signals (PEGS) based on a spherical self-gravitating earth model, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18164, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18164, 2020

D1652 |
EGU2020-4453
Wen-Shan Chen, Yih-Min Wu, Hsiao‑Chin Yang, Po-Yi Yeh, Yi-Xiu Lai, Ming-Chun Ke, Siao-Syun Ke, and Yi-Kai Lin

The Taiwan orogenic belt is relatively young and active with an ongoing arc-continent collision since the middle Miocene. In this study, we systematically investigate the use of seismic tomography, focal-mechanism and distribution of earthquakes to analysis the seismogenic patterns in the collision-subduction zone in the eastern Taiwan, which can be delineated five seismogenic zones of the Longitudinal Valley Fault Seismic Zone (LVFZ), the Central Range Fault Seismic Zone (CRFZ), the Backbone Range Seismic Zone (BRSZ), the Ludao-Lanyu Fault Seismic Zone (LLFZ), and the Wadati-Benioff Seismic Zone (WBSZ).

The LVFZ and CRFZ, formed along the collision zone between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian Plates, earthquake focal mechanisms show P axes distributed in direction of 285-335°, reflecting the compressive stress field due to the collision. The LVSZ is the collisional boundary between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. The LLFZ is a high-angle, east-dipping reverse fault separating the Luzon Volcanic Arc and the North Luzon Trough. The Eurasian plate (the South China Sea oceanic crust) subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plat in the southeastern Taiwan forming the WBSZ to a depth of 160 km.

The CRFZ, located along the eastern limb of Backbone Range, is formed by a zone of west-dipping reverse fault. In addition, the earthquakes on the BRSZ generated by normal and strike-slip faults at about 5-15 km depth which occur in response to left-lateral transtensional deformation by the collision. Earthquake focal mechanisms show P and T axes distributed in direction of 280-330° and 20-70°, respectively.

How to cite: Chen, W.-S., Wu, Y.-M., Yang, H., Yeh, P.-Y., Lai, Y.-X., Ke, M.-C., Ke, S.-S., and Lin, Y.-K.: Seismogenic structures of the collision-subduction zone in the eastern Taiwan, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-4453, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-4453, 2020

D1653 |
EGU2020-6854
Yu-Jhen Lin, Tai-Lin Tseng, and Wen-Tzong Liang

Using intraslab earthquakes shallower than 150 km in the southernmost Ryukyu subduction zone, previous studies in Taiwan found the wave guide effect that typically shows a low-frequency (<2Hz) first P arrival followed by sustained high-frequency (3–10 Hz) wave trains. Recently occurred deeper events at depth 150-300 km allow us to better quantify the properties of those seismic waves traveling in the subduction zone. In this study, we aim to systematically scan through the local broadband waveforms of the intermediate depth earthquakes with M>5 between 1997 and 2016. Event are classified based on the waveform characteristics and their frequency contents.

To detect events with similar properties, we applied sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC)​ using three components of P waveform data simultaneously for a set of stations​. The time window used here was 10 s and traces were bandpass filtered in the frequency range 0.5–10 Hz. After the degree of similarity are calculated, e​vents containing comparable waveforms can be sorted into families. The events within a family would have been triggered because they came from the same source region and their paths to a particular receiver should produce similar waveforms. Our results show that most earthquakes are low in waveform similarity, implying no “repeating” behavior for those intermediate intraslab events. However, some events (cc>0.6 threshold) present enough charterers that can be grouped as a family.

One important property is the frequency content of the arrivals that may be related to the speed of structure traveled. We have developed a work scheme to determine the delayed time of higher-frequency energy. On family of events show beautiful dispersion with arrival time smoothly increasing with frequency between 0.5 and 6 Hz.​ Another type of dispersive waveforms appear as two distinct arrivals: low frequency and then high-frequency energy, separated by around 1 s. The time delay seems to be independent of focal depth. The latter case has been reported in the previous study for shallower event and it was interpreted as effect from low-velocity layer or heterogeneity of the subducted slab. On the other hand, the continuous dispersion is a new feature observed by our study, which may infer a thinner layer and/or longer propagation for some kind of reflecting waves to develop such interference.

In addition, we will classify the waveforms according to the frequency content and decay of coda. The variations in P coda properties can be associated with the way in which the seismic energy gets ducted into the stochastic waveguide associated with the lithosphere. With sufficient amount of data, it is possible to further identify the earthquakes with unusual source properties or structure anomaly along specific propagation paths. We expect the classification results can provide a reference for future numerical simulation analysis. 

Keywords: Ryukyu subduction zone, SCC, guide wave, waveform classification, intermediate-depth earthquakes

How to cite: Lin, Y.-J., Tseng, T.-L., and Liang, W.-T.: The Waveform Characteristics and Classification of Intermediate-depth Earthquakes in Ryukyu Subduction Zone , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6854, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6854, 2020

D1654 |
EGU2020-8388
Sandra Beiers and Christine Thomas

The seismological exploration of the Earth’s inner core has revealed some structural complexities such as seismic anisotropy and hemispherical separation. Investigating the travel times of PKP waves from at least two different ray paths, a polar and an equatorial one, is one of the commonly used methods to probe the inner core’s anisotropy. Since the waves are traversing anomalous structures in the lowermost mantle before entering the core, these heterogeneities have to be taken into account when investigating anisotropy in the inner core.

In this study we use data from an equatorial path with events from Indonesia recorded in Morocco and a nearly polar one with earthquakes in New Zealand recorded in England. The two waves used in our study, PKPdf and PKPab, both propagate through mantle and outer core and PKPab additionally traverses the inner core. Within this work, we do not only analyse the travel times of the waves but rather investigate their deviations from the originally assumed path along with their incidence angle. This is done with the methods of array seismology, mainly its two parameters slowness and backazimuth.

The results of this study reveal opposite deviations of slowness and backazimuth of the polar in contrast to the equatorial path. While the polar waves travel shallower and closer to North, the equatorial waves propagate deeper and farther from North than predicted by ak135. Additionally we observe hemispherical differences between waves that sample the eastern and the ones that sample the western hemisphere for both ray paths, PKPdf and PKPab, which leads us to the assumption that the deviations are not caused by the inner core but are rather due to mantle structures.

How to cite: Beiers, S. and Thomas, C.: Influence of Mantle Structures on Measurements of Anisotropy in the Inner Core, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8388, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8388, 2020

D1655 |
EGU2020-33
Arun Singh and Chandrani Singh

We present the first high resolution seismic images illuminating the hitherto-elusive crustal architecture beneath the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) using teleseismic receiver functions. Data were collected using 27 broadband seismic stations operated in a continuous mode covering two distinct seismic profiles (~550 km long) during 2015–2018. Several interesting observations and inferences are made through analysis of the receiver functions such as (a) a very thick crust (>40 km) with oppositely dipping Moho beneath the EGMB and Archean Bastar Craton, (b) EGMB formed from amalgamation of different crustal domains thrust over one another possibly during the Pan-African orogeny, (c) the Archean Bastar Craton crust extends (~75 km) eastward beneath the EGMB, from its surficial geological boundary, (d) there is a sharp contrast in the crustal structure (with ~20 km Moho offset) at the contact between the Rengali Province and Singhbhum Craton which does not support southward growth of the Singhbhum Craton through accretion, (e) anorthosite complexes may possibly be created by rising diapirs channeled through the weak zones in the crust, from the magma chambers developed by melting of frontal portion of the underthrusting lower crust. We report a significant change in the crustal architecture just east of the most elevated topography observed along the profile covering the Bastar Craton and the EGMB. It requires further careful petrological investigations to ascertain the relationship of high elevation and its linkages with the deep crust, forming a separate domain. Our results do not support or discard a Grenvillian age (~1 Ga) docking of the EGMB with Proto-India, though it is preferred to explain the present day crustal features with intense Pan-African (0.5–0.6 Ga) reorganization.

How to cite: Singh, A. and Singh, C.: Seismic imaging of the deep crustal structure beneath Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (India): Crustal growth in the context of assembly of Rodinia and Gondwana supercontinents, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-33, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-33, 2019

D1656 |
EGU2020-3300
Ran Cui and Yuanze Zhou

As one of the most active intracontinental orogenic belts in the world, the Tien Shan orogenic belt originated in the Paleozoic and then experienced tectonic activities such as plate subduction and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Previous seismological and geodynamic studies have shown the observed the low-velocity anomaly (LVA) beneath the central Tien Shan at the uppermost mantle, which has a significant influence on the formation and modification of the crust and mantle lithosphere ( Lei et al, 2007). However, the distribution, morphology and physical property of the LVA are highly debatable.

We conduct 2-D forward waveform modeling based on spectral-element method (SEM) to investigate waveform distortions that were generated by the velocity contrast boundary of the LAV. The broadband P- and S- waves from three intermediate-depth earthquakes at Hindu Kush-Pamir were recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismograph Network (Zheng et al., 2010). We use these records to confirm the location, shape and velocity decrement of the LVA by fitting the observed records with the synthetics through SEM based on the 1D velocity structures (TSTB-B) of the central Tien Shan and northern Tarim basin (Gao et al., 2017). We find the LVA at 10~100 km beneath the eastern part of the central Tien Shan. And the northward under-thrusting of the Tarim Basin may trigger some mantle upwelling, contributing to the observed LVA.

Lei, J., Zhao, D. (2007). Teleseismic P-wave tomography and the upper mantle structure of the central Tien Shan orogenic belt. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 162, 165-185, doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.200704010.

Zheng, X., Jiao, W., Zhang, C., et al. (2010). Short-Period Rayleigh-Wave Group Velocity Tomography through Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 100(3): 1350-1355, doi: 10.1785/0120090225.

Gao, Y., Cui, Q., Zhou, Y. (2017). Seismic detection of P-wave velocity structure atop MTZ beneath the Central Tian Shan and Tarim Basin. Chinese Journal of Geophysics ( in Chinese with English Abstract ), 60 (1) : 98-111, doi: 10.6038 /cjg20170109.

How to cite: Cui, R. and Zhou, Y.: Seismic detection of the low-velocity anomaly at the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the central Tien Shan, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3300, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3300, 2020

D1657 |
EGU2020-6224
Julia Carolina Rivadeneyra-Vera, Marcelo Bianchi, and Marcelo Assumpção

Determining the seismic properties of continental crust is essential in tectonic studies to understand the geological evolution, as well as elaborating velocity models to better monitoring the regional and global seismicity. Since the early 90s many seismic studies have focused on the details of the crust and upper mantle in the Andean region. However most of the stable part of the continent remains poorly sampled due to its complexity and lack of seismic stations. In the previous compilation of crustal structure in South America, areas as the thin crust in the Sub-Andean lowlands and Amazon region have been largely estimated by gravity data. A deployment of 35 temporary seismic stations in southwest Brazil and parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay filled a significant gap in crustal information of the central part of South America. Additionally, restricted seismic stations of Bolivia and the eastern of Peru have been analyzed to better constraint our results in the Sub-Andean region. Crustal thicknesses and Vp/Vs ratios were estimated with a modified H-k method by producing three stacked traces to enhance the three Moho conversions (the direct Ps and the two multiples Ppps and Ppss). This modified method yields lower uncertainties than previous studies and shows more regional consistency between close stations. Using the temporary stations, the Brazilian permanent network (RSBR), and the restricted stations of Peru and Bolivia we have better characterized the crustal structure in the central part of South America, our results shows a belt thin crust (35-40 km) along the Sub-Andean region, which is narrower the previous works, and a normal crustal thickness average of 40 km in the central part of the South America. This study, combined with other published data, provides an updated crustal thickness map of South America that is useful for future regional studies of seismic wave propagation, gravity modeling and inferences of crustal evolution.

How to cite: Rivadeneyra-Vera, J. C., Bianchi, M., and Assumpção, M.: An updated crustal thickness map of central South America based on receiver function measurements, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6224, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6224, 2020

Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 10:45–12:30

D1658 |
EGU2020-2008
Wenlan Li, Yuanze Zhou, Rongqiang Wei, Guohui Li, and Qinghui Cui

The South China Sea (hereafter as SCS) located in the southeastern Asia has been affected by the subduction of the western Pacific, Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates (Sun et al., 2018). Broadband P waveforms from the China Digital Seismograph Network (Zheng et al., 2010) for three intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred closely in Mindoro, Philippine are used to detect velocity structures of the lowermost upper mantle and mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the northern SCS. The study area is divided into five profiles distributed from southwest to northeast azimuthally to reduce the computational costs and concern possible lateral variations (Li et al., 2018), and the corresponding 1-D best-fit velocity models are obtained from the observed and synthetic triplicated waveform fitting based on the iterative grid-search procedure. The searching grid can be described as below, three parameters for the low-velocity layer (LVL) atop the 410 km discontinuity (hereafter as the 410), five parameters for the high-velocity anomaly (HVA) atop the 660 km discontinuity (hereafter as the 660) and one parameter for the velocity perturbation below the 660. After the sensitivity tests of the synthetic waveforms with different parameters, the grid steps of the depth and velocity perturbation are set as 5 km and 0.5%, respectively.

Relative to the reference model IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), our results reveal that there are ubiquitous HVAs in five profiles at the bottom of the MTZ with a velocity increment of 1.5~3.5% and a thickness of 209~219 km, which show no apparent progressive velocity increment or decrement along the southwest-northeast direction. We prefer that the weak and abnormal thick HVAs are induced by the proto-SCS north slab remnants. We also observe an uplift 410 and depressed 660 with the depth change of 5 km and 5~15 km, respectively, which further support the low-temperature anomaly related to the stagnant slab. In addition, our results show there is an LVL atop the MTZ with a velocity decrement of 2.0~2.5% and a thickness of 60~75 km, and can be interpreted by the partial melting induced by upwelling materials from the MTZ, which are hydrated by water released from the stagnant slab. We infer that the LVL with little lateral variations may result from the percolation of the partial melts atop the MTZ under vertical pressure.

 

Kennett B L N, Engdahl E R. 1991. Traveltimes for global earthquake location and phase identification. Geophys. J. Int. 105(2): 429-465, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1991.tb06724.x.

Li W, Wei R, Cui Q, et al. 2018. Velocity structure around the 410 km discontinuity beneath the East China Sea area based on the waveform fitting method. Chinese J. Geophys. 61(1): 150-160, doi:10.6038/cjg2018L0370.

Sun W, Lin C, Zhang L, et al. 2018. The formation of the South China Sea resulted from the closure of the Neo-Tethys: A perspective from regional geology. Acta Petrol. Sin. 34(12): 3467-3478, doi:1000-0569/2018/034(12)-3467-78.

Zheng X, Jiao W, Zhang C, et al. 2010. Short-Period Rayleigh-Wave Group Velocity Tomography through Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 100(3): 1350-1355, doi:10.1785/0120090225.

 

How to cite: Li, W., Zhou, Y., Wei, R., Li, G., and Cui, Q.: P-wave velocity structures of the upper mantle and mantle transition zone beneath the northern South China Sea based on triplication fitting, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2008, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2008, 2020

D1659 |
EGU2020-16489
Maria Tsekhmistrenko and Sergei Lebedev

We present two preliminary tomography models of Antarctica using seismic data recorded globally since 1994. Through combined efforts, several seismic broadband arrays have been deployed in Antarctica in previous decades, enabling the generation of two types of tomography models in this study: a multiple-frequency body-wave tomography and a waveform tomography model. Altogether, more than 2000 global events are collected resolving this region in great detail.

Crustal correction is crucial in seismic tomography, as it can cause the crustal smearing or leakage of shallow heterogeneities into the deep mantle. In global multiple-frequency tomography, synthetic seismograms are calculated on a spherically symmetric earth model (e.g. PREM, IASP91) in which effects of the crust, ellipticity, and topography are neglected. At a later stage, corrections are applied to the measured traveltimes to account for the known deviations from spherically symmetric earth models.

In waveform tomography, the crust has a significant impact on the Rayleigh and Love wave speeds. We invert for the crustal structure and explicitly account for its highly non-linear effects on seismic waveforms. Here, we implement a flexible workflow where different 3D reference crustal models can be plugged in. We test this using the CRUST2.0 and CRUST1.0 models.

In this study, we quantify the effects of these crustal models on two types of inversion techniques with a focus on the mantle structure beneath Antarctica. We compare the mantle structures beneath Antarctica imaged by a multiple-frequency body-wave tomography technique (e.g., Hosseini et al, 2019) and a waveform tomography method (Lebedev et al. 2005; Lebedev and van der Hilst 2008) using CRUST1.0 and CRUST2.0.

References:
K. Hosseini, K. Sigloch, M. Tsekhmistrenko, A. Zaheri, T. Nissen-Meyer, H. Igel, Global mantle structure from multifrequency tomography using P, PPand P-diffracted waves, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 220, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages 96–141, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz394

S. Lebedev, R. D. Van Der Hilst, Global upper-mantle tomography with the automated multimode inversion of surface and S-wave forms. Geophysical Journal International, Volume 173, Issue 2, May 2008, Pages 505–518, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03721.x

A. J. Schaeffer, S. Lebedev, Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 194, Issue 1, 1 July 2013, Pages 417–449, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt095

How to cite: Tsekhmistrenko, M. and Lebedev, S.: The impact of crustal structures on multiple frequency and waveform tomography of Antarctica, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-16489, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-16489, 2020

D1660 |
EGU2020-22023
Johannes Stampa, Máté Timkó, Marcel Tesch, and Thomas Meier

In the recent decade, the amount of available seismological broadband data has increased steeply. Picking later arriving phases such as S-phases is difficult, and there are few manual picks available for these phases. Data sets of manual picks can also be problematic, since phase arrival picks are sensitive to the parameters of the filtering, which are often unknown, and the individual picking behavior of the analysts. This neccesitates the adoption of automatic techniques for determining teleseismic phase arrival times consistently over a large data set.

In this work, a robust automatic picking algorithm based on autoregressive prediction in a moving window is explained. In this algorithm, a characteristic function is calculated as the autoregressive prediction error in a moving window. This characteristic function is then transformed with the Akaike-Information Criterion to obtain the phase arrival time estimate. This estimate is further improved in a second iteration of a similiar scheme in a smaller time window.

The algorithm is applied to a global data set including AlpArray stations, covering a time period from 1995 to present, to obtain arrival times for teleseis- mic P- and S-phases. Residuals to theoretical travel times and to local averages are shown. Different methods for automatically evaluating the quality of indi- vidual picks are used, based on signal to noise ratio of the seismic trace and impulsiveness of the arrival. The picking errors are estimated by comparision with manual picks and neighboring stations as well as statistical methods. The quality evaluations suggest potential of using these automatically determined phase arrival times for a travel time tomography.

How to cite: Stampa, J., Timkó, M., Tesch, M., and Meier, T.: Automatic Picking of Teleseismic P- and S-Phases using an Autoregressive Prediction Approach, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22023, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22023, 2020

D1661 |
EGU2020-9692
Carlo Giunchi, Matteo Di Giovanni, Gilberto Saccorotti, and Luca Naticchioni

We present some preliminary results from ongoing seismic measurements aimed to assess the seismic noise levels in the Sos Enattos Mine (Sardina). Due to his geologic setting, low population density and lack of significant industrial activity, Sardinia is characterized by very low anthropogenic noise and very low seismic activity. These unique combinations of factors make Sardinia, and in particular the Sos Enattos site, suitable to host instruments that must be placed in particularly seismically quiet locations in order to meet their targeted sensitivity. This is certainly the case of gravitational waves detectors, whose next generation, called Einstein Telescope (ET), is planned to be able to measure a strain, induced by the passing wave on the interferometer’s arm, of the order of 2x10-25Hz-1/2. Three broadband seismometers has been installed since May 2019 both at surface and at different depths along the mine tunnels. We analyse the spectral distribution of the seismic noise with a special focus on the frequency bands that may affect the operation of a gravitational waves interferometer. We also study the correlation of seismic noise with the observed sea waves in the Mediterranean Sea. The results enlighten very low seismic noise levels at the surface and attenuation at the depths foreseen to build ET. Further, seismic noise levels appear to be strongly correlated with sea waves in NW Mediterranean Sea. We conclude that the selected site may meet the stringent seismic requirements needed to realize the ET infrastructure.

How to cite: Giunchi, C., Di Giovanni, M., Saccorotti, G., and Naticchioni, L.: Seismic noise characterization of the Sos Enattos Mine (Sardinia), a candidate site for the next generation of terrestrial gravitational waves detectors, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9692, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9692, 2020

D1662 |
EGU2020-877
Tuna Eken

A reliable representation of the energy at the earthquake source is vitally important to make reliable seismic hazard assessments in tectonically active areas. The use of coda waves, for this aim, can provide source spectra for robust moment magnitude estimates mainly due to its volume-averaging property sampling the entire focal sphere as this makes these waves insensitive to any source radiation pattern effect. In the present study, we examined local earthquakes beneath central Anatolia earthquakes with magnitudes 2.0≤ML≤5.2 recorded at 69 seismic stations that were operated between 2013 and 2015 within the framework of the Continental Dynamics–Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD–CAT) passive seismic experiment. The inversion scheme used here involved simultaneous modeling of source properties as well as seismic attenuation parameters in five different frequency bands between 0.75 and 12 Hz. Forward modeling of coda waves was achieved through an isotropic acoustic Radiative Transfer Theory approach. A comparison between coda derived (Mw coda) and routinely reported local (ML) magnitudes shows an overall consistency. However, apparent move-out observed around small earthquakes (ML < 3.5) can be attributed to wrong assumptions for anelastic attenuation as well as to the use of seismic recordings with a finite sampling interval.

How to cite: Eken, T.: Coda-derived moment magnitudes in central Anatolia, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-877, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-877, 2019

D1663 |
EGU2020-20351
Michael Laporte, Michael Perlin, Ben Tatham, Mojtaba Hosseini, Dario Baturan, Andrew Moores, and Bruce Townsend

A fundamental element of real-time mission critical seismic monitoring networks is the data acquisition system, comprising the underlying protocol and the telemetry solution. Selection of the acquisition protocol can have significant impact on the outcomes sought by the seismic network such as data availability and usability as well as operational cost and even station and data center design.

We examine the performance of various acquisition protocols using a set of standard measures of system performance. Primary measures include bandwidth utilization, data latency and robustness (data completeness). In addition, protocol functionality and features, including support for multiple data types and state-of-health, are assessed for system impact on options for station, telemetry, and data center design as well as the overall functionality of the system solution.

Real-world and system generated data are employed and key quantitative measures of system effectiveness are identified and used as the basis of the analysis. Results of the analysis show the real-world impact of low level aspects like protocol selection on system performance.

How to cite: Laporte, M., Perlin, M., Tatham, B., Hosseini, M., Baturan, D., Moores, A., and Townsend, B.: Acquisition Protocol - Its Impact on Real-time Data Acquisition System Performance, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20351, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20351, 2020

D1664 |
EGU2020-2694
Pei-Ru Jian and Ban-Yuan Kuo

Seismic attenuation accompanying the velocity structures demonstrates the variations of the physical and chemical properties of the earth. The t* measurement using the seismic body wave spectrum, however, typically encounters the trade-off of corner frequency, t*, and site effect. Ko et al, [2012] proposed the cluster event method (CEM) that reduced the model parameter numbers by grouping the spatial-closed enough events for those traveling to each station along the adjacent paths and sharing one t*. Yet, the site effects among different stations collected in the same cluster bring the challenges on fitting all spectrum. We adapt the cluster strategy to group multiple nearby events recorded by one station only. Moreover, the new iterative CEM algorithm includes both the spectrum and spectral ratio data which provide constraints on seismic moments and corner frequencies of each earthquake inside the cluster, respectively. The final t* and corner frequencies are determined again by including the side effects which are averaging from spectrum residuals in the initial CEM stage. We applied the iterative CEM for earthquakes recorded at dense deployed F-net and Hi-net by NIED in the Tohoku area, Japan. The multitaper spectrums are retrieved from direct P waves with coda wavetrains tapered. Combining the spectral ratio and spectrum data with proper weightings, our new approach increases the stability of t* measurements contributed from better constrains on the corner frequency estimations.

How to cite: Jian, P.-R. and Kuo, B.-Y.: Robust measurements of corner frequency, t* and site effect: the iterative cluster event method, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2694, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2694, 2020

D1665 |
EGU2020-18821
Barbara Lolli, Gasperini Paolo, Emanuele Biondini, and Gianfranco Vannucci

Several authors empirically observed that the scaling between local magnitude ML and moment magnitude Mw computed by spectral methods is not 1:1 for ML<2-4. In particular ML is found to be about proportional to 1.5 Mw but the exact threshold below which this occurs is argued. Such behavior was explained as due to attenuation and scattering along the path or to a minimum limit in the pulse duration or equivalently a maximum limit to the corner frequency of the observed spectra imposed by surface attenuation. The frequency-magnitude distribution of ML estimates provided by the Italian Seismic Instrumental Database (ISIDe) of INGV show a strictly linear behavior with b-value»1.0 down to about ML 1.4 at least. This implies that for Mw the b-value would be about 1.5 below magnitude 2-4 and 1 above. As the frequency magnitude relationship with b-value»1 in terms of Mw is recognized as a general characteristic of seismicity all over the world, based on both empirical and theoretical considerations, the question arises on the reasons of the observed discrepancy for small shocks. One explanation might be the assumption of incorrect seismic wave attenuation properties for the computation of ML, of spectral Mw or both.

How to cite: Lolli, B., Paolo, G., Biondini, E., and Vannucci, G.: The relationship between ML and Mw for small earthquakes (ML < 2-4) in Italy, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18821, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18821, 2020

D1666 |
EGU2020-6310
Tz-Shin Lai, Yih-Min Wu, and Wei-An Chao

Since the inception of 62 borehole seismic arrays deployed by Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan until the end of 2018, a large quantity of strong-motion records have been accumulated from frequently occurring earthquakes around Taiwan, which provide an opportunity to detect micro-seismicity. Each borehole array includes two force balance accelerometers, one at the surface and other at a depth of a few ten-to-hundred (30-492) meters, as well as one broadband seismometer is below the borehole accelerometer. In general, the background seismic noise level are lower at the downhole stations than surface stations. However, the seismograms recorded by the downhole stations are smaller than surface stations due to the near-surface site effect. In Taiwan, the local magnitude (ML) determinations use the attenuation function derived from surface stations. Therefore, the ML will be underestimated by using current attenuation function for downhole stations. In this study, we used 19079 earthquakes to investigate the site amplification at subsurface materials between downhole and surface stations. Results demonstrate the amplification factors ranging from 1.11 to 5.74, provide the site effect parameter at shallow layers and have a strong relationship with Vs30. Further, we apply the amplification factors to revise the station local magnitude for downhole station. The revised ML at downhole stations correlate well with the ML at surface stations. Implement of the downhole station in the ML determination, it enhances the ability to detect the micro-earthquake and makes the earthquake catalog more comprehensive in Taiwan.

How to cite: Lai, T.-S., Wu, Y.-M., and Chao, W.-A.: Application of Site Amplification Factors to Determine the Local Magnitude from Borehole Seismic Stations in Taiwan, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6310, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6310, 2020

D1667 |
EGU2020-3767
Antoine Schlupp, Christophe Sira, Emeline Maufroy, Ludmila Provost, Remi Dretzen, Etienne Bertrand, Elise Beck, and Marc Schaming

BCSF-RéNaSS (Bureau central sismologique français – Réseau national de surveillance sismique) manages the collection of data from the field for any earthquake in mainland France of magnitude greater than 3.7 and ensures their interpretation in terms of macro-seismic intensities (severity of ground shaking) on EMS98, European Macroseismic Scale (Grünthal, 1998). Unlike the magnitude, which is calculated from seismological records, the intensity of the tremor is only known in each location by analysing the observable effects on people, objects and structures. In case of damage, the GIM (Groupe d'intervention macrosismique = Macroseismic Response Group), coordinated by the BCSF-RéNaSS, establishes EMS98 intensities within a short time after the occurrence of the earthquake. It gathers together scientists (researchers and engineers in tectonics, geology, civil engineering, etc.) from various French scientific institutions.

The 2019-11-11 Le Teil earthquake of magnitude ML 5.2 occurred at 10h52 UTC, 11h52 local time. It is a very shallow event, with hypocentre at about 2km depth and a fault rupture that reached the surface. More than 2000 people who felt the tremor responded to the online survey via the www.franceseisme.fr website, allowing a preliminary and rapid estimation of the intensity of the tremor. The day after the event, the BCSF-RéNaSS launched a survey toward the municipal authorities using a collective form designed for the town halls of the municipalities potentially affected. Given the damage described in the answers, the GIM was mobilized to accurately assess the EMS98 intensities of municipalities near the epicentre, based on the effects observed on buildings, people and objects, and taking into account their vulnerability.

Among the almost sixty experts that compose the GIM, seven from IRSN, ISTerre/RESIF-RAP, Cerema, Pacte/UGA, IPGS and EOST/BCSF-RéNaSS answered the call. Divided into teams of 2 or 3, they inspected 24 municipalities between November 18thand 22nd, assisted by mayors or municipal services and sometimes accompanied by the rescue brigade. Several hundred buildings of different vulnerabilities were inspected.

In most cases, many cracks, sometimes significant and open, were observed. Few of the oldest structures built mostly in the 19thcentury, associated to vulnerability A, partially or totally collapsed in the most affected areas such as Le Teil and Viviers. For comparable buildings, more severe damages were observed on top of hills (Saint-Thomé) or on sedimentary filling (Savasse) which attests for local site effects. 

The highest intensities reach locally VIII in La Rouvière and Mélas, two neighbourhood of Le Teil, that are located the closest to the Rouvière fault. These are the highest intensities observed in mainland France since the Arette earthquake in 1967 (Rothé, 1972).

The macroseismic intensities EMS98, estimated during the GIM's field missions, are one of the major input on which is based the decision of the French commission to classify municipalities in a state of natural disasters.  That decision triggers insurance coverage of damages.  Over the 24 analysed by the GIM, the commission classified 19 municipalities during their meetings of November 20thand December 11th. Following commission meetings will examine the other impacted municipalities.

How to cite: Schlupp, A., Sira, C., Maufroy, E., Provost, L., Dretzen, R., Bertrand, E., Beck, E., and Schaming, M.: EMS98 intensity estimation of the shallow Le Teil earthquake, ML 5.2, by Macroseismic Response Group GIM, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3767, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3767, 2020

D1668 |
EGU2020-18365
Tae-Seob Kang and Heekyoung Lee

The western region of the Pyeongnam Basin has relatively higher e​arthquake activity than the rest of the Korean Peninsula. We analyzed 48 earthquakes in the area, with a magnitude (ML) of 2.0 or more, from January 2009 to June 2019. The hypocentral parameters were re-determined using an iterative algorithm that repeats the calculation until the residual error between the observed and calculated arrival time of a seismic phase at each station is minimized. Using the hypocenters and the optimal 1-D velocity model derived from this process, the focal mechanisms were determined using the first-motion polarities of body waves. Many earthquakes are associated with left-lateral strike-slip faults, with a strike in the NW-SE direction and a normal faulting component. A stress inversion was performed using data of the pressure and tensional axes from the focal mechanisms. The maximum principal stress in the study area acts in the NW-SE direction with high angles of plunge and differs from the maximum horizontal principal stress in the rest of the Korean Peninsula. This stress perturbation is caused by the detachment of a small local stress from the regional stress field due to the presence of weak faults with low shear strength that develop in the sedimentation environment of the Pyeongnam Basin.

How to cite: Kang, T.-S. and Lee, H.: Complex seismic activity and local stress perturbation of the Pyeongnam basin, northern Korean Peninsula, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18365, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18365, 2020

D1669 |
EGU2020-7557
Yongbo Wang, Xuezhi Ma, and Zhenyu Ni

Large earthquakes are regarded as important contributors to long-term erosion rates and considerable hazard to infrastructure and society, which were difficult to track because of the long recurrence time exceeding the time span of historical records. Geological records, especially the continuously accumulated lacustrine sediments, hold the potential to capture signals of prehistoric seismic events, which has been barely reported from the Tibetan Plateau. Here we present lacustrine sediment records recovered from Basom Tso in Southeastern Tibetan Plateau, in which two seismic events were preserved. Sediment lithology, grain size composition, magnetic susceptibility and XRF scanning induced element compositions showed dramatic variations in two turbidite-like sediment segments. Particularly, the grain size showed an abrupt increase at the bottom of the Turbidites which was followed by a fining-up pattern and covered by a fine clay cap, expressing similar sedimentary processes caused by the seiche effect triggered by seismic events. Consistent patterns were recorded in the element contents as well, i.e. obvious bias in the counts of Fe, Zr, Ti, Ca. In addition, scuh pattern were preserved in sediment cores from different part of the lake basin, indicating a basin wide event layer. Finally, according to the dating results from 137Cs and 14C, the two Turbidites were formed around 1950 A.D. and during the late18th/early 19th century respectively. Such information was further confirmed by historical earthquake records that Chayu Earthquake (M=8.6, 1950 A.D.) and Nyingchi Earthquake (M=6.75, 1845 A.D.) have possibly responsible for the slump of underwater sediments and the formation of these two turbidites.

How to cite: Wang, Y., Ma, X., and Ni, Z.: Recent seismic events preserved in lacustrine sediments from the SE Tibetan Plateau, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7557, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7557, 2020

D1670 |
EGU2020-22107
Eser Çakti, Fatma Sevil Malcioğlu, and Hakan Süleyman

On 24th and 26th  September 2019, two earthquakes of Mw=4.5 and Mw=5.6 respectively took place in the Marmara Sea. They were associated with the Central Marmara segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, which is pinpointed by several investigators as the most likely segment to rupture in the near future giving way to an earthquake larger than M7.0. Both events were felt widely in the region. The Mw=5.6 event, in particular, led to a number of building damages in Istanbul, which were larger than expected in number and severity. There are several strong motion networks in operation in and around Istanbul. We have compiled a data set of recordings obtained at the stations of the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Bogazici University and of the National Strong Motion Network operated by AFAD. It consists of 148 three component recordings, in total.  444 records in the data set, after correction, were analyzed to estimate the source parameters of these events, such as corner frequency, source duration, radius and rupture area, average source dislocation and stress drop. Duration characteristics of two earthquakes were analyzed first by considering P-wave and S-wave onsets and then, focusing on S-wave and significant durations. PGAs, PGVs and SAs were calculated and compared with three commonly used ground motion prediction models (i.e  Boore et al., 2014; Akkar et al., 2014 and Kale et al., 2015). Finally frequency-dependent Q models were estimated using the data set and their validity was dicussed by comparing with previously developed models.

How to cite: Çakti, E., Malcioğlu, F. S., and Süleyman, H.: SEISMOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING PARAMETERS OF 24 and 26 SEPTEMBER, 2019 MARMARA SEA EARTHQUAKES, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22107, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22107, 2020

D1671 |
EGU2020-3960
Alexandra Moshou, Antonios Konstantaras, Panagiotis Argyrakis, and Nikolaos Sagias

The area of Zakynthos (Ionian Island) is located at a complex plate boundary region where two tectonic plates (Africa-Nubia and Eurasia) converge, thus forming the western Hellenic Arc. On the midnight of 26th October (ML = 6.6, 22:54:49 UTC) a very strong earthquake has struck at the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece). Epicentral coordinates of the earthquake was determined as 37.3410° N, 20.5123° E and a focal depth at 10 km, according to the manual solution of National Observatory of Athens

(http://bbnet.gein.noa.gr/alerts_manual/2018/10/evman181025225449_info.html).

This earthquake was strongly felt at the biggest shock was felt as far afield as Naples in western Italy, and in Albania, Libya, and the capital Athens. Nobody was injured by these events but there was significant damage to the local port and a 13th Century island monastery south of Zakynthos.

A few minutes later (23:09:20, UTC) a second intermediate earthquake with magnitude ML=5.1 was followed the first event. The M5+ events of 25 October 2019, as well as the rich aftershock sequence of 10.000+ events with magnitudes 1.0<ML<4.9 of the 12 following months have been relocated using the double – difference algorithm HYPODD.

For the aftershocks with 3.7<ML<6.6 we applied the moment tensor inversion to determine the activation of the faulting type, the Seismic Moment (M0) and the Moment Magnitude (Mw). For this purpose, 3–component broadband seismological data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) at epicentral distances less than 3˚ were selected and analyzed. The preparation of the data, includes the deconvolution of instrument response, following the velocity was integrated to displacement and finally the horizontal components rotated to radial and transverse. All the focal mechanisms were compared with those from other institutes and they are in agreement. The second part of this study refers to the calculation of the stress tensor using the STRESSINVERSE package by Václav Vavryčuk. The final part of this study includes an extensive kinematic analysis of geodetic data from local GNSS permanent station to further examine the dynamic displacement.

References:

  1. Athanassios Ganas, Pierre Briole, George Bozionelos, Panagiotis Elias, Sotiris Valkaniotis, Varvara Tsironi, Alexandra Moshou and Nikoletta Andritsou, 2019. The October 25, 2018 M6.7 Zakynthos earthquake sequence (Ionian Sea, Greece): fault modeling from seismic and GNSS data and implications for seismic strain release along the western Hellenic Arc, 15th, Sp. Pub. 7, Ext. Abs. GSG2019 – 324
  2. Konstantaras A.J. Classification of distinct seismic regions and regional temporal modelling of seismicity in the vicinity of the Hellenic seismic arc. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 6 (4), 1857-1863, 2012.
  3. Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos, Vassilios K. Karastathis, Ioannis Koukouvelas, Maria Sachpazi, Ioannis Baskoutas, Gerassimos Chouliaras, Apostolos Agalos, Eleni Daskalaki, George Minadakis, Alexandra Moshou, Aggelos Mouzakiotis, Katerina Orfanogiannaki, Antonia Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Spanos, Ioanna Triantafyllou. The Cephalonia, Ionian Sea (Greece), sequence of strong earthquakes of January – February 2014: A first report, Research in Geophysics 2014; 4:5441

How to cite: Moshou, A., Konstantaras, A., Argyrakis, P., and Sagias, N.: The ML = 6.8 25 October 2018 Earthquake Zakynthos Island (Ionian Sea) and the evolution of the aftershock sequence one year later, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3960, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3960, 2020

D1672 |
EGU2020-15851
Girolamo Milano

The Matese Massif is the major mountain range of the Sannio-Matese, which is the transition area between central and southern Apennines. The Massif is located among the seismogenic sources of large destructive historical Earthquakes (e.g. 1349, MW =7.0; 1688, MW = 6.6; 1805, MW = 6.8). Previous studies on the instrumental seismicity of the Sannio-Matese have shown that the seismic activity along and close to the Matese Massif is prevalently characterized by the occurrence of sparse low magnitude events (ML<2.5) and by seismic sequences with low to moderate magnitude (MWmax=5.0) with hypocenters within the uppermost crust. Last relevant seismic sequence occurred between the late 2013-early 2014 following an MW=5.0 earthquake. This sequence struck the internal southern side of the Massif in an area where no evidence of active faulting has been recorded so far. Multidisciplinary investigation on this sequence suggest that the sequence has developed along a SW dipping NNW-SSE striking normal fault, ~10 km long, confined in the 10-20 km depth range. The 1805 Earthquake affected the northern slope of the Massif whereas the 1349 and 1688 Earthquakes affected the southern side. The 1349 Earthquake, that includes at least three main shocks, given its age, stands out due to the lack of reliable and sufficiently vast historical documentation. Geological, geomorphological and historical analysis on this Earthquake evidenced a SW dipping 125 striking 22 km length normal fault, named Aquae Iuliae Fault (AIF), as responsible for one of the main shocks of this Earthquake. In order to provide further information on the seismotectonics setting of the southwest sector of the Matese Massif, here is analyzed the instrumental seismicity occurred in 2009-2019 time interval in the area of the 1349 Earthquake. The spatial distribution of the relocated seismicity mainly consists of single events with magnitude ML≤3.5. The single events are localized prevalently nearby AIF and have foci falling generally in the first 15 km of the crust. The focal mechanisms of the most energetic events show normal dip-slip solutions, with NW-SE striking planes and NE-SW striking T-axes. The epicentral distribution of a low magnitude seismic swarm, triggered by an earthquake of ML 3.3 and constituted by about 120 events,  shows a roughly WNW-ESE alignment. The hypocenters, confined in the range 5-15 km depth, roughly depict a SW dipping plane. The fault plane solutions of the very few events of this swarm with ML > 2.0 show both normal dip slip solutions, with a minor strike component, and strike-slip solutions, with a minor dip component. The common element of these focal mechanisms is the presence of a SW dipping fault plane, striking from NW-SE to NNW-SSE. The preliminary results of this study, taking into account the dipping plane of the 2013-2014 sequence and that of the AIF, suggest that the release of seismic energy in the southwest side of the Matese Massif occur on very small fault segments, with SW dipping.

How to cite: Milano, G.: Recent instrumental seismicity of the southwest Matese Massif (Sannio-Matese area - Italy): a contribution on the seismotectonics setting., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-15851, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-15851, 2020

D1673 |
EGU2020-12975
Stefano Carlino, Vincenzo Convertito, Anna Tramelli, Vincenzo De Novellis, and Nicola Alessandro Pino

We report here a first comparative analysis between recent and historical earthquakes, occurred in the island of Ischia (Southern Italy), which produced heavy damages and thousands of fatalities. The island of Ischia is located in the Gulf of Naples, and represents a peculiar case of resurgent caldera in which volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with low magnitude, have generated large damages and catastrophic effects, as is the case for the 4 March 1881 (Imax8-9 MCS) and the 28 July 1883 (Imax10-11 MCS) events. Both the earthquakes struck the northern area of the island, similarly to the recent 21 August 2017 earthquake. The results allowed us to assess the location, as well as the possible dimension and the related maximum magnitude of the seismogenic structure, located in the northern sector of the island, and responsible of damaging earthquakes. Our results also provide an additional framework to interpret mechanisms leading to earthquakes associated with dynamics of calderas.

 

How to cite: Carlino, S., Convertito, V., Tramelli, A., De Novellis, V., and Pino, N. A.: New seismological insights from the analyses of historical and recent earthquakes at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12975, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12975, 2020

D1674 |
EGU2020-11385
Jon Karapetyan, Karlen Ghazaryan, Rudolf Sargsyan, and Roza Karapetyan

To study the deep structure of the earth it is important to have an optimal monitoring network and reliable seismic baseline database for the investigated area. In addition, the territory of Armenia according to its geology and seismological conditions is a full-scale experimental polygon for seismic problems, in particular the study of Earth's deepest structure by seismic methods. For this purpose, the work aims to assess the effectiveness of the existing seismic monitoring system in Armenia, to offer optimal solutions for the station layout, to evaluate the accuracy of seismic information registered in the RA by performing hypocenter recalculation. Then, within of the work organized modern seismic stations in Armenia and Russia towns with seismic equipment made and produced in Armenia (IGES NAS RA). The work was supported by MESCS Science Committee of the Republic of Armenia (grant № 18SH-1E012).

How to cite: Karapetyan, J., Ghazaryan, K., Sargsyan, R., and Karapetyan, R.: Efficiency assessment of seismological information, monitoring system and seismicity study for the Republic of Armenia, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11385, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11385, 2020

D1675 |
EGU2020-11211
Rebecca Bruni, Giacomo Corti, Michele D'Ambrosio, Andrea Fiaschi, Carlo Giunchi, Derek Keir, Davide Piccinini, Federico Sani, and Gilberto Saccorotti

The Northern Apennines is a NW-SE striking fold-and-thrust belt composed of a pile of NE-verging tectonic units that developed during Cenozoic collision between the European plate (Corso–Sardinian block) and the Adria plate. Seismicity and geodetic data indicate that contemporaneous crustal shortening (in the external, Adriatic part) and extension (in the internal, Tyrrhenian side) characterize the current tectonic activity of the Apennines. The region around the Mugello basin (Northern Tuscany) represents one of the most important seismogenic areas of the Northern Apennines. Large historical earthquakes have occurred, such as the M=6.0, 1542 and the M=6.4, 1919 events. Its proximity to densely-urbanized areas and the potential impact of strong earthquakes on the cultural heritage in the nearby (~30km) city of Florence makes a better knowledge of the seismicity in the Mugello basin a target of paramount importance. Unresolved issues regard (i) the exact location and geometry of the fault(s) which produced the 1542 and 1919 earthquakes, (ii) the mechanism driving the abrupt transition from an extensional to compressional stress regime at the internal and external sides of the belt, respectively, and (iii) geometry of and role played by a close-by transfer zone oriented transversely (NE-SW) to the main strike of the belt. To address these problems, in early 2019 we initiated a project aiming at improving the knowledge about the seismo-tectonic setting of the basin and adjoining areas. At first, we integrated all the available seismic catalogs for the area, obtaining more than 12000 earthquakes spanning the 2005-2019 time interval. These data have been used to derive a minimum-misfit, 1-D velocity model to be subsequently used for a travel times inversion 3D tomography. At the same time, we Installed 9 temporary seismic stations, complementing the permanent networks presently operating in the area. This new deployment recorded a Mw=4.5 earthquake that struck the NW margin of the basin on Dec. 9, 2019. The mainshock and the ~200 aftershocks precisely delineate a 5-km-long, NW-striking and SW-dipping fault which extends over the 6-9 km depth interval. The focal mechanism of the mainshock yields consistent results, indicating a normal fault striking N105°E and dipping about 45°. This fault appears to be distinct from that (those) activated during the two last important sequences in the area, which occurred in 2008 and 2009. The earthquake caused unexpected, large accelerations (PGA~0.24g at ~7km epicentral range), provoking damages that resulted in the evacuation of more than 150 residents and economic losses of several millions of euro. Sample horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios at the most damaged sites report significant amplification within the 1-5 Hz frequency range, likely responsible for the anomalous ground shaking. Given the proximity of the aforementioned fault to that inferred for the 1542 (and, possibly, 1919) earthquake(s), a detailed study of the 2019 seismic sequence is expected to shed new light into the overall dynamics of the basin.

How to cite: Bruni, R., Corti, G., D'Ambrosio, M., Fiaschi, A., Giunchi, C., Keir, D., Piccinini, D., Sani, F., and Saccorotti, G.: Present-day seismic activity in the Mugello Basin and adjoining areas (Northern Apennines, Italy), EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11211, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11211, 2020

D1676 |
EGU2020-11945
Francisco J Nunez-Cornu, Diego Cordoba, William L Bandy, Juan José Dañobeitia, Carlos Mortera-Gutierrez, Edgar Alarcon, Diana Nuñez, Claudia B Quinteros-Cartaya, and Carlos Suarez-Plascencia

The geodynamic complexity in the interaction between Rivera, Cocos and NOAM plates is mainly reflected in the high and not well located seismicity of the region. In the framework of TsuJal Project, a study of the passive seismic activity was carried out. A temporal seismic network with 25 Obsidian stations with sensor Le-3D MkIII were deploying from the northern part of Nayarit state to the south of Colima state, including the Marias Islands, in addition to the Jalisco telemetric Seismic Network, being a total of 50 seismic stations on land. Offshore, ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs type LCHEAPO 2000 with 4 channels (3 seismic short period and 1 pressure sensors) were deployed and recover by the BO El Puma from UNAM in an array from the Marias Islands to off coast of the border of Colima and Michoacan state, in the period from 19th April to 7th November 2016.

A seismic sequence started on May 7, 2016 with an earthquake Mw = 5.6 reported by CMT-Harvard, USGS and SSN at the area north of Paleo Rivera Transform fault and west of the Middle America Trench, an area with a very complex tectonics due to the interaction of Rivera, Cocos and NOAM plates.

An analysis of this earthquake sequence from May 7 to May 11 using data from OBS and adequate P-Wave velocity model for Rivera plate is presented, 87 earthquakes were located. Data from onland stations were integrated after a travel-time residual analysis.

We observed that the new location is about 50 km southwest direction, from previous one, between the Paleo Rivera Transform fault and the northern tip of the East Pacific Rise – Pacific Cocos Segment.  This area has a different tectonic stress regime.

How to cite: Nunez-Cornu, F. J., Cordoba, D., Bandy, W. L., Dañobeitia, J. J., Mortera-Gutierrez, C., Alarcon, E., Nuñez, D., Quinteros-Cartaya, C. B., and Suarez-Plascencia, C.: The May 7 - 11, 2016 Earthquake Sequence at Rivera Fault Zone, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11945, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11945, 2020