Europlanet Science Congress 2021
Virtual meeting
13 – 24 September 2021
Europlanet Science Congress 2021
Virtual meeting
13 September – 24 September 2021

SB3

Laboratory measurements supporting modelling of early solar system processes and small bodies missions

This session aims to highlight new challenges and the missing building blocks needed to understand the composition and physical properties of the material of primitive bodies, using laboratory work on meteorites or other available extraterrestrial materials as well as terrestrial reference materials (rocks, minerals, ice, organics). Results of these laboratory studies with relevant references to modelling early processes in the solar system, including the formation/evolution of small bodies, and in support of ongoing and planned missions to study these objects are welcome.
The session focuses on the origin of inorganic and organic matter in different astrophysical environments and welcomes contributions on laboratory investigations and models of parent bodies of various meteorite groups, IDPs, asteroids, comets and dwarf planets.
This includes experimental work on the composition and physical properties of dust regoliths, the observation and characterization of laboratory analogues and resulting implications for models of small body formation and evolution. In addition, there is a special focus on organic matter (detection and evolution of organic components in the interstellar medium, observation and distribution of organic matter in the protosolar disk, characterization and evolution of organic matter in the primitive bodies and on planetary surfaces).

Public information:

Dear SB3 contributers,

Thank you again for your contributions during the live session on Thursday, September 16.

In the middle of the conference, I would like to ask you to please answer any questions you may have via Slack in order to promote the exchange of results.

So check back from time to time.

Gabriele

Convener: Gabriele Arnold | Co-conveners: Jörn Helbert, Eric Quirico
Public information:

Dear SB3 contributers,

Thank you again for your contributions during the live session on Thursday, September 16.

In the middle of the conference, I would like to ask you to please answer any questions you may have via Slack in order to promote the exchange of results.

So check back from time to time.

Gabriele

Session assets

Discussion on Slack

Oral and Poster presentations and abstracts

Chairpersons: Gabriele Arnold, Eric Quirico, Jörn Helbert
EPSC2021-11
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ECP
Victoria Munoz-Iglesias, Maite Fernández-Sampedro, Carolina Gil-Lozano, Laura J. Bonales, Oscar Ercilla Herrero, María Pilar Valles González, Eva Mateo-Martí, and Olga Prieto-Ballesteros

Ceres, dwarf planet of the main asteroid belt, is considered a relic ocean world since the Dawn mission discovered evidences of aqueous alteration and cryovolcanic activity [1]. Unexpectedly, a variety of ammonium-rich minerals were identified on its surface, including phyllosilicates, carbonates, and chlorides [2]. Although from the Dawn’s VIR spectroscopic data it was not possible to specify the exact type of phyllosilicates observed, montmorillonite is considered a good candidate owing to its ability to incorporate NH4+ in its interlayers [3]. Ammonium-rich phases are usually found at greater distances from the Sun. Hence, the study on their stability at environmental conditions relevant to Ceres’ interior and of its regolith can help elucidate certain ambiguities concerning the provenance of its precursor materials.

In this study, it was investigated the changes in the spectroscopic signatures of the clay mineral montmorillonite after (a) being immersed in ammonium chloride aqueous solution and, subsequently, (b) washed with deionized water. After each treatment, samples were submitted to different environmental conditions relevant to the surface of Ceres. For one experiment, they were frozen overnight at 193 K, and then subjected to 10-5 bar for up to 4 days in a Telstar Cryodos lyophilizer. For the other, they were placed inside the Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces Chamber (PASC) [4] for 1 day at 100 K and 5.10-8 bar. The combination of different techniques, i.e., Raman and IR spectroscopies, XRD, and SEM/EDX, assisted the assignment of the bands to each particular molecule. In this regard, the signatures of the mineral external surface were distinguished from the interlayered NH4+ cations. The degree of compaction of the samples resulted crucial on their stability and spectroscopic response, being stiff smectites more resistant to low temperatures and vacuum conditions. In ground clay minerals, a decrease in the basal space with a redshift of the interlayered NH4+ IR band was measured after just 1 day of being exposed to vacuum conditions.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects ESP2017-89053-C2-1-P and PID2019-107442RB-C32, and the AEI project MDM‐2017‐0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu”.

References

[1] De Sanctis et al.,  Space Sci. Rev. 216, 60, 2020

[2] Raponi et al., Icarus 320, 83,  2019

[3] Borden and Giese, Clays Clay Miner. 49, 444, 2001

[4] Mateo-Marti et al., Life 9, 72, 2019

How to cite: Munoz-Iglesias, V., Fernández-Sampedro, M., Gil-Lozano, C., J. Bonales, L., Ercilla Herrero, O., Valles González, M. P., Mateo-Martí, E., and Prieto-Ballesteros, O.: Characterization of NH4-montmorillonite coexisting with NH4Cl salt at different aggregation states. Application to Ceres., Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-11, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-11, 2021.

EPSC2021-397
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ECP
Fabrizio Dirri, Anna Galiano, Andrea Longobardo, Ernesto Palomba, Bernard Schmitt, Pierre Beck, Olivier Poch, and Olivier Brissaud

Introduction

The VIR spectrometer on board the NASA’s Dawn spacecraft allowed providing important clues  the mineralogical composition of the Ceres regolith (De Sanctis et al., 2015) and of the bright areas widespread across its surface (Palomba et al., 2019; Carrozzo et al., 2018). Some bright spots are thought to be the result of phenomena like cryovolcanism (Ruesch et al., 2016; Russell et al., 2016) and post-impact hydrothermal activities (Bowling et al., 2016). The study of Ceres bright areas is important to understand in more detail the mineralogical composition of the subsurface materials that could host water ice (Prettyman et al., 2017; Schmidt et al., 2017) or have been under aqueous alteration (De Sanctis et al., 2016). 

In this study different bright areas of Haulani crater (e.g. Southern floor, i.e. ROI3 and North-east crater wall, i.e. ROI4) on Ceres have been studied by creating different analogue mixtures and comparing them with Dawn VIR data. The end-members have been identified based on previous studies (Tosi et al. 2018, 2019) and the analogue mixtures have been produced with grain size 50-100 µm for two bright crater regions. The spectra of two initial analogue mixtures have been acquired in the VIS-NIR spectral range (0.35-4.5 µm) at low temperature, i.e. from 200 K to 300 K similar to Haulani by using the Cold Spectroscopy Facility (CSS; https://cold-spectro.sshade.eu) (IPAG, France).

 

Scientific goals and method

The main scientific objectives of this study are: 1) the study of two different bright areas of Haulani crater (hereafter called ROI3 and ROI4, Figure 1) on Ceres in order to study the mineralogy  of the sub-surface materials starting from results inferred by Dawn VIR; 2) the identification of the end-members of mineral mixtures of bright areas and production of endmembers and analogue mixtures  with grain size 50-100 µm; 3) the acquisition of reflectance spectra of end-members and analogue mixtures in the VIS-NIR spectral range (0.35-4.5 µm); 4) the analysis of appropriate spectral parameters of reflectance spectra and comparison with those obtained by VIR data.

In particular, spectral parameters of mixtures will be estimated, focusing on Band Center (BC), Band Depth (BD), Full Width Half at Maximum (FWHM) of bands, reflectance level and spectral slopes (estimated between 1.2 and 1.9 µm). The spectral parameters of analogue mixtures have been compared with the VIR data corresponding to the selected area in order to constrain their mineralogical composition.

 

Data analysis and conclusion

Two analogue mixtures (50-100 µm), here called A3-1 and A3-2 have been produced by using the end-members Antigorite (Mg-phyllosilicate); NH4-montmorillonite (ammoniated phyllosilicate); anhydrous Sodium Carbonate (Na-carbonate); Graphite (dark component), Illite (Phyllosilicates) to simulate the two bright crater regions (Figure 1, i.e. southern floor and red spot or ROI3, i.e. north-east inner crater wall or ROI4). Reflectance spectra of the two mixtures have been acquired in the VIS-NIR spectral range (0.35-4.5 µm) at cold temperature, i.e., from 200 K to 300 K (phase angle of 30°) with the SHINE spectro-gonio-radiometer equipped with the CARBONIR simulation chamber (sample in inner cell filled with few mbar of pure N2 gas) at the Cold Spectroscopy Facility (CSS) in IPAG, France (Figure 1, Right). Finally, the analysis of spectral parameters of the reflectance spectra (mainly relative to the absorption bands at 2.7, 3.1, 3.4 µm) and the comparison with VIR data have been performed. The acquired spectra have been finally converted in radiance factor. 

A first analysis shows that the Mixture A3-1 and A3-2 are not well representative due to the high amount of dark components (up to 86 % for A3-1) and missing Na-carbonate bands (for A3-2). Thus, the A3-2 has been modified (by producing the intermediate mixture) and by reaching 9 % for Na-carbonate, 32 % of dark component (i.e. carbon black) and 25 % of NH4-Montmorillonite in the final mixture named as A3-8. Finally, graphite and NH4-montmorillonite have been added to the A3-8 mixture, obtaining the last mixture A3-9. Thanks to carbon black the reflectance level compared with Haulani spectra is more similar. The analysed mixture were heated in the furnace in air at 120°C for 2 hours before each measurement and then placed in the sample holder under vacuum to remove the adsorbed H2O.

The mixtures with a reflectance spectrum similar to the spectra of ROI3 and ROI4 have been analysed in detail. By the spectral analysis, the Mixture A3-8 shows the most representative reflectance spectrum for the Haulani’s areas of interest (even if the difference in the reflectance level is probably due to opaque end-member composition) and exhibits BD values for the 2.7, 3.1 and 3.4  µm bands that are the closest one to the ROI3 and ROI4. The width of the 3.1 µm band (3.1FWHM) of A3-8 has a value similar  to the ROI4 (about 0.15). In particular, the 2.7 BD is about 13% lower than ROI3 and ROI4, the 3.1BD is 5-9% higher while the 3.4BD has the same value of ROI4 and 11% lower than ROI3. A more in-depth analysis of the data is in progress.

Besides, in order to better reproduce Haulani areas some improvements may be performed, e.g., by adding a low amount of hydrous natrite , e.g. 2-8%, to assess the role of this component found in Haulani bright areas and how it contributes to the 2.7 µm spectral band.    

 

References

Carrozzo, F.G., et al., 2018. Nature, Sci. Adv. 4 (3); De Sanctis. M. C. et al., 2015. Nature 528, pp. 241-244; De Sanctis, M.C., et al., 2016. Nature 536. Issue 7614, 54–57; Palomba, E., et al., 2019. Icarus 320, 202–212; Prettyman T. H., et al., 2017. Science 355:55–59; Ruesch, O., et al., 2016. Science 353 (6303); Russell, C.T., et al., 2016. Science 353 (6303), 1008–1010; Schmidt B. E. et al., 2017. Nature Geoscience 10:338–343; Tosi, F. et al., 2018. M&P Sci. 53, Nr.9, pp. 1902-1924; Tosi, F. et al., 2019. Icarus 318, pp.170-187.

How to cite: Dirri, F., Galiano, A., Longobardo, A., Palomba, E., Schmitt, B., Beck, P., Poch, O., and Brissaud, O.: VIS-NIR reflectance analysis of analogue mixtures representative of Haulani crater on Ceres to assess the mineralogical composition of bright areas , Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-397, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-397, 2021.

EPSC2021-723
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ECP
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solicited
Giovanni Poggiali, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, John Robert Brucato, Marco Ferrari, Simone De Angelis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, Giuseppe Baratta, Vito Mennella, Daniele Fulvio, Ciprian Popa, Giovanni Strazzulla, and Carlotta Sciré

Summary

Ceres is the largest object in the Solar System main belt. Clearly, Ceres experienced extensive water-related processes and geochemical differentiation and nowadays it is a body with a complex geological and chemical history [1]. Its surface is characterized by dark materials, phyllosilicates, ammonium-bearing minerals, carbonates, water ice, and salts. In addition to a global presence of carbon bearing chemistry, local concentration of aliphatic organics has been detected by Dawn [2].

In this context, we have started a series of laboratory spectroscopy measurements targeted to study the physicochemical interactions between organic material and minerals possibly present on Ceres. The goal is to understand the transformations induced on these samples by ultraviolet radiation, neutral atoms, and fast ions, under experimental conditions that simulate the environment of Ceres. The spectroscopic data obtained in laboratory experiments allow, through the comparison with the observations of the VIR spectrometer aboard the Dawn mission, to clarify the nature and origin of organic material identified on Ceres. 

Introduction

Organic material in the minor bodies of the Solar System is an important component to understand planetary evolution and, eventually, the origin of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge on the subject is still limited. Recently the Dawn mission, thanks to the data collected by the Italian instrument VIR [3], showed clear evidence of a high amount of aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres [4, 5, 6] (Fig 1). This evidence has raised new questions about the origin and preservation of this material, especially when considering its high estimated abundance and the mineralogical context.

 

Fig 1 Ceres spectra of the organic-rich area in Ernutet crater (label “Organics”); of a background organic-poor area from a region southeast of Ernutet (label “Background”); and of Occator bright material (label “Carbonate”) [4].

 

In order to understand the organic chemical species and in particular their abundance on Ceres, laboratory studies were performed [7]. The importance of having a direct comparison between laboratory and remote sensing data can provide a further investigation clues to shed light on the origin and evolution of Ceres. Through this project, we intend to study, through dedicated experiments, the interaction between minerals, water, and organic concerning the environmental conditions of Ceres. Making a synergistic use of complementary and indispensable skills present within INAF (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics) laboratories we investigated a complex issue such as that concerning the origin and preservation of organic molecules on planetary surfaces. Within INAF, complementary and unique realities coexist which, thanks to joint and coordinated work, can give a new interpretation of the physical-chemical processes active on Ceres.

Project development and results

In this study, we prepare mixtures of materials resembling the Ceres surface composition [8, 9] adding organic molecules in order to:

(i) understand how organic molecules behave and eventually degrade on Ceres, in particular, how aliphatic molecules degrade by energetic processing with fast ions (keV-MeV) and UV photons [10, 11]. Moreover, the physico-chemical properties of the materials exposed to a flux of neutral atoms are investigated [12, 13].

(ii) evaluate the interaction between ammoniated minerals and simple organic molecules that may lead to the synthesis of complex compounds. In the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, these minerals present on the surface of Ceres can show photocatalytic effects accelerating the photo-reactions, which generally destroy the original organic molecule and in the synthesis of new complex organic molecules [14].

(iii) evaluate the role of minerals in the protection or degradation of organic compounds. Some studies indicated a fundamental role of clays in the catalysis and preservation of organic materials [15]. Ceres is rich in clays and other hydrated minerals, making the interactions with the observed organics of particular interest.

The project is carried out by several INAF institutes and laboratories. In detail: INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali prepared the analog mineral mixtures taking into account the compositional information gained by VIR observations.  INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri subsequently doped the mixture with several organic investigating UV photostability in Ceres analog conditions and the influence of temperature. INAF -Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte studied irradiation with atoms and temperature effect while INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania performed irradiation with fast ions. Finally, results of laboratory measurements were compared with data obtained by VIR instrument onboard Dawn mission.

Acknowledgements
This work is support by INAF Main Stream programme, grant  1.05.01.86.08 Evoluzione ed alterazione del materiale organico su Cerere (ref. Maria Cristina De Sanctis).

References

[1] De Sanctis et al., 2016, Nature 536, 54–57

[2] Marchi et al., Nature Astr., 2019

[3] De Sanctis et al., 2011, Space Science Reviews 163, 329-369.

[4] De Sanctis et al., science 2017 355, 719

[5] Pieters et al., 2018, Meteoritics and Planetary Science 53 (9), 1983-1998

[6] De Sanctis et al., 2019, 482 (2), 2407–2421

[7] Vinogradoff et al., 2021

[8] Ferrari et al., 2019, Icarus 321, 522-530

[9]De Angelis et al., 2021 JGR Planets doi: 10.1029/2020JE006696

[10] Baratta et al. 2002, A&A, 384, 343-349

[11] Brucato et al. 2006, A&A, 455, 395-399

[12] Mennella et al. 2003, ApJ, 587, 727-738

[13] Palumbo et al 2004, Ad. Sp. Res., 33, 49-56

[14] Fornaro et al. 2013, Icarus, 226(1), 1068–1085

[15] Fornaro et al 2018, Astrobiology, 18, 989-1007

How to cite: Poggiali, G., De Sanctis, M. C., Brucato, J. R., Ferrari, M., De Angelis, S., Palumbo, M. E., Baratta, G., Mennella, V., Fulvio, D., Popa, C., Strazzulla, G., and Sciré, C.: Evolution and alteration of organic material on Ceres, a pathway towards the understanding of complex geological and chemical history of a wet small body, Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-723, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-723, 2021.

EPSC2021-454
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ECP
Christopher Cox, Julie Brisset, Aracelis Partida, Alexander Madison, and Olivia Bitcon

Several lines of evidence indicate that most of the smaller asteroids (< 1 km) consist of granular material loosely bound together primarily by self-gravity; these are commonly called rubble piles [1]. While the strength of these rubble piles is valuable information on their origin and fate, it is still debated in the literature [2]. Therefore, we have started a laboratory measurement campaign on simulated asteroid regolith, studying the impact of several factors on material strength, such as grain size, size mixtures, and surface properties. In the work presented here, we focus on fine-coarse mixtures and the influence of the fraction of fines on the sample strength. Computer simulations suggest that the increase in the ratio of fine grains to coarse grains will increase the strength of the sample in all configurations [3].  In a series of table-top measurements, we have determined sample compression and shear strengths for various fine-coarse mixtures. We used confined setups (less than 10cm in length) to measure the strength of the material in constricted environments such as an asteroid’s core and unconfined setups (greater than 10cm in length) to simulate open environments such as the surface of an asteroid.

Using CI Orgeuil high fidelity asteroid soil simulant [4], we performed three measurement types to determine the strength of our samples. Samples of regolith were created by measuring percentage by volume amounts of both coarse and fine grains into the measurement container. We prepared coarse grains in two size distributions, mm-sized (Figure 1) and cm-sized. The fine fraction was composed of grains sieved between 100 and 250 µm. A shear box setup was used to obtain shear yield measurements which in turn provided values for the Angle of Internal Friction (AIF), bulk cohesion, and tensile strength of the samples. A compression setup was used to measure values for the Young’s Modulus (YM) in both confined and unconfined samples. The third setup measured the Angle Of Repose (AOR), the steepest angle of descent relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can pile before collapse. From the AOR, we determined the coefficient of friction of each sample.

For compression and AOR measurements, we find that the strength of the coarse grain samples increases with the addition of a fine fraction (Figure 2, left). These findings are intuitive and support the results from computer simulations. However, we find that the increase of the fine fraction in a sample of coarse grains does not consistently increase the sample shear strength. With increasing fine fractions, the AIF and bulk cohesion (Figure 2, right) of the mixed samples decrease (until a point of saturation). This could be indicative of the fine grains acting as a lubricant as the larger grains move across each other, aiding rolling and reducing interlocking strength.

Our findings suggest that in the case of the surface of an asteroid, the presence of fine grains does indeed increase the strength of coarse regolith material.  However, fine grains in the regolith sublayers or the asteroid interior will reduce material strength due to grain interlocking and ease disruption. Therefore, rubble piles that are depleted in fine grains will have higher internal strength compared to those composed of grain size distributions that include sub-mm sized particles.

[1] Walsh, K.J., 2018. Rubble pile asteroids. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 56, pp.593-624.

[2] Holsapple, K., 2020. Main Belt Asteroid Histories: Simulations of erosion, cratering, catastrophic dispersions, spins, binaries and tumblers. arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.15300.

[3] Sánchez, P. and Scheeres, D.J., 2014. The strength of regolith and rubble pile asteroids. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 49(5), pp.788-811.

[4] Metzger, P.T., Britt, D.T., Covey, S., Schultz, C., Cannon, K.M., Grossman, K.D., Mantovani, J.G. and Mueller, R.P., 2019. Measuring the fidelity of asteroid regolith and cobble simulants. Icarus, 321, pp.632-646.

How to cite: Cox, C., Brisset, J., Partida, A., Madison, A., and Bitcon, O.: Mechanical properties of fine-coarse grain mixtures of asteroid regolith, Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-454, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-454, 2021.

EPSC2021-313
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ECP
Maximiliano Fastelli, Paola Comodi, Azzurra Zucchini, Bernard Schmitt, Pierre Beck, and Olivier Poch

Ammonium minerals have been proposed to be present in variable percentage on icy planetary bodies such as Enceladus, Ceres, Pluto and its satellites and their presence is evident also in others celestial bodies. The presence of these compounds is related to the raise of ammonium (NH4+) salts from the interior of the icy planetary body, where oceans are likely located, due to cryovolcanism activity mixed with ice. De Sanctis et al. (2020) suggest that the presence of ammonium bicarbonate and/or ammonium chlorides on Ceres’s surface is a trace of the recent ascent of deep brine. In fact, some authors (e.g., Castillo-Rogez, 2020) proposed the presence of an early ocean on the subsurface of Ceres as deep brine. The Virgil Fossae on Pluto show evidence of recent cryovolcanism activity and ammonia spectral signature (Cruikshank et al., 2019) revealed by the analysis of data collected by New Horizons from the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) (Schmitt et al., 2017). Recently, several studies (Cook et al., 2018; Dalle Ore et al., 2019) modelled the surface composition of Nix, Hydra and Kerberos, Pluto’s moons, using ammoniated salts as end members: NH4Cl, NH4NO3 and (NH4)2CO3. The identification of these minerals on the surface can give information about internal composition/dynamics and potential habitability of icy bodies. Among the tested samples, several hydrated and anhydrous ammonium compounds undergo phase transitions under specific temperature conditions. For these reasons, these minerals at cryogenic conditions can experience variations in resistivity, electrical conductivity as well as  other mechanical properties, that can affect the internal dynamics, cryovolcanism and buoyancy of celestial bodies.

This study focuses on a series of selected minerals, as sulfates, phosphates, aluminates and borates, and is aimed at understanding how (1) different anionic groups, (2) the amount of water, (3) the occurrence of low temperature phase transitions and (4) different grain-size affect the absorption bands parameters of the ammonium bearing minerals. As the experimental data to interpret the remote sensing data, available nowadays for these systems, are usually restricted to small spectral ranges and collected only at room temperature, we performed reflectance spectroscopy analyses in the near-infrared (NIR) region (1-5 μm) in a temperature range from 298K to 60K with specific temperature steps for samples characterised by phase transitions. The reflectance spectra of the samples were measured under cryogenic conditions representative of real planetary surfaces. In addition, ammonium compounds were sieved in three different grain size ranges: 36-80, 80-125 and 125-150 μm. Each grain-size was measured at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed on the samples before and after thermal treatments.

We measured natural and synthetic ammonium bearing minerals; sal-ammoniac NH4Cl, mascagnite (NH4)2SO4, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4)HCO3, ammonium nitrate NH4NO3, ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3, ammonium phosphate monobasic (NH4)H2PO4, larderellite (NH4)B5O7(OH)2·H2O, struvite(NH4)MgPO4·6H2O and tschermigite (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12H2O using using the SHINE spectro-gonio radiometer of the Cold Spectroscopy Facility (https://cold-spectro.sshade.eu) at IPAG equipped with a simulation chamber to control the temperature of the minerals. Some of them undergo structural transformations at cryogenic temperature: i.e., mascagnite shows phase transitions at 223 K which involve a changing from space group Pnam at room temperature to Pna21, with ferroelectric behaviour related to a stronger hydrogen bond, whereas tscermigite presents low temperature transitions at 76 K.

Reflectance spectra of anhydrous samples show well defined absorption features in the 1-2.5 µm range due to NH4+ groups overtones and combinations. The bands located at 1.3 (2ν3 + ν4) and 1.56 (2ν3) µm could be useful to discriminate these salts. The reflectance spectra of water-rich samples show H2O fundamental absorption features, overlapped to the NH4+bands, in the area from 1 to 2.8 μm and over 3 μm the spectra show a minor number of peaks. The parameters (area, depth and FWHM) of several absorption bands change in relation to the low temperature conditions and different grain size. In detail, the low temperature spectra compared to the room temperature ones reveal fine structure displaying more specific and defined absorption bands. The different granulometry affects mainly the bands area and depth. Moreover, we notice as the grain size becoming larger, the value of area and FWHM (full width half maximum) increase. Samples mascagnite (NH4)2SO4, sal-ammoniac NH4Cl, ammonium phosphate (NH4)H2PO4, tschermigite (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12(H2O) and ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 are characterized by phase transitions at low temperature and in some cases showed clear and very interesting spectral bands variations during cooling, indicating that a phase transition occurred. In these minerals, the detected phase transitions are characterized by a progressive deepening and shift toward shorter wavelength whit an abrupt change in depth of the sensitive bands.

In the analysed temperature range, like that can be found on the surface of large icy bodies, the ammonium minerals undergo different evolutions. In some cases, phase transformations generate important variations in the structural configuration that reflect on the characteristics of the band’s parameters and shape. In this scenario, the behaviour of the studied minerals at low temperature is very interesting for the remote sensing identification. These collected cryogenic data, with a carefully analysis of NH4+ absorption features, could be used to the detection of these salts on the surfaces of planetary bodies. The presence of ammonium minerals in the ice shell could influence the dynamics of icy satellites, especially if they are subject to phase transformations.

  • Castillo-Rogez, J. (2020). Future exploration of Ceres as an ocean world. Nature Astronomy, 4(8), 732-734.
  • Cook, J. C. et al., (2018). Composition of Pluto’s small satellites: Analysis of New Horizons spectral images. Icarus, 315, 30-45.
  • Cruikshank, D. P. et al., (2019). Recent cryovolcanism in virgil fossae on Pluto. Icarus330, 155-168.
  • Dalle Ore, C. M. et al., (2019). Detection of ammonia on Pluto’s surface in a region of geologically recent tectonism. Science advances, 5(5), eaav5731.
  • De Sanctis, M. C et al., (2020). Fresh emplacement of hydrated sodium chloride on Ceres from ascending salty fluids. Nature Astronomy4(8), 786-793.
  • Schmitt, B. et al., Physical state and distribution of materials at the surface of Pluto from New Horizons LEISA imaging spectrometer. Icarus, 287, 229-260.

How to cite: Fastelli, M., Comodi, P., Zucchini, A., Schmitt, B., Beck, P., and Poch, O.: VIS-NIR analysis at low temperature and different grain size of ammonium bearing minerals: a tool to improve the knowledge of icy planetary bodies surface., Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-313, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-313, 2021.

EPSC2021-766
Simone De Angelis, Bernard Schmitt, Pierre Beck, Cristian Carli, Olivier Poch, Olivier Brissaud, and Federico Tosi

Introduction

The determination of surface properties of Solar System rocky bodies is a fundamental step in the interpretation of remote-sensing data from planetary missions. Estimating the surface temperature from remotely sensed spectroscopic data data is generally performed by applying models and inversions to infrared spectra. Such models have been used in the past to estimate the surface temperature of planetary bodies like Mars and Ceres (e.g. Pollack et al., 1990; Tosi et al., 2016). In some specific case, namely water ice, the absorption bands in the near infrared range have been calibrated in position (Fink and Larson, 1975; Grundy and Schmitt, 1998; Mastrapa et al., 2009) and their shift with respect to laboratory P-T conditions can be used to infer the surface temperature of icy satellites if these are relatively free from contaminants, or of ice outcrops on smaller bodies (see e.g. Raponi et al., 2018, for Ceres). Other non-water-ice materials can be in principle used as temperature proxy, useful for an independent estimation of the surface temperature of rocky bodies. Phyllosilicates for example are characterized by diagnostic OH absorption bands in the 1-2.8 μm-region, and these have been detected on Mars (Bibring et al., 2005; Ehlmann and Edwards, 2014) as well as on asteroids (De Sanctis et al., 2015; Hamilton et al., 2019; Kitazato et al., 2019) by telescopic and space missions. Nevertheless, the absorption of water hiddens or strongly affects the structural OH absorption in the IR, thus other non-hydrated materials are needed in order to be related to temperature changes. Carbonates, also detected on bodies such as Mars (Ehlmann et al., 2009) or Ceres (De Sanctis et al., 2016) are good candidates for such a study, because they are characterized by a number of absorption bands that may be little to no affected by water; in particular the bands at 3.4-4 μm are outside the broad 3-μm water band. In previous laboratory studies carbonates reflectance spectra in the IR have been acquired at room temperature (Harner et al., 2015). In other laboratory studies a correlation between band position and temperature change has been showed for 3.4 and 4-μm bands (De Angelis et al., 2018) regarding the natrite, although measurements were carried out at low spectral resolution.

Methods

In this work we studied the IR spectral reflectance of a number of different carbonates, in the 3.2-4.6-μm range, at high spectral sampling and resolution, in a wide temperature range from 270 K down to 60 K. This set of measurements is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating also other classes of anhydrous minerals at high spectral resolution, in order to identify other valuable temperature proxies that can be useful in the interpretation of remote-sensing data from current and future planetary missions. We acquired spectra on six different types of carbonates, namely: calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), magnesite (MgCO3), siderite (FeCO3), natrite (Na2CO3), malachite (Cu2(CO3)(OH)2). These materials cover a wide range of carbonates with different cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+, Cu2+) thus allowing studying also the band variability due to the different chemical environment. Spectra were acquired with the setups of the Cold Surfaces Spectroscopy (CSS; https://cold-spectro.sshade.eu) facility at the Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG); measurements were performed with the SHINE Spectro-Gonio-Radiometer facility (Brissaud et al., 2004) equipped with a simulation chamber to control the sample temperature. The spectral sampling was 3 nm, corresponding to a spectral resolution < 8 nm. This facility uses a monochromator as a light dispersion element. All spectra were acquired at standard conditions of illumination (i = 30°) and emission (e = 0°). Spectralon and Infragold (Labsphere ©) were used as reference targets.

The materials have been analyzed in the form of fine powders, each mineral having been ground and dry-sieved at grain size below 50 μm.

Preliminary results and Conclusions

Spectra of a dolomite sample are shown in Fig.1. Several changes can be seen in the spectra as the temperature is lowered from 270 to 60 K. In Fig.1A the overall 3.2-4.6 μm-spectra are shown. The reflectance level at continuum becomes higher for wavelengths beyond 3.5 μm; below 3.3 μm a decrease of reflectance could be related to some minor amount of water contained in the sample, or to frost condensation in the chamber. In Fig.1B a closeup on the first minimum of the carbonate 3.4-μm band is shown. The position of the first minimum, located at about 3.31 μm at 270 K, seems to shift towards shorter wavelengths as the temperature decreases, by roughly 6-7 nm. In Fig. 1C a closeup on the 4-4.2-μm region is displayed. A very weak band, that is quite unrecognizable at 270 K, becomes clearer and definite as the temperature decreases to 60 K, located at 4.15 μm.

All these subtle changes in spectral bands positions as well as small bands appearing at low temperatures could be in principle detectable by high-resolution spectrometers.

Future work will deal with the detailed spectral analysis of band parameters of all the carbonate samples, as well as with the investigation of other anhydrous materials.

References

Bibring J.-P. et al., 2005. Science 307, 1576

De Angelis, S., et al., 2018. Icarus 317, 388-411

De Sanctis M.C., et al., 2015. Nature, 528, 241-244

De Sanctis M.C., et al., 2016. Nature,536, 54-57

Ehlmann B.L., et al., 2008. Science, 322, 1828-1832

Ehlmann B.L. and Edwards C.S., 2014. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, 42, 291-315

Fink U. and Larson H.P., 1975. Icarus, 24, 411-420

Grundy W.M. and Schmitt B., 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.103, N.E11, Pages 25,809-25,822

Hamilton V.E., et al., 2019. Nature Astronomy

Harner P.L. and Gilmore M.S., 2015. Icarus 250, 204-214

Kitazato K., et al., 2019. Science, 364, 272-275

Mastrapa R.M. ,et al., 2009. Astrophysical Journal 701, 1347–1356

Pollack J.B., et al., 1990. Journal Of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No.B9, Pages 14,595-14,627

Raponi A. et al., 2018. Science Advances 4

Tosi F., et al., 2016. 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract #1883

How to cite: De Angelis, S., Schmitt, B., Beck, P., Carli, C., Poch, O., Brissaud, O., and Tosi, F.: High spectral resolution / low-temperature IR study of carbonates, Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-766, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-766, 2021.

EPSC2021-722
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ECP
Alessandro Pisello, Alessandro Maturilli, Massimiliano Porreca, and Diego Perugini

Abstract

Silicates are the main constituent of volcanic terrains on terrestrial planets and other rocky bodies in the solar system [1]. Typically, these volcanic terrains are constituted by fragmented pyroclasts whose texture is often afanitic or porphyric rather than holocrystalline: this means that the fraction of crystalline material is less relevant than the fraction of amorphous, or glassy, material. Thus, it is of paramount importance to take into account amorphous silicate phases to explore the influence of glass/crystal ratio on the spectral response of volcanic rocks, to better interpret available and future remotely sensed spectra from past and future missions [2, 3]. Here we report the results of a study concerning mafic volcanic products which were synthesized in order to present different degrees of crystallinity: three basaltic melts were cooled at different rates to obtain different textures, from totally amorphous to crystalline. Finally, they were analysed by means of emissivity in the thermal-IR range at different temperatures.

Samples preparation

Samples were produced by melting two natural mafic rocks: a basalt (low-alkali mafic rock from Snake River Plain, USA) and a shoshonite (high-alkali mafic from Vulcano island, Italy) following a two-steps routine of crushing and melting [4, 5]. A third silicate melt was produced by mixing and melting oxides to resemble the composition of Nakhlite meteorite [6]. The three melts were cooled in three different ways (Fig. 1) to obtain nine different samples. In order to obtain pure, crystal-free glasses, melts were directly quenched from super-liquidus temperature (Black line Fig.1), whereas other, identical, melts were cooled down slowly (52-56 °C per hour) and then quenched at subliquidus temperatures of ca. 1100°C (red line Fig. 1) and 1000°C (yellow line Fig.1). Following this approach, we obtained 9 rocky samples from three melts, so that each sample was differing in both chemical composition and crystallinity.

Figure 1: The three cooling ramps used for the syntheses of the material.

 

Samples analysis

Samples were analysed using SEM, and spectroscopically characterized under different conditions: thermal-IR data have been acquired at the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory of the German Aerospace Center in Berlin (DLR), collecting the emitted thermal radiation for samples at different temperatures (150°C, 300°C, 450°C, 600°C; spectral range 5-16 μm) [7]. SEM imaging showed successful different degree of crystallinity for the three steps, which results in a different spectral response, visible in Figure 1.
By observing shape of spectra, crystalline Shoshonite and Basalt show similar shape to their relative amorphous but for a shoulder at 8.2-8.3 μm, whereas Nakhlite shows substantially different shapes for the three crystallinity steps (Fig. 2).
For what concerns the shift of the spectra, crystal-bearing products seem to show similar features at slightly lower wavelengths for Shoshonite and Basalt, whereas this trend is inverted for Nakhlite, probably due to different phases nucleating in different melts. Higher emissivity temperatures seem to homogenize the spectral response of samples with same chemical composition and different textural properties. These results provides further information on the spectral response of synthetised rock samples [2], that can be used for modeling of spectral information coming from rocky bodies in the Solar system

Figure 2: Spectra resulting from emissivity measurements performed on nine different products produced from three initial compositions (Nakhlite:N, Shoshonite:sho and Basalt:B). Emissivity was measured with samples at four different temperatures, two of which are here shown (150 and 600°C).

References

[1] Namur, O. and Charlier, B. (2017). Silicate mineralogy at the surface of mercury.Nature Geoscience, 10(1):9.

[2] Pisello, A., Vetere, F. P., Bisolfati, M., Maturilli, A., Morgavi, D., Pauselli, C., ... & Perugini, D. (2019). Retrieving magma composition from TIR spectra: implications for terrestrial planets investigations. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-13.

[3] Di Genova, D., Hess, K.-U., Chevrel, M. O., and Dingwell, D. B. (2016). Models for the estimation of fe3+/fetotratio in terrestrial and extraterrestrial alkali-and iron-rich silicate glasses using raman spectroscopy.

[4] Vetere, F., Iezzi, G., Behrens, H., Holtz, F., Ventura, G., Misiti, V., ... & Dietrich, M. (2015). Glass forming ability and crystallisation behaviour of sub-alkaline silicate melts. Earth-science reviews, 150, 25-44.

[5] Rossi, S., Petrelli, M., Morgavi, D., Vetere, F. P., Almeev, R. R., Astbury, R. L., & Perugini, D. (2019). Role of magma mixing in the pre-eruptive dynamics of the Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Lithos, 324, 165-179.

[6] Treiman, A.H. (2005) The nakhlite meteorites: Augite-rich igneous rocks from Mars. Chemie der Erde 65, 203-270  

[7] Maturilli, A., Helbert, J., Ferrari, S., Davidsson, B., and D’Amore, M. (2016). Characterization of asteroidanalogues by means of emission and reflectance spectroscopy in the 1-to 100-μm spectral range.Earth,Planets and Space, 68(1):113

 

How to cite: Pisello, A., Maturilli, A., Porreca, M., and Perugini, D.: Thermal-IR emissivity investigation on lab-made silicate rocks: implications for asteroidal and planetary studies. , Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-722, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-722, 2021.

EPSC2021-456
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ECP
Francesca Mancarella, Marcella D'Elia, Vincenzo Orofino, Gaia Micca Longo, and Savino Longo

Introduction

In the research on the origin of life on our Planet, the possibility of a contribution played by organic substances of extraterrestrial origin, which may have reached our planet through micro-fragments of planetary and cometary origin, is being taken into consideration more and more seriously (Flynn et al., 2003).  These particles may also provide the necessary thermal protection for thermolabile, life-related molecules, to the high temperatures reached during the first stages of the atmospheric entry processes. Particularly interesting is the size of the order of a tenth of a millimeter, which corresponds to a peak in the distribution of the material entering the atmosphere.

Physical models of the entry process of such grains have been available in the literature for many years. When the composition of most promising mineral phase is considered, the most interesting candidates are carbonates (mostly of Mg, Ca, and Fe) which have been associated, in meteorites and in cometary grains, with organic molecules (McKay et. al., 1996; Flynn et al., 2000; Pizzarello et al., 2006; Matrajt et al., 2012) for several reasons. Carbonates are very common in the Solar System. Outside the Earth, they have been identified on the surface of Mars (Ehlmann et al., 2008; Palomba et al., 2009; Wray et al., 2016), on Ceres (Rivkin et al., 2006; De Sanctis et al., 2016) and tentatively on other asteroids (Rivkin, 2009) as well as in cometary comas (Fomenkova et al., 1992; Lisse et al., 2006; Wirick et al., 2007). Since these astrophysical sites are thought to be the main sources of meteorites and micrometeorites, it is not surprising to find carbonates also in these small objects which reach our planet. In particular, Mg-, Ca-, and Fe/Mn-rich carbonate globules of putative biotic origin have been found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 (McKay et al., 1996).

Carbonate decomposition

All the available studies of the atmospheric entry grains assume compositions corresponding to the bulk of meteorite bodies, i.e. silicates and metals. Only recently, carbonates have been taken in account as carriers in an astrobiological perspective (Bisceglia et al., 2017; Micca Longo & Longo, 2017; 2018). Carbonates are known to undergo decomposition in vacuum at temperatures of a few hundred °C (producing metal oxides and gaseous carbon dioxide) (L’vov, 1997; 2002). Therefore, during the atmospheric entry, the grains with carbonate composition are expected to be enriched in oxides and depleted of the initial carbonate amount. This process, being endothermic, can contribute to the thermal protection of associated organic matter. However, the kinetics of the decomposition under such conditions is not well understood. The decomposition model developed in Micca Longo & Longo (2017 and 2018) is based on a well-mixed and ideal solid mixture, and it allows a first evaluation of grains behavior during their passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. The Langmuir law allows to calculate the evaporation rate, per unit time and area, as stated in Bisceglia et al. (2017), in terms of the vapor pressure for the solid mixture carbonate/oxide.

Laboratory measurements

The kinetics of CO2 diffusion within this kind of grains is still a subject if study. A first attempt was done in Micca Longo et al. (2019) where an important role for the evolution of the model was given to the interpretation of laboratory experiments emulating the conditions during the atmospheric entry processes.

In this work, we report the laboratory measurements on Ca and Mg carbonates done to follow the diffusion process of CO2 within such materials. Powders were thermally processed under vacuum (10-4 and 10-5 mbar), for about 3.5 hours, at several temperatures by using a Carbolite furnace able to reach temperatures up to 1200°C.  Infrared spectroscopy, gravimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis were involved to investigate spectral, morphological, and compositional modifications induced by thermal processing as done in Orofino et al. (2007), Blanco et al. (2011) and Micca Longo et al. (2019).

References

Bisceglia E., Micca Longo G., Longo S. (2017) International Journal of Astrobiology 16, 130.

Blanco A., et al. (2011) Icarus 213, 473.

De Sanctis M.C., et al. (2016) Nature 536, 54.

Ehlmann B.L., et al. (2008) Science 322, 1828.

Flynn G.J., et al. (2000) Bioastronomy 99, 213.

Flynn G.J., et al. (2003) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 4791.

Fomenkova M.N., et al. (1992) Science 258, 266.

Lisse C.M., et al. (2006) Science 313, 635.

L’vov B.V. (1997) Thermochimica Acta 303, 161.

L’vov B.V. (2002) Thermochimica Acta 386, 1.

Matrajt G., et al. (2012) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47, 525.

McKay D.S., et al. (1996) Science 273, 924–930.

Micca Longo G., Longo S. (2017) International Journal of Astrobiology 16, 368.

Micca Longo G., Longo S. (2018) Icarus. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.12.001

Micca Longo G., et al. (2019) Geoscience. doi: 10.3390/geosciences9020101

Orofino V., et al. (2007) Icarus 187, 457.

Palomba E., et al. (2009) Icarus 203, 58.

Pizzarello S., Cooper G.W., Flynn G.J. (2006) Meteorites & the Early Solar System 2, 625.

Rivkin A.S. (2009) Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 41, Abstract #32.07.

Wirick S., et al. (2007) Lunar and Planetary Science Conference Proceedings 38, Abstract #1534.

Wray J.J., et al. (2016) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 121, 652.

How to cite: Mancarella, F., D'Elia, M., Orofino, V., Micca Longo, G., and Longo, S.: Experimental results of decomposition of Ca- and Mg- carbonates under conditions of interest to planetology, Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-456, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-456, 2021.

EPSC2021-239
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ECP
Laura Isabel Tenelanda-Osorio, Alexis Bouquet, Olivier Mousis, and Grégoire Danger

I. Introduction

Ices throughout the ISM are exposed to different energetic processes that trigger several reactions and change the com- position of the ice [1–3]. Particularly, ices in stars–forming regions can be subjected to the ultraviolet radiation that comes from the new born stars and triggers reactions in the ice. These ices are normally composed of H2O, CO, CO2, NH3 , methanol (CH3OH), and traces of other molecules. Irradiation–induced reactions in these ices are a source of complex organic molecules (COM) that might later feed the building blocks of planets or other bodies that are being formed. Methanol is one of the main constituents of interstel- lar ices, where its abundance can go up to 30% (with respect to water) [1, 3, 4]. With this in mind, we irradiated pure methanol ice deposited at 20 and 80 K, with UV radiation during different periods of time to evaluate the effect of fluence and temperature in the abundance of volatile COMs that formed.

II. Methods

All experiments were carried out in the VAHIIA set-up [5]. Briefly, the system consist of an ultrahigh vacuum chamber connected to a GC–MS through a pre–condensation loop. The latter consist of a stainless steel loop that is immersed in liquid nitrogen for the recovery of the volatile COMs coming from the vacuum chamber. This is connected to a custom–made group of valves that allows to recover volatile COMs for their injection in the GS–MS for identification. Species recovered were identified by comparing the chromatographic peak and mass spectra with the standard database, whose retention time and mass spectrum were obtained in the system under the same conditions as the experiments.

Pure methanol was deposited in a copper plated surface attached to the tip of the cryostat in the chamber at 20 K. Six periods of time were used: 15 and 30 min, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h, for evaluating different UV fluence. Each experiment consists of five layers of 0.2 mbar of pure methanol ice each, one on top of the other. Each of these layers is irradiated during the period of time under evaluation, with a UV flux of ∼1e13 photons s−1 cm−2, using a flowing H2 microwave–discharge lamp. Layers have been verified to be opaque to the UV photons, ensuring the layer(s) underneath the one being irradiated are not affected further. Once five layers are irradiated, under the same conditions, the chamber is warmed up to ∼ 300 K and volatiles are recovered with the injection of Argon for transferring the sample to the pre–condensation loop. Each experiment consist of 5 layers having received the same irradiation dose to obtain a larger quantity of products, and facilitate their detection and identification with the GC-MS. In addition, experiments were carried out at 80 K to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the abundance of volatiles formed. In this case we evaluated 30 min, 1 h and 24 h of irradiation.

III. Effect of fluence

23 molecules were identified after UV–irradiation of methanol ice. Figure 1 shows the absolute area under the total ion content curve of the molecules identified, as a function of the irradiation time. This quantity is a function of the abundance of the compound and is hereafter referred to as integrated TIC. Within functional groups, the same pattern is seen for molecules with different numbers of carbons. Aldehydes are the main functional group that forms. With the exception of formaldehyde, all of them have a similar increase up to 8h of irradiation and then even though the integrated TIC increases, the slope is smaller. Alcohols have a low yield and have a steady integrated TIC. Ethers are produced rapidly and reach high integrated TIC during the first 3-8 h but then, their formation is lower than its usage for the formation of more complex molecules and its integrated TIC drops. Dimethyl Ether (DME) has the highest integrated TIC throughout all experiments. Ketones are the main products with 4 and 5 carbons, and maintain a constant increase with the time of irradiation. Esters and ketones are the only two functional groups identified with up to 5 carbons in the chain. With the exception of methyl formate, esters have a similar pattern. During the first 3 h of irradiation the integrated TIC increases rapidly but between 3-8 h there is a recession. After, the increase is the highest.

At 8 h of irradiation several molecules display an inflection point. Aldehydes’s rate of production decreases (the integrated TIC is lower than expected), while the integrated TIC of esters and ketones is higher. Special cases are formaldehyde, DME and dimetoxymethane, who fall under the detection threshold after 24 h of irradiation tends to zero, which indicates they are the main reactants to form the more complex molecules.

Fig. 1. Integrated TIC of volatiles formed after UV–irradiation at 20 K. Aldehydes: blue, ethers: yellow, alcohol: black, ketones: green, esters: red.

IV. Effect of temperature

At 80 K there is a reduction in diversity and integrated TIC of products, and there is no common pattern to describe the functional groups as in section III. Propanol, DME and 1,3,5–trioxane are not identified at anytime. Aldehydes are identified only after 24 h of irradiation, except for isobutyraldeyde that appears at all times. Alcohols and Ethers have a lower yield. Ketones are still produced at all times with constant yield, which suggest an efficient mechanism of formation.

References

[1] S. Maity, R. I. Kaiser, and B. M. Jones, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 17,no. 5, pp. 3081–3114, 2015.

[2] P. de Marcellus, C. Meinert, I. Myrgorodska, L. Nahon, T. Buhse, L. L. S.d’Hendecourt, and U. J. Meierhenrich, PNAS, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 965–970, 2015.

[3] D. Paardekooper, J.-B. Bossa, and H. Linnartz, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 592, p. A67, 2016.

[4] A. Bergantini, S. Góbi, M. J. Abplanalp, and R. I. Kaiser, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 852, no. 2,p. 70, 2018.

[5] N. Abou Mrad, F. Duvernay, P. Theulé, T. Chiavassa, and G. Danger, Analytical chemistry, vol. 86, no. 16, pp. 8391–8399, 2014

How to cite: Tenelanda-Osorio, L. I., Bouquet, A., Mousis, O., and Danger, G.: Effect of the UV flux and temperature on the formation of complex organic molecules in astrophysical ices, Europlanet Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-239, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-239, 2021.