Geoheritage, Cultural Geomorphology and Geotourism 

Since the mid-2000s, the interest for the heritage value of geology and geomorphology has dramatically accelerated in several parts of the world, in relation to geoconservation, geotourism and geopark issues. In this context, the IAG Working Groups on Geomorphosites and on Landform Assessment for Geodiversity have acted as the main arena for the development of a specific field of research on geomorphosites and geodiversity. We invite authors to submit oral and posters presentations on any aspects relevant to geoheritage, geodiversity, geotourism, geoparks, world heritage, and protected areas, including current methods of research used by the international and national scientific communities, from the global to the local scales. Contributions are welcome on theoretical views and classifications, geomorphosites and geodiversity assessment approaches also in the context of climate change, studies linking geoheritage, human history and cultural heritage, geoparks and geoheritage conservation, management, and promotion, geotourism practice and potential, educational aspects of geoheritage and geodiversity, and other relevant topics within these themes.

Conveners: Paola Coratza, Zbigniew Zwoliński, José Brilha, Nickolas Zouros, António Vieira
| Mon, 12 Sep, 14:30–16:30, 17:00–19:00|Room Sala Aeminium-C1A (a), Tue, 13 Sep, 09:00–10:30, 11:00–16:30, 17:00–19:00|Room Sala Aeminium-C1A (a)
| Attendance Tue, 13 Sep, 10:30–10:45 | Display Mon, 12 Sep, 09:00–Tue, 13 Sep, 19:00|Poster area

Orals: Mon, 12 Sep | Room Sala Aeminium-C1A (a)

Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Geodiversity and geoheritage
Murray Gray

Several attempts have been made over recent years to list the world’s top tourism, nature or geological sites. In this presentation an attempt will be made to identify the world’s 10 top geotourism destinations, with alternative sites in some cases, using the criteria of visual impact, site quality, educational potential and reasonable tourist accessibility. An additional requirement is to ensure that the list presents sites that are both internally geodiverse and represents the world’s geodiversity as far as this is possible in a limited assessment. The list has also been designed to include sites from all the continents. Most of the sites are geomorphologically based. The proposed list of sites is intended to be the start rather than the end of a process that may eventually lead to an internationally endorsed list of the world’s top geotourism destinations that can be used to raise the public profile of geology/geomorphology, geotourism and geoheritage.

How to cite: Gray, M.: "Simply the best": searching for the world's top geotourism destinations, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-22, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-22, 2022.

François Bétard

Anthills and termite mounds are prominent features in many geomorphological landscapes of temperate and tropical geosystems. They individually constitute small-scale landforms (up to 10 m high for the tallest termite mounds) and their spatial assemblage can reach very high densities (up to 2,500 mounds per hectare for the yellow meadow ant Lasius flavus), generating a rough topography of more or less regularly spaced mounds at the landscape scale, or “moundscape”. The termite mound fields of African savannas and the anthill landscapes of European grasslands are famous examples of moundscapes generated by these social insects. Such biogenic landforms play a key role in the understanding of Earth surface processes and have a strong relationship with both the biological and the cultural heritage. They are of great ecological importance because they create microhabitat heterogeneity and increase the patchiness of the environment, promoting a range of other animal and plant species which would not occur otherwise. The cultural and spiritual values attached to termite mounds are well recognized across Sub-Saharan Africa, and indigenous knowledge of the medicinal value of anthills is ancestrally recorded in Northern Europe. Moreover, the aesthetic value of moundscapes (architectural shape of cathedral-termitaria, curvaceousness and floral colonization of ant mounds), their dynamic dimension (with both abandoned and active mounds) and their imbrication into broader landforms (e.g., termite mounds over a laterite plateau, anthills over a tidal marsh) make them potential candidates to geomorphosite designation. Given their mixed composition, both mineral and organic, and their biological origin, anthills and termite mounds can be considered as elements of a biogeomorphological heritage, i.e. a hybrid form of geoheritage and biological heritage. The multitude of values and ecosystem services they provide to humans justify their conservation as well as their sustainable use for ecogeotourism and environmental education.

How to cite: Bétard, F.: Anthills and termite mounds as a biogeomorphological heritage, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-5, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-5, 2022.

Costanza Morino, Paola Coratza, and Mauro Soldati

This work is the first in its kind to highlighting the importance of landslides in the global geoheritage. So far, landslides – despite having been included in the global geoheritage - have received only minimal attention compared to much more popular and spectacular landforms. Our research aims at remedying this shortcoming. We firstly survey the literature to understand to what extent landslides have been considered as part of geoheritage and identified as geosites and/or geomorphosites. There are few cases of landslides defined as geomorphosites, and most of them are located in Europe. We define three new aspects that should be considered when identifying a landslide as a geomorphosite, namely: 1) past and present climate changes, 2) anthropic impact and 3) risk perception. These aspects, added to the values commonly used to define a geosite, are of particular relevance today, as anthropic activities and human-induced climate change are impacting on the environments and human communities all over the world. We report on well-known examples of landslides around the world that exemplify and incorporate these new aspects.

Acknowledgements: This study is funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche in the framework of the project ANR-19-CE01-0010 PERMOLARDS

How to cite: Morino, C., Coratza, P., and Soldati, M.: Landslides in the global geoheritage, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-324, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-324, 2022.

Jorge Rabassa, Cliff Ollier, and Francisco Ladeira


According to the Glossary of Geology “a balanced rock is a large rock resting more or less precariously on its base formed by weathering and erosion in place.” Popular usage extends a bit further, so balanced rocks come in many forms and have many names, quite apart from specific local names.

According to the Glossary of Geology a pedestal rock is “an isolated residual or erosional mass of rock supported by or balanced on a pedestal. The term is also applied to the entire feature.”

To the layman balanced rocks are amongst the most spectacular and intriguing of landforms, with a scientific and social significance much greater than their scarcity might suggest. Several quite different processes can produce balanced rocks, including differential erosion, surface weathering, deep weathering and stripping, induced tensional fracture, and marine erosion. Many attract tourists so have commercial as well as aesthetic and cultural value, and so feature in Geoheritage and Geotourism issues. Problems of balanced rocks include vandalism and the relatively modern practice of artificial rock stacking.

Most people are intrigued by balanced rocks, in which a huge rock appears to be balanced on underlying rocks, and often wonder “How did that rock get up there”.  They may acquire legends, and mythical explanations of their origin. People may come from far away to see them, and some develop a lucrative tourist trade. This may grow until management issues arise. Here we provide a scientific explanation of how balancing rocks are formed, and also discuss some of the management and social problems that they may create.

Spectacular examples of balanced rocks are frequently found in different environments in South America, particularly in cratonic areas, and some of them are presented in this paper.


How to cite: Rabassa, J., Ollier, C., and Ladeira, F.: Geodiversity and Geoheritage value of balanced and pedestal rocks in South America, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-68, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-68, 2022.

Lucie Kubalíková

Geoconservation is an action of conserving and enhancing geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features and processes, sites and specimens. Originally and usually, the geoconservation activities aim at preserving specific sites of Earth-science interest, respectively geoheritage. However, for effective and sustainable management of geodiversity and geoheritage, it is necessary to take into account the surroundings of those sites and undertake the geoconservation measures for wider area. Geoconservation activities involve the care, management, protection and promotion of geoheritage and geodiversity and help to balance the conservation needs and sustainable use of these entities. Nevertheless, despite established legal protection, threats to geoheritage and geodiversity can arise and reaching a compromise can be difficult. Thus, the identification and assessment of threats should be also included in geoconservation activities. In this contribution, the two-level threat assessment is applied and discussed. The first level of threat assessment corresponds to the geoconservation in a strict sense – the method for assessing the threats is based on the already used criteria within geosite/geomorphosite concept. The second level of threat assessment corresponds to the geoconservation in broader sense and here, it is represented by Risk Assessment Matrix which assess the threats within wider area. Using both approaches provides a complex view on the threats to geodiversity and geoheritage in a study area and complement each other. The concept was applied in an area situated in the outskirts of a large city (Hády Hill in Brno, Czech Republic), where threats, risks and possible conflicts of interest were identified and assessed. The results offered a framework for future management proposals that may contribute to the balance of the different demands and more effective geoconservation management in the study area.

How to cite: Kubalíková, L.: Two-level assessment of threats to geodiversity and geoheritage, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-98, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-98, 2022.

Zbigniew Zwoliński

The Earth is a wonderful place for humans to live. Unfortunately, we easily forget how much it has to offer us in the abiotic and biotic spheres. The abiotic sphere in particular goes unnoticed by humans as the basis for their existence. If today we are faced with vital problems such as climate change, changes in land cover and land use, the drying up of vast areas of land, and increasingly frequent flooding, then we are undoubtedly facing numerous and serious environmental, social, economic and even political challenges. These problems cannot be left to themselves; immediate steps must be taken to act quickly to protect the Earth's surface. Perhaps the Sustainable Development Goals, the assessment and protection of geodiversity and the reasonable management of geosystem services are a way to at least partially solve these issues.

We all have a responsibility to successfully transform the world. Our actions today affect the lives of our children and future generations. Everyone deserves equal opportunities. We can achieve a lot with the Sustainable Development Goals because they are universal and do not leave out anyone or anything. Moreover, the goals are interlinked and interdependent. If we understand this, we realise the need to act on many levels, and this in turn will bring us closer to achieving the harmonious use of the abiotic environment.

A particular attribute of geodiversity is its value expressed in different measures. Among the most important values of geodiversity are intrinsic, economic, functional, cultural, scientific with educational and aesthetic values. Each of these measures of value relates to our planet's unique and invaluable resources, which should be protected through wise management. This balancing of resources is difficult but extremely necessary to preserve our civilisation and biodiversity.

Geosystem services are related to goods and services arising specifically from the Earth's surface and subsurface resources. These services include abiotic components that are important and should be taken into account in the assessment and protection of geodiversity. As for ecosystem services, four main groups can be distinguished: supporting, providing, regulating and cultural.

The aim of this presentation is to find and clarify the sequence between sustainable development goals, geosystem services and geodiversity values and their assessments, especially from a geomorphological perspective.

How to cite: Zwoliński, Z.: Sustainable development goals, values of geodiversity and geosystem services from a geomorphological perspective, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-496, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-496, 2022.

Jiun-Chuan Lin

Conserving geo-heritage ---Practical and application


Geo-heritage is a combination of geology and physical processes as well as the cultural characters. The awareness of the value of geo-heritage is getting more and more important in Taiwan after designation of geoparks.

The methodology to conserve the geo-heritage is rather unclear before 1985 in Taiwan. However, through designation of geoparks, the conserving geo-heritage, in terms of landscape conservation, became clearer for local people to practice.

This study demonstrates some typical ways of conserving landscapes in Taiwan geoparks. First of all, through environmental education; second, through legislation; third, through local participation on geopark affairs; fourth, through guided tour by local interpreters.

According to Environmental Education Law, everyone including all departments of different level of government workers and schools have to take 4 hours’ environmental education course every year. It helps to enhance the awareness of environment conservation including conservation of geo-heritage. By Cultural Heritage Preservation Law, the designation of geoparks and natural monuments are the tools to conserve the landscapes. Local participation as local guard on geoparks are also the ways to prevent further damages. Through interpretation on the aesthetic/ scientific value by local licensed guides for visitors, it is a way to prevent further damage by human activities.

This study demonstrates the such progresses at Taiwan Geoparks.


Key words: geo-heritage, geo-conservation, environmental education, Taiwan geoparks

How to cite: Lin, J.-C.: Conserving geo-heritage ---Practical and application , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-183, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-183, 2022.

Francesca Lugeri, Fabrizio Bendia, and Piero Farabollini

The communicative potential of the geological Landscape is an excellent tool for environmental enhancement through sustainable tourism.

Following a holistic approach, it is appropriate to define Landscape as the result of the endogenous and exogenous activities that form Earth's surface. In other terms, it can be defined as the result of the interaction of many natural and cultural components.

So, it is logical to define Landscape as an informative vector in communicating Geological-Environment Sciences to the widest audience.

Contemporary technology offers us new tools to organize and share territorial  knowledge (intended as the integration between natural and cultural components); thanks to GIS, it is possible to represent a large amount of data by the graphical output that synthesizes the data collection and management, as organized by the geographical information system to highlight the topics under study; thanks to GIS, it's also possible to set up procedures to assess the state of the studied landscapes, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes our country.

Furthermore, it is easy to identify the areas of more excellent natural and cultural value by integrating the resulting thematic maps. That is particularly useful in identifying and managing those areas of the Italian territory, where the distinctive Landscape's features add an element of cultural diversity. All of these tools are essential for Geoparks' strategic policies.

A strategic integration between the Landscape's characteristics and the social-cultural development of some regions of particular interest, realized to create more vital public participation, can be achieved by using new topics such as nature, culture, and sport. A prototypical App is proposed, showing the most famous outdoor sports location from a scientific point of view. By displaying thematic maps  (3D modeling, animation), it is possible to integrate local environment and culture information. GIS and 3D modeling are flexible and friendly tools in educational plans and territorial promotion, as confirmed by the GeoloGiro experience (Geology at the Giro d'Italia 2012-2020).

Keywords: Landscape, Geoparks, Heritage, Divulgation, Sport, SmartApp

How to cite: Lugeri, F., Bendia, F., and Farabollini, P.: Landscape and Society: new proposals towards a shared knowledge , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-220, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-220, 2022.

Coffee break and poster session
Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Geoheritage assessment
Michael E. Quesada-Valverde and Adolfo Quesada-Román

The inventory and evaluation of geosites throughout the world have been increasing. These approaches constitute the baseline for geoconservation and geotourism projects. In Costa Rica, initiatives presenting inventories of geomorphosites in volcanic and paleoglacial environments are recent. This work aims to present an inventory and evaluation of geosites in Coto Brus municipality. This is an initiative of the Municipality of Coto Brus to develop an inventory of its natural attractions to support the creation of tourist routes within the framework of the OVOP (One Village One Product) Coto Brus project. Many of these natural attractions are geosites such as waterfalls, paleontological sites, archaeological sites, wetlands, extinct volcanoes, and paleoglacial summits which exhibit a rich geodiversity. Our methodology was based mainly on Santos et al. (2020) and Reynard et al. (2016). The geomorphological context of Coto Brus was made using GIS and existing bibliography. Moreover, we consulted local tourism web pages, tourist guides and bibliographic consultation obtaining a preliminary list of geosites. A preliminary evaluation was used for the non-inclusion of irrelevant sites in the final inventory. Sites with high values for geosciences and high rarity were included. A characterization of its geomorphological aspects, associated interests, use, and management issues was carried out in each geosite through descriptive tables. A quantitative evaluation of its potential for scientific, educational, geotourism use, and its potential for promotion was used. A thematic map was generated with the location of the geosites associated with the results of the quantitative evaluation. Finally, the results of the inventory and evaluation of geosites are articulated with the promotion of tourist routes within the framework of the OVOP Coto Brus project through recommendations and proposals for use, management, and degradation risks. It is a quick decision-making tool that will allow stakeholders to identify the main values of each geosite.

How to cite: Quesada-Valverde, M. E. and Quesada-Román, A.: Geotourism assessment at municipal scale in Costa Rica, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-52, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-52, 2022.

Marco Túlio Mendonça Diniz and Isa Gabriela Delgado de Araújo

Studies on viewpoints for geoheritage began to develop recently.  Pereira (2006) pointed to “panoramic viewpoints” as a type of geosite; later Fuertes-Gutiérrez and Fernández-Martínez (2010) classified the geosites into five categories, namely: point, section, area, complex area and viewpoint.

Migoń and Pijet-Migoń (2017) considered viewpoints as locations that contribute to a holistic view of the landscape and that help in the understanding of natural history, spatial relationships, rock types, geoforms and continuous environmental changes. However, the problem of this research is the scarcity of methodological proposals for the quantification of these types of geosites, since the existing ones only evaluate the place and not what is observed in the observed  landscape. Thus, the objective of this research is to present a methodology for quantifying the values of Geodiversity for the viewpoints, evaluating the landscape viewed from the viewpoints.

Regarding the proposed methods for quantifying the geomorphological heritage of the viewpoints, there are the works of Mikhailenko and Rubán (2019), who listed 17 criteria evaluated in a semi-quantitative way with scores from 0 to 4, and Mikhailenko, Ermolaev and Ruban (2021) who chose seven criteria (with defined scores) for a semi-quantitative assessment of viewpoints. This last work evaluated viewpoints based and observed from bridges, nevertheless it is considered that these methods do not present a rigid delimitation of the criteria evaluated to be replicated in the different types of viewpoints.

Based on the aforementioned researches, it was possible to elaborate a methodological proposal with three values, being two main values, the aesthetic value and the scientific value; and additional values that were divided into touristic, cultural and educational. The evaluation consists of a valuation assigning the highest score to the criteria with the greatest relevance. The valuation is divided into quartiles, being considered a geosite the site that has a high score (>75%) in the scientific and/or aesthetic values.

The proposed aesthetic value has six parameters: panoramas and other views, visibility of geological/geomorphological features, verticality, presence of water bodies, color contrast ,  presence of individual element and extent of viewable area. In terms of scientific value, the parameters of diversity of visible geological/geomorphological features, representativeness, integrity and paleogeographic value are proposed. In the additional values there is the touristic value in which accessibility, touristic category, existence of ongoing use, installed amenities, signage and security are considered. In terms of cultural value, it only deals with the parameter of cultural relevance and, finally, educational relevance value.

The method was applied for testing and validation purposes in eight viewpoints located in tablelands (“chapadas”) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and the results indicated that four were classified as geosites and four as geodiversity sites.

The method proved to be efficient for the quantification of viewpoint geosites, however it is considered that more applications are needed in more diverse viewpoints, in terms of relative height (from the viewpoint to the visualized area) and extension of the visualized area.



How to cite: Diniz, M. T. M. and de Araújo, I. G. D.: Proposal of a quantitative assessment method for viewpoint geosites, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-132, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-132, 2022.

Soledad Schwarz, Monica Salemme, and Andrea Coronato

This contribution aims to present a methodology to select, describe and hierarchize cultural georesources in northern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) in order to encourage geotourism strategies in this touristically underdeveloped area. A cultural georesource refers to a geological or geomorphological site which reveals an archaeological or historical record related to the regional peopling. 

Based on previous own papers about methodologies to assess geodiversity, an specific approach that adds a cultural viewpoint of georesources is inhere presented. 

The analysis is based on three axis: geological/geomorphological, cultural and tourist aspects, considering six criteria with four parameters in each case, as follows:

  • Geological/geomorphological criteria: available information, preservation degree, singularity, representativeness, didactic interest and degradation risk.  
  • Cultural criteria: available information, frequency, chronology, preservation degree, vulnerability and didactic interest.
  • Tourist criteria: scenic value, complementarity of natural and cultural elements, current land uses, tourist development strategies, facilities and accessibility.

Each criteria is weighted according to a scale from 0 to 3, being 3 the best rated. The sum of the eighteen parameters’ values gives a final score to each cultural georesource.  

This methodology was applied on 48 geological or geomorphological sites previously detected, through almost 380 km along coastal and inland roads. 27 of them turned out to be cultural georesources that were afterwards  described, mapped and hierarchized in different landscapes of northern Tierra del Fuego, such as Holocene fluvial, littoral, lacustrine and aeolian environments, Pleistocene moraines and Miocene rocky hills. At the same time, these georesources contain information about different stages of peopling from pedestrian hunters gatherers since 7000 yrs B.P., the European arrival during the XIXth century until the settlement of the present economic activities which include cattle rising and oil industry. Besides, most cultural georesources offer no facilities, some of them are not even free to access and just a few, mainly those close to urban areas, are already being used for recreational purposes.  

For instance, the best cultural georesource rated in this study is “Río Grande estuary” with 41 points over the maximum of 54. Located close to a main Fuegian city, it is a great example of fluvial-littoral processes and a keystone of recent history. However, it is not included in the current tourist offer but this condition could change taking into account this type of research which draws upon the educational potential.    

The methodology proved to be useful as a tool to assess georesources considering their cultural values. This approach allows to deepen the understanding of the local history in terms of natural and cultural processes, since it focuses on the didactic interest of each resource. This may lead to reinforce the local identity as well as to spread Earth and Human Sciences in site sceneries in a more attractive way. 

How to cite: Schwarz, S., Salemme, M., and Coronato, A.: A methodology to assess cultural geo-resources: encouraging geotourism in Tierra del Fuego (southern Patagonia, Argentina) , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-140, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-140, 2022.

Juliana Silva, Julio Silva, João Teobaldo Neto, and Fernando Manosso

Considering geodiversity as a complex of different abiotic elements in different taxonomic orders and geographic scales, it is important that studies look for a better scientific understanding of its quantitative distribution in space and how it can contribute or relate to other elements of nature, such as biodiversity or even the forms of appropriation by society. Taking into account the different ways in which current methodologies seek to calculate geodiversity and its distribution in each territorial portion, perhaps the greatest challenge is the standardization of scale and types of elements to be considered for infinite geographic realities. Based on these assumptions, this research aims to compare the spatial distribution of geodiversity indices using two methodologies already applied in other areas: the centroid and the one based on regular hexagonal sampling grids, applying the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices to the latter. Tests were also carried out considering different dimensions of regular hexagonal grid (10, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 km in the sum of the six equilateral triangles of each hexagon), being selected the one with 100 km, for presenting greater correlation with the map based on interpolation of polygon centroids. We justify the importance of this comparison because, despite having a more complex processing in relation to the centroid methodology (used as a reference), regular cells allow future correlations with point and linear bases, allowing elements of biodiversity and land use to be considered, regardless of the available spatial representation. The application in the Amazon territory was proposed aiming at the referred correlations in this area, which is one of the largest natural reserves on the planet. In a broader context, the approach adopted is justified, therefore, by the undeniable importance of this biome for humanity, which despite international recognition is intensely threatened, especially by the Brazilian environmental policy practiced in recent years. We selected as a reference map for the comparative analysis the one obtained through the interpolation of centroids with intervals established by the quartile technique, which was the one that presented the best distribution of the indexes, based on the proposed objectives. Preliminary results showed the 100km hexagonal grid as the one with the highest correlation with the subindices (lithology, soils and relief) and final maps of geodiversity indices based on centroids. Regarding the Shannon and Simpson indices, it was found that the first one presented more evident spatial correlations with the reference maps.

How to cite: Silva, J., Silva, J., Teobaldo Neto, J., and Manosso, F.: Application and analysis of two methodologies for spatialization of geodiversity indices in the Brazilian Amazon, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-229, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-229, 2022.

Azizur Rahman Siddiqui

Some parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states of India are having a number of localities with geomorphosites, microgeomorphosites, geopark, geoheritage and potential geotourism sites of national and international significance. These geomorphosites, geoparks and geoheritage sites needs geomorphic description in common parlance. There is a need to assess the criteria of identification of specific geomorphic features, its rarity or abundance, accessibility, level of its significance at local to global scale its management and conservation. Identification and cataloguing of specific geomorphic features, geoparks, geoheritage and geotourism needs serious enquiry in the study area. There is a need to promote the scientific study of assessment and identification of potential of geomorphosites in public domain. There is also a need to locate significant geomorphic areas like geomorphosites, geoheritage, geopark and potential of geotourism at macro level. This research works gives an exposure to various inherent microgeomorphosites and their specific location and description. An intensive field surveys for different specific localities provides valuable information in the related field. It also provides basis for the making constructive methodologies and strategies for the exposure and exploring the possibilities to enhance the significance of the study for the assessment, identification, mapping, conservation, and management of these significant and specific localities at macro level for drawing attention of researchers, environmentalist, academicians and policy makers.

Keywords: Geomorphosites, Geoheritage Sites, Geotourism, Geoparks

How to cite: Siddiqui, A. R.: An assessment of potential, scope and significance of Geomorphosites, Geoparks, Geoheritage and Geotourism in some parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states of India, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-385, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-385, 2022.

Alessia Pica, Martina Burnelli, Giulia Capotorti, Laura Melelli, Francesca Vergari, and Maurizio Del Monte

According to the definition of the ‘‘Rome ecosystem’’ first proposed by Giacomini (ref. in Blasi et al., 2008), more than 10 years ago a Rome Biosphere Reserve was imagined in the context of an interdisciplinary project, involving landscape ecologists, geologists, plant ecologists, zoologists, geographers, city planners and environmental psychologists. The project was a pilot experience, afterward it evolved deepening the knowledge of land use changes over time, the floristic, vegetational, and ecological territorial analyses, and the planning of green infrastructures based on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Geodiversity studies were since the beginning supporting ecological land classification for biodiversity monitoring and conservation purposes. Land units are fundamental for the assessment of the natural heterogeneity of an area, defined by climatic, abiotic and biotic parameters, which allows the assessment of potential natural biodiversity (in the sense of ecosystem diversity). Subsequently, the comparison with the real heterogeneity and the real biodiversity, allows the planning of conservation actions and restoration interventions.

In particular land units’ hierarchical divisive classification (top-down) uses lithology to define land systems (inside bioclimatic regions) and geomorphology to define land facets (inside systems). Moreover, morphometric parameters affect the ecosystems composition and distribution and therefore their functionality at different scales of analysis.

The Geodiversity indexing and mapping methods available in literature use a variety of criteria. The most used criteria are the same supporting ecological land classification: lithology, landforms, land use.

The converging objectives of assessing urban geodiversity and mapping Rome land units, opened the interdisciplinary dialogue among the authors and led to the study presented here, aiming at evaluating the heavier morphology influence on the potential biodiversity heterogeneity at a detailed scale.

For this purpose, the most used geodiversity indexes have been taken into account, in order to choose the best ones fitting our study case. We focused on methods including geomorphodiversity parameters, such as the Geomorphodiversity index by Melelli et al. (2017) modified for introducing the automatic classification of geomorphological features and tested on a multiscale analysis.

In an urban context, the morphometric analysis of topography changes, anthropogenic features and natural landforms modified by humans in time, make geomorphological mapping fundamental to calibrate the geodiversity models in a truly multidisciplinary approach to urban biodiversity investigation.

In particular, the peculiarities of the urban environment and the relative difficulties in evaluating geodiversity with methods built up and tested in natural areas, requests to consider:

  • the thickness of landfill deposits characterizing anthropogenic layering in historical cities, which alters the original morphology and the local pedogenesis
  • the need to define the boundaries between urban and peri-urban areas.

Besides the consolidated application in natural systems, such as protected areas, the role of geodiversity indexing and mapping is therefore promoted also in urban systems, where it can foster a truly holistic and integrated ecosystem / geosystem approach. Actually, geodiversity assessment, joined to the biodiversity one, can effectively contribute to urban green infrastructure planning by sustaining and enhancing important regulating and cultural ecosystem services.

How to cite: Pica, A., Burnelli, M., Capotorti, G., Melelli, L., Vergari, F., and Del Monte, M.: Geomorphology significance for the evaluation of geodiversity-biodiversity correlation. Preliminary results from Rome urban area (Italy) , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-395, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-395, 2022.

Tommaso Piacentini, Umberto Di Salvatore, Gianclemente Berardini, Antonio De Ioris, Luca Roselli, and Enrico Miccadei

Sites of past natural disasters, even if connected to dramatic events, can be valued from the perspective of geotourism, as opportunities to learn about the magnitude of natural processes and to better understand the role of human factors, especially exposure to risk.

In the central Apennines (Italy), the Monte Serrone site (Marsica area, Gioia dei Marsi, Aq) is connected the historical Fucino earthquake (13 January 1915), with the abandonment of the Sperone village and the destruction of the old town of Manaforno. This site has been subject of a >7 years geoheritage enhancement activity.

The activity started in 2015, the Fucino 2015 Eq. centenary, through preparatory activities followed by several events. They were managed by a no profit association (Monte Serrone Association), founded by local young people with the specific aim of geoheritage and landscape valorization, which has worked as connection among university (“d’Annunzio” University Chieti Pescara) e local governmental bodies (Gioia dei Marsi Municipality).

In this work we present the methodological approach followed, from geoheritage assessment/mapping, in connection to cultural heritage and flora-fauna values, to geotourism promotion/practices, to educational projects, and geosciences dissemination events.

The Geoheritage assessment was based on the Geological Survey of Italy and the main international literature, defining the Geosite of the Mount Morrone Fault (National Inventory of Geosites, ISPRA). It is a geomorphosite of tectonic origin, consisting of a fault related scarp inserted in a wide fault-related slope, where the evidence of tectonic activity are well exposed. The municipality made the geomorphosite accessible through the tracking and fixing of a hiking path network. The geomorphosite was mapped in detail producing a geological tourist map (at the second edition in Italian and English), as a tool for the dissemination of the geological knowledge of the Fucino area and faults/seismic risk awareness and for the promotion of a geological landscape.

These preparatory activities made several events possible: i) 6 geosciences conferences (2500 people attended +  > 1000 people online); ii) 5 main educational field trip for high schools; iii) ~50 geological touristic field trips for tourist groups and associations, and others of private groups and single tourists (>2000-2500 people visiting the geosite); iv) field trip of geological conferences and international masters.

These activities were self-funded by the association, through specific projects submitted to local bank foundations, as well as supported by the municipality. Now, a local seismic room, connected to a local seismometers network, is in progress for a further valorization of the geosite area and will support both scientific activities and the development of new experiential geosciences-based tourism activities. This improved approach is aimed at increasing people’s awareness of geological/geomorphological processes and hazards, which with adequate knowledge and proper land management, can be lived with.

The Monte Serrone case is a positive example of synergy between scientific activity, enhancement of the territory and development of internal mountain areas. Geotourism promotes the understanding of landscape and is triggering a positive mechanism of populations’ benefit from the sustainable use of resources and the management and protection of geodiversity.

How to cite: Piacentini, T., Di Salvatore, U., Berardini, G., De Ioris, A., Roselli, L., and Miccadei, E.: From geomorphosite assessment and mapping to experiential geosciences-based tourism activities: the case of the Monte Serrone Fault geosite (Central Italy), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-412, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-412, 2022.

Antonio Vieira, Gabriella Emilly Pessoa, Valdir Adilson Steinke, Antonio Bento Gonçalves, Saulo Folharini, Jorge Novais, Sara Silva, and Tiago Marques

The majority of studies on geodiversity and geoheritage have been focused exclusively on the analysis and evaluation of abiotic elements. Although some authors have highlighted the important connections between abiotic and biotic elements, it was not enough to highlight them systematically. In this sense, it is necessary to do the geodiversity potential analysis in a more complete sense. That is, all elements should be contemplated.

In the context of the project “Clictour - Climate change resilient tourism in protected areas of Northern Portugal”, three protected areas were chosen as case studies. These areas are located in northwest Portugal, namely the Peneda-Gerês National Park, the Alvão Natural Park, and the Litoral Norte Natural Park. Despite their geodiversity richness, these parks were established mainly based on their biodiversity.

The objective of this proposal is the application of a geobiodiversity index. This index is based on the work done by Steinke (2021), which is capable of indicating the most relevant areas of geological, geomorphological, and vegetational aspects to be conserved within existing legal instruments.

The methodological procedures were centered on segmenting the three areas in hexagonal cells. The parks were subjected to a spatial matrix analysis in GIS and geostatistical environments capable of articulating the various elements and generating an agglutinating index for each cell.

The results reveal the existence of a high index value for geodiversity in the different protected areas, being more significant and extensive in the Peneda-Gerês National Park. It also shows the importance of integrating the analysis of geodiversity and biodiversity, especially in natural protected areas. The present study points out the importance of the compartmentalization approach in hexagonal cells, capable of providing a multilevel approach in studies of complex spatial analysis.

This study was developed within the scope of the CLICTOUR project (Project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000079), supported by the European Regional Development Fund.

How to cite: Vieira, A., Pessoa, G. E., Steinke, V. A., Bento Gonçalves, A., Folharini, S., Novais, J., Silva, S., and Marques, T.: Application of a Geobiodiversity Index to Natural Protected Areas in Northern Portugal, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-722, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-722, 2022.

Orals: Tue, 13 Sep | Room Sala Aeminium-C1A (a)

Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Geoheritage and geoconservation strategies
Lidia Selmi, Thais Siqueira Canesin, Ritienne Gauci, Paulo Pereira, and Paola Coratza

Natural and anthropogenic factors and processes can threaten the integrity of geosites, leading to their degradation or even loss. For this reason, geoheritage degradation risk should be considered in any geoconservation strategy and should be assessed in the first stages of geoheritage studies, all the more when the aim is to tackle the tangible effects of climate change. The present research proposes a quantitative methodology for the degradation risk assessment of geosites by considering the extrinsic factors that can damage or destroy the geological heritage. The proposed methodology has been tested on the Maltese Islands (central Mediterranean Sea), where considerable previous research has been undertaken in order to highlight the international geomorphological significance of the Maltese landscapes. The methodology considers three criteria to assess the degradation risk: natural vulnerability, anthropogenic vulnerability and public use. For each criterion several parameters have been identified in order to propose a detailed numerical evaluation. The results show that the degradation risk of geosites in the study area is mainly related to negligence and lack of knowledge of its inherent geoheritage, which leads to their public misuse and mismanagement. In fact, most of these areas are intensively used by locals and tourists alike for recreational activities, some of which may damage the sites. With respect to natural vulnerability, sites in proximity to the coast are more threatened by natural processes, making the complex environment of coastal areas more sensitive to natural hazards and deeply impacted by the effects of climate change (e.g. sea level rise, intensity changes in coastal deposition and erosion processes, increase of violent meteo-marine storms and tsunamis). Moreover, the pressure of tourism and infrastructures are concentrated in these areas. The results obtained give an overview of the condition of the geosites and provide useful information for the design and management of suitable protection measures in a geoconservation context, especially in the light of future threats related to climate change.

How to cite: Selmi, L., Canesin, T. S., Gauci, R., Pereira, P., and Coratza, P.: Degradation Risk Assessment: Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change on Geoheritage, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-419, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-419, 2022.

Antonio Vieira, Antonio Bento-Gonçalves, Saulo Folharini, Jorge Novais, Sara Silva, and Tiago Marques

Protected areas are frequently important hotspots of geodiversity. Despite being legally protected mainly because of the presence of significant or rare element of biodiversity of a territory or ecosystem, these areas incorporate valuable examples of the abiotic elements that can be considered worth protect in the context of the geoheritage. In fact, they constitute, frequently, the support for biodiversity development and maintenance.

In Portugal, the majority of the protected areas were delimited based on biological and cultural factors, but its value in terms of geodiversity is very high.

In the context of the project “Clictour - Climate change resilient tourism in protected areas of Northern Portugal”, three protected areas located in the northwest Portugal were selected in order to develop proposals for implementation of climate change resilient tourism strategies.

For this presentation we selected the structuration of a pedestrian trails network in each protected area as our case study and the integration of the values of geoheritage.

Considering the importance and diversity of geoheritage elements in these protected areas, within the general proposals for climate change resilient tourism strategies the geotouristic perspective was considered and the valorization of geomorphological and geological elements was proposed.

Consequently, we performed an inventory and evaluation of the potential geosites/geomorphosites and we considered its integration on the existing pedestrian trails, as well as the definition of new pedestrian trails based mainly in geotouristic values.

The evaluation of the different pedestrian trails was made, in terms of supporting infrastructures and interpretative features and geotouristic potential, in order to establish the most adequate trails regarding the project objective of proposing strategies for a climate change resilient tourism. It was possible to conclude the significant importance of including geoheritage in the pedestrian trails designed, stressing, however, the need to establishing effective geoconservation measures capable of minimizing the impacts resulting from its use in tourism activities.

This study was developed within the scope of the CLICTOUR project (Project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000079), supported by the European Regional Development Fund.

How to cite: Vieira, A., Bento-Gonçalves, A., Folharini, S., Novais, J., Silva, S., and Marques, T.: Integration of geoheritage in strategies for climate change resilient tourism in protected areas of Northern Portugal, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-725, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-725, 2022.

Tarek Ben Fraj, Christophe Lambiel, Aziza Ghram Messedi, Mélanie Clivaz, Hédi Ben Ouezdou, and Emmanuel Reynard

During the last two decades, the interest in the heritage values of geodiversity, mainly related to geology and geomorphology, has increased (Reynard and Brilha, 2018). Among the different methods used to analyse the geodiversity, geomorphological mapping can be considered as one of the main tools for the inventorying, assessment and valorisation of geoheritage sites.

In this study, we compared two legend systems to analyse the contribution of each to the representation and mapping of various geomorphological landscapes. The two legend systems considered are the UNIL (University of Lausanne) legend and the CGMED-Tunisia (Laboratoire de Cartographie Géomorphologique des Milieux, des Environnements et des Dynamiques) legend. Both were used to map four sectors: (i) the Sebkhet Oum Ez-Zessar Ramsar site on the Gulf of Gabes coastline and (ii) the Wadi K'hil watershed on the Dahar Plateau, both located in south-eastern Tunisia, (iii) the Ferpècle glacier forefield and (iv) the Sanetsch area, both located on either side of the Upper Rhone valley in the Western Swiss Alps.

In addition, the combination of the contributions of these two legends has made it possible to elaborate a geotouristic legend (Ghram Messedi et al., 2021) and, from this, to produce four geotouristic maps. These maps emphasise the geoheritage and geotouristic interests of Sebkhet Oum Ez-Zessar and Wadi K'hil, which fall within the perimeter of the UNESCO Dahar geopark project in Southeast Tunisia, as well as the importance of the Ferpècle glacier forefield geosite, part of which is listed in the federal inventory of alluvial areas of national importance illustrating rapid climate change, and the Sanetsch glacier-karst area listed in the inventory of Swiss geosites.

Key-words: Geomorphological mapping, Geotourism maps, Tunisia, Switzerland.


Ghram Messedi A., Ben Fraj T., Ben Ouezdou H., Clivaz M., Comisso C., Lambiel CH., & Reynard E., 2021: De la carte géomorphologique à la carte géotouristique : Proposition et application d’une méthode de représentation cartographique par SIG. Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, vol. 27, n° 1, p. 69-87, DOI:10.4000/geomorphologie.15394

Reynard E. & Brilha J., (ed) 2018: Geoheritage: assessment, protection and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 450 p.

How to cite: Ben Fraj, T., Lambiel, C., Ghram Messedi, A., Clivaz, M., Ben Ouezdou, H., and Reynard, E.: Combining two geomorphological mapping legends for geotourism maps: examples from Tunisia and Switzerland, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-592, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-592, 2022.

Shubhendu Shekhar


An exceptional Geoheritage Potential of the Cenozoic Successions of Western Kutch, India towards Conservation and Sustainable Development



Geoheritage is a concept concerned with the preservation of features with importance to earth science, viz landforms, natural exposures of rocks, and sites where geological features can be examined for further study, reference, and conservation for coming generations. Geoheritage, geoconservation, and geotourism studies are gaining interest worldwide because of their scientific, academic, historical, societal, cultural, and aesthetic values. Several countries have their government policy to look after the Geoheritage sites and conserve with the help of local agencies, however; in India, there is a need for national legislation and a holistic approach. The Cenozoic (last 65Ma.) sedimentation (~900m) is considered as a strato-type section for the shallow-marine sedimentary records in India. Some Cenozoic sections of Kutch are the only remaining section in the world. This sedimentary succession acts as a geological museum for paleontology, stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Such records of past climates and sea- level fluctuations are characterizing the global sea-level history. It also provides an outcrop analog for reservoir rocks of Bombay High. Taking this into account we propose seven selected sites in the Cenozoic succession to be preserved as Geoheritage sites and development of geotourism viz. Matanomadh cliff section, Naredi cliff section, Fulra limestone section, Miocene succession, Paleosol of Sandhan Formation, Kharai River paraconformity section, and Bermoti River section. The Geopark will help to enhance the local economy by infrastructure development, health and educational pursuits to the village level society, and employment. The geological records are the consequences of millions of years of processes and are precious that require special care. If these records once destroyed will be lost forever and cannot be restored artificially. It is our prime responsibility to transfer the knowledge and Geoheritage to future generations.


Keywords: Geoheritage , Geopark, Sustainable development , Cenozoic of Kutch, National legislation for Geoheritage.



Shekhar, Shubhendu., Kumar, P., Chauhan, G. and Thakkar, M. G. (2019) Conservation and sustainable development of Geoheritage, Geopark, and Geotourism: A case study of Cenozoic

Successions of Western Kutch, India. Geoheritage, Springer. DOI 10.1007/s12371-019-00362-5. Shekhar, Shubhendu., Shukla, A. and Kumar, P. (2018). Sedimentary Record of Forced Regression along the margin of Kutch basin: Terminal Cenozoic succession (Sandhan Formation), western India. Jour. Indian Association Sedimentologists, v. 35 (1), pp. 23-35. Shekhar, Shubhendu., Shukla, A., and Kumar, P. (2018). Geochemical and petrographic interpretation of Sandhan Formation: An insight into provenance, tectonics, and paleoclimatic Conditions. E-Journal Earth Science India, v. 11, pp.149-167. eISSN: 0974 – 8350 Pramod Kumar, Shubhendu Shekhar, Avinash Shukla, and Partha Pratim Chakraborty (2021). Facies architecture and spatio-temporal depositional variability in the Pliocene Sandhan fluvial system, Kutch Basin, India. Journal of Earth System Science. Banerjee, S., Chattoraj, S. L., Saraswati, P. K., Dasgupta, S. and Sarkar, U. (2012 a). Mineralogy and geochemistry of lagoonal glauconites and their implications on origin and maturation: Oligocene Maniyara Fort Formation, western Kutch, India. Geological Journal 47, 357-371. 

How to cite: Shekhar, S.: An exceptional Geoheritage Potential of the Cenozoic Successions of Western Kutch, India towards Conservation and Sustainable Development, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-422, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-422, 2022.

Esmail Elahpour

Seh Qaleh town is the capital of Seh Qaleh district in south Khorasan province, east of Iran. Seh Qaleh desert is located in south of the town, 130 Km northwest of Birjand, the capital of the state. Here synergistic effects of geology and geography have caused a remarkable location for both desert rolling and astronomy. The area is covered by Quaternary alluvial sediments containing sand, salt and gypsum far from local dust flows. Open horizon at the observatory and dark sky have created a well-known station for astronomy along with desert entertainments. According to geographical aspects the sky here is darkest in the middle east and astronomic limiting magnitude is highest in Iran. High security, flowing sand dunes and Salt Lake are other outstanding features of the region as a unique land for tourism.

How to cite: Elahpour, E.: Seh Qaleh, a heaven for desert backpackers and astronomers in Iran, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-163, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-163, 2022.

Learnig strategies for geoheritage
Piotr Migoń, Milena Różycka, and Kacper Jancewicz

Forested medium-altitude mountain massifs within the Sudetes range in Central Europe (Poland, Czechia, Germany) have a long and complex geomorphic history that spans at least the last one hundred million years. It involved long-term deep weathering and planation in the Mesozoic, marine transgression and relief burial in the Late Cretaceous, partial exhumation of pre-transgressive relief and continuing rock-controlled denudation in the Cenozoic, non-uniform uplift and related fluvial incision in the Neogene, and imprint of cold-climate environments in the Pleistocene. This sequence of events and resultant landform diversity provide a good framework for landscape interpretation, but the challenge is to link it with specific field localities (geosites), which can be used to build the story and effectively communicate it to the public. This is because ‘classic’ geosites, understood as specific localities showing rocks, structures or minor/medium-size landforms, hardly allow for presentation of the complete story of long-term landform evolution and interpretation of geodiversity in predominantly erosional terrains. Therefore, viewpoint geosites (bare mountain peaks, elevated open tracts of terrain, viewing towers) have a role to play as they show large-scale geomorphic landscapes and spatial relationships between major landforms. However, even these may have limited effectiveness given the widespread vegetation and soil cover, which conceal the lithological diversity, and only moderate altitude contrasts. They also require good interpretation facilities to make the vegetated landscapes meaningful. Consequently, it is worth to explore additional resources, which seem to have considerable potential to address and offset some of these problems. These include Google Earth imagery, which can also be used to highlight relationships between landform patterns and land use, showing the relevance of geomorphology, and 3-D visualizations derived from digital terrain models. For the Sudetes, the latter are also available as high-resolution LiDAR models and allow to show various geomorphic details, which otherwise can easily escape attention in the forested ranges. Examples from selected mountain massifs in the Sudetes will be shown to demonstrate how the combined use of field sites and remote sources can enhance geoheritage and geodiversity interpretation in the geotourism context.  

How to cite: Migoń, P., Różycka, M., and Jancewicz, K.: Interpreting geodiversity and long-term landform evolution – limited role of ‘classic’ geosites and the advantages of modern technologies (Sudetes range, Central Europe), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-312, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-312, 2022.

Coffee break
Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Veronica Guerra, Maurizio Lazzari, and Laura Valentini

The territories of the Valmarecchia and Montefeltro historical region have been investigated as emblematic expressions of dynamic landscapes that constantly change through time and as a consequence of human activities. Geosites of the study area represent different activity levels and periods, as some of the sites are related to anthropic activities and have witnessed the human population for decades, centuries and, for some of them, millennia. The continuous man-land interaction manifests as a wide assortment of spectacular fragments of landscape that witness destructive landslides, floods, unfortunate climate changes, mining operations and human exploitation of natural resources. The geomorphological interpretative basis has been settled for the promotion of Valmarecchia and Montefeltro geoheritage, in particular in terms of geotourism, as an example of Geomorphological Landscape. This last, according to Reynard & Panizza (2005), indicates a landscape made up of a composition of evidence and terrestrial forms closely interconnected by a network of genetic and functional relationships. The promotion has also been made by focusing on existing and newly proposed geosites as the best places for the transmission and dissemination of geological aspects, possibly through first-hand experience (i.e., guided excursions that aim to involve the user not only from a notional point of view but also from an emotional one) to better convey the content to be communicated. Three already known geosites and one new proposed geosite have been selected to carry out an educational geotouristic project named Paesaggeo. The project aims to engage a broad public sensitive to the themes of geology and natural environments, using digital tools and propose geologically themed treks in the selected geosites. Four different modes have been drafted and tested for each geosite, experimenting different approaches to communicate the same content. The purpose is to get the public closer to geological, geomorphological and geoheritage concepts, which are always connected to the naturalistic, biological and cultural heritage, and develop tourism promotion strategies based on geological heritage. Our goals are: lead locals and tourists to a greater understanding of natural phenomena and their typical time scales; spread knowledge about dynamic landscapes and natural, geological and hydrological risks to a broad public; promote an integrated form of slow tourism, which enhances the relationship between natural processes and populations through time.

Reynard E., & Panizza M. (2005). Geomorphosites: definition, assessment and mapping. An introduction. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement, 11(3), 177-180. https://doi.org/10.4000/geomorphologie.337

How to cite: Guerra, V., Lazzari, M., and Valentini, L.: Geological, cultural and emotional aspects for the valorization of existing and potential geosites: some case studies in the Valmarecchia and Montefeltro historical region (Northern Apennines, Italy)., 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-299, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-299, 2022.

Hyacinthe Zouyane Nouhou Dama, Ghislain Zangmo Tefogoum, Irène Mafo Dongmo, and Merlin Gountié Dedzo

Lara is located in the northern litho-structural domain of the Central African Fold Belt that includes plutonic landforms. The latter constitutes a natural wealth that has been studied in order to increase the geotouristic offer in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Several field and laboratory works have been carried in the study area and in the University of Maroua respectively. Indeed, the inventory, the selection and the study of plutonic landforms with particular shape, representativeness and geological features have been made. The locality of Lara is made up of plutons that are composed of fine to coarse granites encompassing white and pink micas, quartz and feldspar. Several granitic geomorphosites are found in Lara: (1) primary geomorphosites include inselbergs and flagstones. Four inselbergs are found in the study plot with altitudes of 435, 675, 690 and 558 meters respectively. They are conical in shape and are made up of rocks field. Flagstones are mostly elliptical in shape and cover surfaces of up to ten square meters; (2) secondary geomorphosites are tors, pedestal rocks, boulders and shelters. Tors and pedestal rocks are vertical constructions with variable highs and shapes that embellish the inselbergs slopes and piedmonts. Boulders present mainly rough surfaces and exceptional shapes, ranging from dog, mushroom to a bell... Their accumulation built several shelters of significant cultural value; (3) tertiary geomorphosites are taffoni and enclaves. Taffoni are of various sizes found on some boulders and flagstones where some are coalescent. Enclaves are composed of coarse-grained pegmatites and xenocrysts quartz. In the Far North region of Cameroon touristic offer is only focused to National Reserves and cultural events although the diverse geoheritage components present in the region. Thus, the Lara’ plutonic geoheritage constitutes an asset for the enhancement of the touristic offer in that region.

How to cite: Nouhou Dama, H. Z., Zangmo Tefogoum, G., Mafo Dongmo, I., and Gountié Dedzo, M.: Typology of plutonic geoheritage in the locality of Lara: A contribution for the enhancement of touristic offers in the Far North Region of Cameroon, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-657, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-657, 2022.

Taeho Kim

Jeju Island Governor Lee Iktae produced a folding screen decorated with landscape art after carrying out two official inspection tours across the island in 1695. He selected ten geomorphosites for a series of pictures named Ten Scenic Views of Jeju. It was composed of six scenic beauties and four fortresses. The representative images of geomorphological landscapes in Jeju Island, which had been shared as a collective representation by Jeju natives, were firstly externalized through his pictures. And they have long been handed down and established as a kind of stereotype for geo-landscapes of Jeju Island. They have been consequently considered the first collection of outstanding landforms in Jeju Island because even the four pictures of fortresses also exhibit various landforms around a castle. The landforms in the paintings could be largely classified into volcanic, fluvial, coastal, and weathering, respectively. Volcanic edifices appear most frequently, reflecting particular emotions of Jeju natives toward sacred Mount Halla and over three hundred monogenetic volcanoes, referred to as Oreum in Jeju dialect, which have created a prototype landscape of Jeju Island. Lava tubes were also regarded as an intriguing feature but underestimated due to their dark and frightening images. Fluvial landforms were not highly evaluated since Jeju rivers are not perennial owing to the high permeability of basaltic drainage basins. However, three famous waterfalls in the southern area were depicted in four pictures, implying there are scarce freshwater-friendly spaces. Rocky coastal landforms, such as a vertical cliff with columnar joints and caves and a sea stack, were not also properly appraised due to their difficult access and limited viewpoints. The evaluation criteria vary with the times so that ecologically important landforms, including a coastal dune or a wetland, do not appear except a summit crater lake which symbolizes Mount Halla. Since the viewpoints of a mainlander, the governor, as well as Jeju natives were simultaneously projected on the old paintings, Ten Scenic Views of Jeju is a historical document for analyzing the ancestor's perception on geomorphological landscapes of Jeju Island.

How to cite: Kim, T.: Landforms in Old Landscape Paintings of Jeju Island, Korea, and Their Implications of Geomorphological Perception, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-319, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-319, 2022.

Jonathan Bussard

The heritage recognition of geomorphological objects is the result of the awareness of their heritage interest by a certain number of stakeholders, beyond the restricted circle of geoscientists. The interpretation of geomorphology, which serves as an interface between the public and scientific knowledge, is therefore an important step in the process of heritage recognition of geomorphological objects. The reasons for considering certain landforms to be of heritage interest have been extensively discussed in the literature. Likewise, issues relating to the interpretation of geomorphological objects have been the subject of several publications, particularly in the field of geotourism research. On the other hand, the choice of sites with a certain didactic potential to develop interpretative products is rarely based on objective and formalised criteria. The terminology and definitions used in the literature to designate the characteristics of geomorphosites that facilitate the understanding of their heritage interest are indeed relatively disparate. However, a high didactic potential greatly facilitates the transmission of the message that the interpreter is trying to convey to his audience.

Geomorphological landscapes – defined as landscapes whose geomorphological component is of heritage interest – are interesting supports for the dissemination of scientific knowledge in geomorphology. Their didactic potential can be defined, as suggested in the literature, in terms of readability and representativeness of their forms and processes, and also according to their usefulness as objects of interpretation. In this sense, the didactic potential indicates the degree of relevance or ease with which the site can be integrated in an interpretation process relating to one or more defined topics.

To illustrate these theoretical remarks, we propose to describe the didactic potential of eight geomorphological landscapes located in the M’Goun Geopark (Central High Atlas, Morocco), which are of high scientific interest and which could be used for the development of geotourism. The didactic potential is described on the basis of a selection of topics (structural geomorphology, landscape transformations during the Quaternary, records of past climates, role of regressive erosion, alluvial dynamics, karstic landscapes) that can be addressed around the chosen site. The didactic potential is then described for each of the identified themes according to two criteria: visibility (clear view of the object) and level of complexity (number of objects, complexity of processes). The description of these criteria allows the managers of the sites to build an interpretation plan based on a coherent selection of sites and topics adapted to the target audience.

How to cite: Bussard, J.: Heritage value and didactic potential of geomorphological landscapes: the case of eight sites in the Central High Atlas (Morocco), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-549, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-549, 2022.

Paola Coratza, Alessandro Ghinoi, and Vittoria Vandelli

Despite the increasing interest of society in environmental issues, a broad absence of Earth Science literacy is registered in the general population. Non-formal learning can play a crucial role in increasing citizens literacy to geoscience concepts and in this context geomorphological heritage sites, due to their characteristics, can be valuable resources to be used to rise public profile of geology and geomorphology.
Starting from these remarks, this presentation illustrates the research carried out in the municipality of Castellarano (Emilia Apennines, Northern Italy) where non-formal learning activities have been carried out in the framework of a project aiming to enhance the geological heritage and geodiversity of this area. In particular, three geosites of regional significance located along a cycle/pedestrian path were object of attention for the creation of Earthcaches, educational panels and guided excursions. The selected geosites are located along the Secchia riverbed and are witnesses of the long and complex geological-geomorphological history, and its influence on human development, in the study area. Earthcaches, following the Geological Society of America (GSA) guidelines, were designed to be educational, providing accurate but non-technical explanations of the geomorphological features that visitors can experience at the sites. In design educational panels particular attention was given to illustrations, i.e. photos, area images, maps and comics, because they play an important role in the learning process. The effectiveness of the designed materials has been tested in the frameworks of guided excursions organised by the municipality and have been proved as positive contributions for raising public awareness of the value of geoheritage.

How to cite: Coratza, P., Ghinoi, A., and Vandelli, V.: Increasing geoheritage awareness through non-formal learning , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-309, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-309, 2022.

Assessing trail surface erosion and walkability for a sustainable management of mountain trails
Yuichi Hayakawa, Teiji Watanabe, Ting Wang, and Meng Yu
Lunch break
Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Irene Bollati, Paola Coratza, Marco Giardino, and Manuela Pelfini

In the framework of territorial management, geomorphological mapping can be considered a fundamental activity because it offers a comprehensive source of information (morphogenetic, morphographic, morphometric, morphodynamic, morphocronological ones) and an explanatory presentation of landforms, including also data on bedrocks and structures. Compared with other research activities carried out in the field of geomorphosite identification, classification, and assessment, geomorphosite mapping has not received the same strong consideration in the past. A considerable impulse to this topic has been recently given by several authors in Europe, where some methods for the cartographic representation of geomorphosites have been proposed, aimed at Earth Heritage promotion and protection.

Starting from these premises, our paper illustrates a new methodology, developed by the Working Group “Geomorphosites and Geodiversity” of the Italian Association of Physical Geography and Geomorphology (AIGeo), for mapping geosites on geomorphological maps edited by the National Geological Survey, i.e. cartographic documents directed to public boards in territorial planning and sustainable management of a territory. The proposed legend and related symbols will be illustrated through examples developed at a different scale and within different geological and geomorphological contexts in the Italian territory.

The integration of geoheritage and geomorphological data in a single cartographic document can be considered an innovative and useful tool both for geoconservation and sustainable environmental management. Such a map shows several advantages: (i) it offers an overview of both landforms and processes and the main geoheritage peculiarities of a territory; (ii) it provides information on the state of activity of processes, which can help to evaluate the state of conservation and vulnerability of geosites or the degree of natural and anthropic risks; (iii) it highlights geosite boundaries useful for decision making in management; (iv) it represents a functional tool to optimise decisional processes within Territorial Planning, Environmental Impact Assessment procedures and Protection Actions of Natural Heritage.

How to cite: Bollati, I., Coratza, P., Giardino, M., and Pelfini, M.: Geoheritage Mapping issues and solutions for national official cartographic products: the Italian case study  , 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-704, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-704, 2022.

Enrique Serrano, María José González-Amuchastegui, and Rosa María Ruiz-Pedrosa

Landscape, territory, geomorphological heritage or geomorphosites hold a wide potential as a cultural, educational, tourist and socio-economic resource. The intrinsic values of Natural Protected Areas (NPAs) can be considered a resource for the entire population, including the local population. Thus, it is evident that tourist and educational use is intrinsic to the declaration of any NPA, particularly in a Natural Park. The geomorphological heritage is a natural resource that can be used for tourist purposes, just as geotourism helps to raise awareness of geodiversity and geoheritage. NPA and geomorphosites can work as a vehicle for acquiring those values and knowledge, developing educational and tourist experiences and a sense of appreciation to nature in any NPE.

In this paper we propose a method for the identification of geomorphosites at local scale in Natural Protected Areas, considering their natural features as well as cultural aspects, for their subsequent tourist evaluation. The methodology relies on meticulous fieldwork, in conjunction with a detailed geomorphological map, for the identification of geomorphosites. Having identified them, a tourist assessment method has been applied. The method is based on their physical environment factors, geomorphology, and those factors that influence optimum examples for tourism. Fourteen geomorphosites of up to five attributes - karst, fluvial, structural, slopes, fluviokarst - have been inventoried and all of them have been considered suitable for teaching and geotourism.

Fourteen geomorphosites have been assessment as potential geoturistic and educational resources by mean of different assessment charts. We have differentiated between the geomorfosites with a geotouristic or an educative potential. The first one is based in scenic, cultural, scientific, conservation and added values (access, security, infrastructures), and the second one on didactic interest, the teaching level, and complementary values (cultural, scientific). Four geomorphosites have been assess with high geotouristic and educative potential. In two of them, Costalago valley and Río Lobos Canyon, match a high educative and geotouristic values.


How to cite: Serrano, E., González-Amuchastegui, M. J., and Ruiz-Pedrosa, R. M.: Geotourist and teaching assessment of geomorphosites in Natural Protected Areas: application in the Cañón del Río Lobos Natural Park, Spain, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-273, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-273, 2022.

Geoparks and protected area
Irene Maria Bollati, Valeria Caironi, Alessio Gallo, Eliana Muccignato, Manuela Pelfini, and Tullio Bagnati

Geoheritage is recognized as a component of the cultural heritage of a territory. In areas officially recognized as geoparks (i.e., members of the UNESCO Global Geoparks Networks) the mixture between social and scientific values is evidently strong, and the “dialogue” between cultural (s.s.) and geological resources is further strengthened. In the framework of participation projects, parish or community maps, namely maps collaboratively produced by the residents of a given place, often representing local knowledge and resources, are an opportunity for local development and for heritage conservation, that finds its roots in the very sense of place. Community maps help people in keeping a link with history, identity, knowledge and memories of the places building the collective memory. The Comuniterrae project (http://www.comuniterrae.it/), awarded with the European Heritage Award / Europa Nostra Award 2019, is a cultural participated project started in January 2017 with the construction of the Community Maps of the Middle Lands and the future setting up of an Ecomuseum for the protection of the cultural heritage and the sustainable development of the territory. 10 municipalities (i.e., Middle Lands), whose territory is partly included in the Val Grande National Park, are involved, for a total of more than 300 recognized and labelled sites and common goods. Often, this social heritage, either material or intangible, is indissolubly linked to the geological and geomorphological background of the site. In this framework, at some of the Comuniterrae heritage sites, the geological features strongly influence the cultural heritage recognized by local communities. These aspects are particularly relevant in the Sesia Val Grande UNESCO Global Geoparks “where stone becomes culture”. The aim of this research is to bring to light this strong relation inside the Comuniterrae area, where for each municipality the most representative sites, among all those mapped by local communities, will be selected. The final choice will derive from different steps of selection and classification according to specific criteria: i) the distinction between natural or artificial geofeatures; ii) the typology of relation in term of vicinity or remoteness of the geofeatures to the sites; iii) the use of, or adaptation to, or modification of geofeatures by Man. Moreover, a survey was distributed to one representative for each municipality for collecting more inputs about georesources on their own territory, and for investigating the effective interest of representative, a sort of spokesperson of the community, in such practices. They contributed significantly, indicating specific geofeatures for each municipality and recognizing the important role of such elements in building the collective memory. The final aim is to enhance the role of georesources in defining local heritage, also through the participatory approach involving local communities.

How to cite: Bollati, I. M., Caironi, V., Gallo, A., Muccignato, E., Pelfini, M., and Bagnati, T.: The contribution of geoheritage to the community maps of the Comuniterrae Project (Sesia Val Grande UNESCO Global Geopark), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-89, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-89, 2022.

André Borba

The most important, internationally relevant geosite of the Caçapava Aspiring Geopark of southernmost Brazil is the Guaritas or Pedras das Guaritas geosite. That hilly area, with some 50 km2, is located in the so-called Camaquã highlands, around the initial tracks of the Camaquã river watershed. The geosite has been developed upon a horizontal, heterogeneous package of fine- to coarse-grained, through-crossed sandstones, as well as pebble-bearing sandstones and minor lens-shaped beds of clast-supported, poorly sorted conglomerates. Those texturally and compositionally immature, red-coloured rocks of clear braided fluvial, continental origin, compose the type section for the Guaritas Group, the 300 meter-thick, uppermost unit of the Camaquã Basin, deposited in the Early Paleozoic (deposition from 530 to 500 Ma, diagenesis from 507 to 470 Ma). From a geomorphological point of view, the entire area is a deeply dissected plateau/tableland. The sedimentary package is cut by various sets of fractures, mainly striking NE-SW and NW-SE, and it displays classical ruin-shaped relief features. Landforms in the Guaritas geosite exhibit world-class examples (though still under-researched) of stress-controlled, discontinuity-related arcades, as well as diversified cavernous weathering features like tafoni and ledges. Lower relief zones, especially around water streams or upon flat, bare rock surfaces, show a profusion of weathering pits or gnammas, variously shaped and, sometimes, filled in with pebbles/cobbles. Such features not only substantially increase the geodiversity, rarity, and representativeness, as they also constitute a promising field of geomorphological (cavernous weathering) research in the Guaritas geosite and its vicinities. Besides its importance for geoscience, the ecological and cultural values of those residual hills are striking. A series of autochthonous, endangered species of cactuses, bromeliads, endemic flowers and bees find, in the Guaritas geosite, an ideal spot for survival and reproduction. The native shrublands and grasslands that surround the bare rock hills retain and preserve a unique, sustainable way of living, that of the family-based sheep and goat raising (“pecuária familiar”), practiced by people considered to be a traditional population of the Pampa of southernmost Brazil. The cultural importance of that hilly landscape is also embedded in the name of the geosite. While in other parts of the world, especially in Europe, such kind of landscape has been perceived as resembling “towns” or “villages”, in the southern Brazilian Pampa the cultural appropriation has been different. For that rural, military-based, warfare society, forged during the borderline battles opposing Portugal and Spain for their domains in South America, those hills resembled the bartizans or “guerites” (in Portuguese, “Guaritas”) of medieval to early-modern military fortifications. Today, the Guaritas hills are a synonym for scenic beauty, for traditional and sustainable landscape use and conservation, as well as for quality, nature-based activities. Hence, the Guaritas geosite relief profile is the key element of the Caçapava Aspiring Geopark logo, ideal for representing the territory, its origin, its identity, and its potential.

How to cite: Borba, A.: The Guaritas geosite of the Caçapava Aspiring Geopark in southernmost Brazil: geology, geomorphology, ecology and culture, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-455, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-455, 2022.

Alessio Valente, Angelo Cusano, Paolo Magliulo, and Filippo Russo

In the Taburno-Camposauro Aspiring Geopark (southern Italy), a significant part of the geological history of this stretch of Apennines (a fold and thrust belt formed since the early Neogene) can be read. Inside this area, 44 geosites were identified, described and evaluated. The geosites identification was based on one or more characteristics (geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, etc.) that were able capturing the observer's interest and telling the geological history of this area. The observations were supported by a scientific characterization based on literature data. Among the most considered parameters, there is the representativeness as geological topic, process, features in the study area. In this sense, it was considered, for example, that the shallow marine limestone outcrops of the middle Cretaceous, with evident polychrome residual fillings, were an element of extreme scientific value. This is confirmed by a vast scientific literature (peer-reviewed papers, geological maps, etc.), which guarantees its uniqueness within the limestone successions of the Apennines. For at least two centuries, these rocks were extracted, and nowadays the worked stones, called improperly "marbles", adorn the monumental buildings not only in Italy (Caserta, Naples, Rome), but also abroad (France, England and even Russia). These features add further educational and touristic value to the geosite. Despite the mining activity, the main topic is almost intact in the quarry, which is easily. Its security, however, should be improved. Another highly representative geosite, due to both its geological significance and scenic value, is the village of Sant'Agata de' Goti. The village is built at the top of a structural terrace shaped on the Campanian Ignimbrite, which is a 39 ky old pyroclastic deposit. After the infilling of the valleys by the Campanian Ignimbrite, the latter was deeply dissected by the hydrographic network, which shaped structural terraces. The Campanian Ignimbrite is considered the result of the largest volcanic explosion in Europe in the last 200,000 years, as highlighted by a large amount of published scientific data. Probably due to its favourable position, this structural terrace was chosen for residential settlements since the 4th century BC. International research about this site is not limited to the geological features, but also to the archaeological and geotechnical ones, and this increases its value for touristic purposes, too. Finally, despite the fact that the new water supply system has drastically changed, the Fizzo Springs still represent the major water source of the aspiring geopark and therefore maintain their intrinsic value. Known for their considerable discharge since Roman times, they were exploited in order to feed the western coastal areas with an impressive aqueducts considered UNESCO World Heritage. In recent decades, the capture of the springs was replaced by a system of wells, so the springs lost a little in their magnificence, even if today they were inserted in a beautiful garden that is easily accessible to everyone. Probably, in a quantitative assessment, these sites would reach the highest value. However, there are others that, due to their geological significance or their visual beauty, constitute an opportunity to become a geopark.

How to cite: Valente, A., Cusano, A., Magliulo, P., and Russo, F.: Inventory and assessment of geosites in Taburno-Camposauro Aspiring Geopark, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-476, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-476, 2022.

Patrícia Azevedo, Emanuel de Castro, Fábio Loureiro, and Magda Fernandes

With more than 2,200 km2, the Estrela UNESCO Global Geopark is structured around the Estrela mountain range, the highest mountain in mainland Portugal with 1993m above sea level, conferring identity and territorial cohesion to the nine municipalities which make up the territory. The geopark extends from the SW, on the border with the Açor mountain, to the NE contact with the Meseta surface, also including the piedmont regions to the NW and SE, and where for millennia its communities have lived in an intimate relationship with the mountain. The basis for this classification as a UNESCO Global Geopark is the remarkable geological heritage of this mountain, reflected in its 145 sites of geological interest, with its main originality being the landforms left by the last glaciation, which shaped the landscape of Serra da Estrela and originated geosites with high educational and scenic values, but also remarkable scientific value when considering its geographical position on the SW of Europe. In fact, the heritage of this mountain is an important tool for the development of territorial development strategies aimed towards the local community.

In a UNESCO Global Geopark, one of those strategies is invariably Geotourism, which works as a tool for disseminating knowledge about the territory and its heritage, promoting simultaneously the creation of wealth and new opportunities for the region. Regarding Estrela, its classification as a UNESCO Global Geopark contributed to the emergence of new tourist approaches in the territory, namely through Geotourism, which has allowed a greater involvement of the communities and different tourism agents, working together towards the valorisation of the endogenous products, contributing for the activation of new touristic products, linked with geodiversity, biodiversity and culture, and its scientific, educational and touristic values. Although Geotourism can be developed, with all its advantages, in all the territories which contain a remarkable Geological Heritage, the concept of Geotourism gains greater expression when it is associated with the UNESCO Global Geoparks, since through their networking and initiatives, they give a strong contribution to the territorial development of regions with greater economic and demographic issues. However, there are also some challenges, mainly the lack of knowledge about the concept of Geotourism. Although this subject is already worked on, there are still many people that don't know what this is, which leads to a clear lack of knowledge about what the future of the territory should be, particularly in regards to Serra da Estrela.

In view of the above, we can state that Geotourism is much more than a tourist product.  Due to its relevance for territories, it represents a true tourist strategy, anchored not in a limited vision that only encompasses geology, but on using the geological heritage to promote the touristic valorisation of the endogenous resources.

How to cite: Azevedo, P., de Castro, E., Loureiro, F., and Fernandes, M.: The Geological Heritage of Estrela Geopark and the development of a Geotourism strategy: challenges and opportunities, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-586, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-586, 2022.

The use of mobile applications and online GIS platforms for the geosites characterization in the Atlantic Geopark Project, Portugal
Emmaline M. Rosado-González, Salomé Custódio, Nuno Monteiro Vaz, José Manuel Martinho Lourenço, Maria Helena Henriques, and Artur Abreu Sá
Application of density analysis for quantitative assessment of the geoheritage and its implementation in the Courel Mountains UNESCO Global Geopark (Spain)
Daniel Ballesteros and the Workingroup for the geosite inventory of Courel Mountains UGGp
Coffee break and poster session
Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Maria Carolina Villaça Gomes, Jairo Valdati, Yasmim Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, and Thales Vargas Furtado

Geoheritage comprises a wide range of abiotic elements to which values ​​are assigned. Part of this natural diversity is of geomorphological origin, encompassing mainly geoforms with scientific, turistic, educational and cultural values - the geomorphosites. However, the geomorphological units in which they are inserted are usually considered just as their scenery, that is, they are recognized as geoheritage almost exclusively features in a more detailed scale. Geopark territories where the landscape is an important component of the heritage, the insertion of geomorphological compartmentation is fundamental to understand it. The Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark (CCSG), located in southern Brazil, is a mosaic of landscapes marked by the presence of a large escarpment that separates other relief units that encompass sites of geomorphological, paleontological and stratigraphic origin of local to international relevance. Canyons, waterfalls, residual hills and ruiniform reliefs are examples of geomorphological sites linked to the different existing compartments. Here we aim to discuss, based on the values ​​of geodiversity, the geomorphological compartments present in the CCSG as part of its geoheritage. The geomorphological subdivision of the CCSG includes five units: (i) the basaltic escarpment of Serra Geral, which separates the (ii) Campos Gerais Plateau from (iii) the Patamares da Serra Geral, intermediate relief between the escarpment and the (iv) Colluvium -Alluvial and (v) Coastal Plains.

The scientific value, central to the evaluation of geoheritage, has its main attributes in the components of representativeness, integrity and paleogeographic value. All geomorphological compartments are very representative of their morphogenesis and morphodynamics: (i) the Serra Geral escarpment, for example, is strongly dissected, with steep and straight slopes and deep valleys, often in the form of canyons; (ii) the colluvial-alluvial plain, which stands out for the presence of coalescent alluvial fans, whose genesis is linked to the occurrence of mass movements and torrential processes on the escarpment; sometimes also presents river terraces linked to in relative sea-level quaternary fluctuations. The paleogeographic value can also be recognized by the presence of residual hills and interdigitated spurs in the colluvial-alluvial and coastal plains along the entire CCSG territory, which attest to the erosive retreat of the Serra Geral escarpment. Integrity, in turn, is ensured by the coverage area of ​​a relief compartment, especially in inhospitable terrain, such as escarpments. Finally, additional values, such as aesthetics, can be recognized by the scenic beauty provided by the strong topographical contrast between plateau-escarpment or escarpment-plains. In this way, it is understood that it is possible to propose geosites or establish geopanoramic points for observation, being fundamental for the appreciation of one of the main elements of CCSG's geoheritage – the landscape.

How to cite: Villaça Gomes, M. C., Valdati, J., Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, Y., and Vargas Furtado, T.: Beyond canyons and waterfalls: geomorphological units as geoheritage of Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark, Southern Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-680, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-680, 2022.

Daniela D'Amico, Gianluca Esposito, Vania Mancinelli, Enrico Miccadei, Giorgio Paglia, Luciano Sammarone, and Cinzia Sulli

Mount Greco and Chiarano Valley represent a crucial sector for enhancing the high geotourism potential of the Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park (Central Italy). This area is characterized by landscapes that strictly incorporate the relationships between geoheritage and tourism, showing how various geological-geomorphological processes have produced different features and behavior of territories. These active processes continually change the landscape and allow us to directly observe wonderful environments within their spatial and temporal scales. The study area comprises landforms resulting from a wide range of geomorphological processes: glacial landforms, karst landforms, slope landforms, fluvial and fluvio-glacial landforms. In this framework, one of the most beautiful geotourist destinations is the Pantaniello Lake’s area (1818 m a.s.l.), a natural moraine basin located in the middle of an impressive glacial valley with a small mountain lake resulting from the damming of a U-shaped valley due to a slight moraine arch. The present-day setting of the study area testifies the overlap of different geomorphological landscapes over space and time, highlighted by various types of landforms resulting from relict glacial environments, landslides, and karst processes. Finally, this work presents an example of the enhancement and promotion of geotourism in the Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park. It allows for the description of an awesome landscape within the park in an easy-to-understand way through thematic maps, visual legends, and cartoons. This kind of approach can increase people's knowledge and make them aware that the present-day landscape results from a long-term dynamic evolution providing outstanding landscapes, but also intrinsic natural hazards and risks.

How to cite: D'Amico, D., Esposito, G., Mancinelli, V., Miccadei, E., Paglia, G., Sammarone, L., and Sulli, C.: Mount Greco and Chiarano Valley (Central Italy): an example of geotourism in the Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-378, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-378, 2022.

Cultural geoheritage
Stefano Devoto, Maria Carrión, Stefano Furlani, Antonio Jalaboy, Alessandro Pasuto, Mauro Soldati, and Jorge Pedro Galve

Lateral spreading and block sliding are often associated in nature causing large rock blocks to progressively separate from a cliff (i.e. lateral spreading) and slowly slide down the slope of a hillside (i.e. block sliding). These large landslides generate landscapes with distinctive landforms that have been valued as part of the geological heritage for a series of reasons among which the interaction with human activities through time. We highlight this relationship by describing several examples studied in recent years in Spain, Tunisia and Malta and discussing the heritage value this type of places could possess.

In Spain, La Peña de los Gitanos (Granada) is a hill widely known in its surrounding area for its numerous archaeological sites but not so much for its geomorphological singularity, something that did attract its ancient settlers. The south western slope of the hill presents a peculiar aspect caused by the lateral displacement and sliding of calcarenite blocks over marls. The slope shows large open crevices, vertical rock walls, alleys and close depressions making up a ruiniform landscape full of passages and hiding places creating a natural fortress. These morphological features must have been valued by the ancient communities that settled here for at least five thousand years, from the Early Neolithic to the Middle Ages. These settlements exploited the easy defence of the site and dolmens and necropolises reflect the spiritual dimension assigned to the site. In Tunisia there is one of the most spectacular examples of lateral spreading and block slide of the Mediterranean region, the Chgega Mountain (Mateur). Its most striking geomorphic feature is that right at its crest there is a large, vertical-walled depression filled with large limestone blocks that are tilted and separated from each other by large, open discontinuities. This gravity-induced depression creates a site of great contrast with the surroundings and the rock blocks inside produce a landscape full of passages, natural alleys and nooks and crannies where wildlife finds refuge from the arid vicinity. Chgega also has archaeological sites with remains from the Roman period which are now abandoned and suffer from continuous looting due to lack of protection. With its spectacular scenery and sites, Chgega looks like a place that could have been prominent in the past but has fallen into oblivion. In Malta, the landforms due to lateral spreading and block sliding observed in Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park are the main responsible of its scenery and give it a special character. This location is a natural laboratory where the above-mentioned processes are being investigated and described with a great detail during the last decade. The three sites are places where currently hiking and climbing activities take place and they continue to attract people because of its scenery or even spiritual background.


Keywords: Lateral spreads, Block Sliding; Slope processes; Geoarchaeology, Mediterranean

How to cite: Devoto, S., Carrión, M., Furlani, S., Jalaboy, A., Pasuto, A., Soldati, M., and Galve, J. P.: Landscapes due to rock spreading and block sliding: natural fortresses, sacred sites, valuable archaeological and scenic resources, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-539, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-539, 2022.

Adam Lajczak and Roksana Zarychta

Krakow is located in southern Poland on the Vistula river, at the border of large geological and geomorphological units: the Western Carpathians, Subcarpathian Basins and Polish Uplands, which makes this town extremely attractive. The most interesting areas, regarding protection of geological heritage and geotourism, are located in the town and the adjacent areas within Polish Uplands, at the border of the Carpathians and Subcarpathian Basins and in the Vistula valley. Numerous tectonic horsts, built of Jurassic limestones overlain by Cretaceous marls and loess sediments occur within Polish Uplands. In the western side of the town, there are veins of volcanic rock present in the horsts, as well as fossils is the exposed Palaeozoic rock formations, and amethyst nodules visible in quarries. In valley bottoms travertines occur. In this area, in the western and central part of Krakow, there are caves in limestone rocks and some of them are available to tourists. Along faults, slightly increased radioactivity of groundwater was determined. Limestone and marl outcrops in numerous quarry pits show local geology and fossils. Miocene sediments at the border of the Carpathians contain rich deposits of rock-salt, which have been extracted for over 1000 years. In this area gypsum deposits are also extracted. There are also brine springs used for medical purposes. In loess deposits covering limestone hills there are bone remains of mammoths; this is why these deposits were called mammoth clay until the 19th century. In the places of former or current extraction of loess or gravel deposits, it is possible to observe the geology of shallow substratum.

The relief of Krakow, especially its centre, has changed for the last ca. 1000 years as a result of the increase of cultural sediment layer, which resulted in land surface raising, its flattening and backfilling of fluvial landforms in the Vistula floodplain. Many historical buildings became this way “plunged”, and their intentional exposure in the underground museums of Krakow makes it possible to observe initial morphology of land surface and structure of anthropogenic sediments containing artefacts which are used to determine the age of individual layers. Much information come from extensive archaeological and geoengineering investigations which have been carried out for over 100 years in Krakow area.

Expanding geoturism in Krakow and surrounding areas includes most of important sites regarding geoheritage and cultural geomorphology. Many of these sites are protected as nature reserves. They include valleys with exposed Palaeozoic rocks outside the town borders and The Old Salt Mine in Wieliczka town near Krakow available for tourists. This salt mine is planned as a future first underground national park in Poland. Geotourism in the town includes among others: underground museums (where you can see one of the oldest early Romanesque church of the 10th century and adjacent cultural deposits), some pits of the closed limestone quarries where aquatourism is possible in deep basins. Geotourism offer in Krakow and surrounding areas is very extensive, it still develops and enjoys great interest. In this respect, Krakow takes the leading position in Poland.

How to cite: Lajczak, A. and Zarychta, R.: Selected issues of geoheritage, cultural geomorphology and geotourism in Krakow city and surrounding areas, Poland, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-696, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-696, 2022.

Andrea Ferrando, Francesco Faccini, Roberto Cabella, and Paola Coratza

Ophiolite outcrops, representing the remnants of an ancient oceanic lithosphere, are present in various mountain locations of the Northern Apennines, between the Italian regions of Liguria, Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. They are characterised by high geodiversity, due to the associations of various lithologies and landforms: numerous geosites have been recognized in ophiolitic areas, with interests ranging from geomorphology to mineralogy, from petrography to geodynamics, from structural geology to ore deposits. They host very particular flora and fauna and are fragile ecosystems.

Ophiolites give rise to some of the most curious and impressive landscapes of these mountain areas. They contrast heavily with the surrounding landscape, shaped in weak sedimentary rocks; often, they emerge as huge rock formations, characterized by steep and craggy slopes, jagged crests and high cliffs. Their imposition on the landscape is further emphasized by the dark brown or dark green colour of these rock masses.

This research tries to pinpoint the great cultural significance of these rocks. Ophiolite crags are subject of numerous legends and tales that try to explain their origins: just to give some examples, some were believed to be meteorites (“Pietra Borghese”, Liguria), or stones thrown by the devil (“Sassi Neri”, Emilia-Romagna), some other were considered abodes of the gods (“Monte Penna”, on the border between Liguria and Emilia-Romagna).

The impregnability and difficult accessibility of many ophiolites favoured the presence of fortresses, castles and human settlements. The most ancient settlements (known as Castellari) date from the Neolithic, and the remains have been recognised by archaeologists in various locations of the Northern Apennines. Some notable medieval castles (e.g. Bardi and Rossena in Emilia-Romagna) have been built on ophiolite outcrops. The ophiolithic masses often contain Fe-Cu sulphide deposits exploited in some cases since the Copper Age (Monte Loreto mine in Liguria).

Because of their naturalistic and cultural significance, many ophiolites are included in protected areas. In the Northern Apennines, among them are the Aveto Natural Park (Liguria), the Monte Prinzera Natural Reserve (Emilia-Romagna), and the Monterufoli-Caselli Natural Reserve (Tuscany), just to name a few.

This study could provide insights on how geological and geomorphological features can influence (and become part of) the culture, the religion and the historical events of people who live nearby.

How to cite: Ferrando, A., Faccini, F., Cabella, R., and Coratza, P.: Geoheritage linked to cultural and natural landscape value in the ophiolites of the Northern Apennines (Italy), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-458, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-458, 2022.

antonio raschi

Dante’s works were influenced not only by his deep knowledge of the culture of his time, based upon classical authors, but also by his personal observation of physical phenomena and environmental features of the areas he crossed during his travels. Here, I propose a parallel between the Infernal landscape of Canti XII-XVI and the landscape of some geothermal areas of Central Italy, that Dante probably visited during his trips to Rome or later during his exile. In some cases, the name of the locations reported by the Poet makes the identification easier; yet, the peculiarities of some of the mentioned environments have been scarcely noticed by commenters, and were object of scientific research only in recent years. This is in particular true for the Suicides’ forest, (If XIII), echoing some geothermal explosions described, among others, by Restoro d’Arezzo, and the Bullicame area, whose features - the vapor extinguishing the flames, the red boiling water, the sands, and others - have been recently studied by ecologists. The perspectives for using Dante's text to promote tourism, and for environmental education are outlined.

How to cite: raschi, A.: Geothermal landscapes as an inspiration for Dante's Inferno: implications for the development of geoturism, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-221, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-221, 2022.

Emmanuel Reynard, Tarek Ben Fraj, Aziza Ghram Messedi, and Hédi Ben Ouezdou

Cultural geomorphosites are places where geomorphological features interact with cultural elements (historical or archaeological vestiges, religious monuments, etc.). Over time, agricultural practices have adapted to local conditions (climate, morphology) and have often modified landforms and hydrological conditions. New landscapes, combining the local hydro-geomorphological context and the needs of agriculture, have thus been created: e.g., terraced landscapes, drainage and irrigation systems, and clogging facilities in alluvial plains. In this communication, we compare three agricultural systems in three different geomorphological and climatic contexts.

The Upper Rhone valley (Canton of Valais, Switzerland) is characterised by relatively dry climatic conditions explaining the presence of an important network (about 800 km) of irrigation channels, called Bisses, dating back to the Middle Ages. In the last decades, this network has been recognised as a cultural heritage and the agricultural infrastructure has sparked a renewed interest for tourist and cultural reasons. Indeed, the paths along the channels are used as tourist trails and several abandoned channels have been renovated for tourist use.

The Matmata-Dahar plateau, in Southeast Tunisia, is an arid area (annual rainfall < 150 mm) resulting in a negative climatic water balance very constraining for rain-fed agriculture. It explains the development of water-harvesting techniques called Jessour, which form a hydraulic unit made of three main components: (1) a dam across the thalweg; (2) a terrace which includes the cropping area and (3) an impluvium, which is the runoff sub-catchment area. The Jessour have not yet been recognised as (geo)cultural heritage.

Lavaux is a vineyard region located on the northern shore of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Named a UNESCO World Heritage site as a cultural landscape in 2007, it testifies to centuries of wine growing and adaptation by man to manage hydrological processes and sediment fluxes. Structural geomorphology and differential erosion resulted in a steep stair-like slope where the vineyard terraces were created. Because the natural processes have been significantly modified by man, Lavaux can be considered as a cultural geomorphosite.

The communication has three objectives: (1) to analyse the geomorphological context (morphometric analysis, structural geomorphology, main processes) of the three cases and to show the impact of the geomorphological context on the building techniques; (2) to identify active processes and their impact on the infrastructure’s maintenance; (3) to evidence features that allow us to speak of cultural geomorphosites.

How to cite: Reynard, E., Ben Fraj, T., Ghram Messedi, A., and Ben Ouezdou, H.: Agricultural infrastructure as cultural geomorphosites: case studies in Switzerland and Tunisia, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-599, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-599, 2022.

Rui Ferreira

Starting from a revisitation of the Cultural Geomorphology concept, this work focuses on the use of Geographic Information Technologies to create and enrich content used to support the appreciation and management of the natural characteristics of places (geodiversity) in the context of their valorisation as an endogenous tourist resource.

A territory roughly delimited by the tops of the Arada and S. Macário mountains and the valleys of the rivers Sul and Vouga (municipality of São Pedro do Sul) was selected as the study area, primarily because it is a place of significant geomorphological interest, but also because this geoheritage can be used as a complementary tourist resource to the existing spa activities linked to geothermal springs and, in this way, contribute to a reinforcement and diversification of available tourist offer.

Pursuing that main goal, in this work several selected examples are presented to illustrate the potential value associated with the use of Geographic Information Technologies, both for the collection of data in the field and subsequent elaboration of thematic contents tailored to different segments of public, and for the development of a digital platform aimed to support geotourism activities or environmental education events. These are two lines of intervention that can be of great significance to improving public perception for the value of natural and cultural landscapes, particularly in regions with significant problems of depopulation and rural abandonment as is the case of the selected study area.

How to cite: Ferreira, R.: Cultural Geomorphology and Geotourism in the digital information age. Using Geographic Information Technologies to support natural heritage valorisation in São Pedro do Sul municipality, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-645, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-645, 2022.

Display time: Mon, 12 Sep 09:00–Tue, 13 Sep 19:00

Poster: Tue, 13 Sep, 10:30–10:45 | Poster area

Chairpersons: Paola Coratza, António Vieira, Zbigniew Zwoliński
Luana Rangel, Maria do Carmo Jorge, and Antonio Guerra

Geotourism is a branch of tourism which aims to value and encourage the conservation of geological and geomorphological heritage (Dowling, 2013, Lopes et al., 2011, Gray, 2013; Brilha, 2016; Jorge; Guerra, 2016; Rangel et al, 2021) that is growing in Brazil mainly in Protected Areas, where trails are used by both visitors and local people to access geotourist attractions. Trail mismanagement can cause soil degradation. The planning and management of trails using geodiversity, geotourism and geoconservation concepts have grown in recent decades (Gray, 2013; Conway, 2010; Jorge; Guerra, 2016; Rangel et al 2019). Therefore, this research aims to analyze the importance of trails for the development of geotourism in protected areas. Two Protected Areas (PAs) were selected from the ‘Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve,’ which is the first Brazilian unit within the ‘World Biosphere Reserves Network’. The two PAs are situated in an area of great touristic  appeal, especially for coastal attractions. They have two different administrations, Federal (Serra da Bocaina National Park - SBNP), and State (Serra do Mar State Park - SMSP). This research investigated two geotourist trails: Caixa D´Aço natural pool (CANP) trail in Serra da Bocaina National Park (State of Rio de Janeiro) and Água Branca waterfall (ABW) trail in Serra do Mar State Park (State of São Paulo State). Geotourism potential analysis was conducted via infrastructure surveys (e.g. the presence of steps, guardrails, handrails, rubbish bins and signboards) and interpretative features (explanatory posters, folders and field guides) along the trails and in the geodiversity sites area (Moreira, 2010). The relative strengths and weaknesses of geotourism development were evaluated. Geodiversity values were measured based on ecosystem services (Gray, 2005). These values include: intrinsic, cultural, aesthetic, economic, functional and scientific/educational (Gray, 2013). The trails are being damaged by the impacts of trampling and erosion at the edge of paths. This edge erosion poses risks of slipping and accidents for visitors. Geodiversity values were very similar at the two study areas, being different only for Economic and Scientific/Educational values. This is related to the higher economic value of CANP, because the local caiçara population is responsible for the boat crossings to the geodiversity site. Água Branca waterfall is situated on a fault scarp, and therefore, its scientific and educational values are high. The importance and uniqueness of Serra do Mar are related to multiple attributes, making it one of the world’s most important tropical scarps (Ab’Saber 1986). Scientific and educational values were medium for CANP, since it is possible to observe chemical weathering processes. Both trails have high intrinsic, esthetic and cultural values, since it is a major tourist attraction. The functionality was estimated as medium considering the role of CANP and ABW in local ecosystem maintenance. It is concluded that it is important to recognize the geological and geomorphological heritage of both protected areas.  Therefore, it is recommended that site managers identify and map geoheritage sites and disseminate information and it is necessary to recover degraded areas of both trails.

How to cite: Rangel, L., Jorge, M. D. C., and Guerra, A.: Geotourism on trails located in Protected Areas in Southeastern Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-17, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-17, 2022.

Luana Rangel, Maria Jorge, Maria Vitorio Allochio, and Antonio Guerra

The relevance of geomorphological studies to the understanding of geographic space is undeniable. Identifying the potential and vulnerabilities of a relief compartment allows adequate settlement , reduction of socio-environmental risks, carrying out economic activities, and consequently, better development of societies. Despite its importance, Geomorphology is still little explored in the school, especially in relation to geoconservation. Several authors highlight the importance of educational aspects of geoheritage and geodiversity (Brilha, 2005; Gray, 2013; Jorge; Guerra, 2016; Rangel et al., 2019), however, despite this, geodiversity is underdeveloped in elementary schools. Geomorphology can use different strategies as practical activities that stimulate creativity and “scientific ambition” in students, for example, using different fragments of rocks and soils to recognize diversity. This research aims to stimulate the interest of elementary school students in geodiversity, through practical activity to recognize different types of rocks and soils. To this end, practical analyzes were carried out in a laboratory set up in a state school in Rio de Janeiro City. The laboratory creation, as well as the activities carried out, are part of the project "Educate soils: development of scientific research with soils in Basic Education in Rio de Janeiro City" which aims to stimulate scientific practices associated with geodiversity and soils in a state school. The students will have contact with various types of rocks and soils to try to relate to images of cultural heritage and landscapes of Rio de Janeiro City. As a theoretical reference, the booklet "Soils: Knowing Your History" prepared by Jorge (2022) was used, for the practical part, an adaptation of the activity "Knowing the rocks" proposed by Rangel (2021) and the activity "production of paint of soils” elaborated by Silva and Rangel (2021). All activities sought to stimulate the student's interest in geodiversity from practical contact with rocks and soils and, later, the identification of these elements in the landscape of Rio de Janeiro City. It is concluded that the use of materials and practical activities, as an integral part of the Geodiversity teaching process, is important for elementary school students, as it stimulates the involvement of students with the contents covered, as well as, emphasizes the interest for the heritage value of geology and geomorphology.

How to cite: Rangel, L., Jorge, M., Allochio, M. V., and Guerra, A.: Geodiversity in elementary school: knowing the rocks and soils to recognize the Geoheritage in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-108, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-108, 2022.

Izabela Jamorska, Szymon Belzyt, Włodzimierz Wysocki, and Arkadiusz Krawiec

The area of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (TFBR) is unique, both in terms of landscape and nature. It is constitutes one of the largest forest complexes in the northern part of Poland, which belongs to the plains of Central Europe. It is situated in the postglacial area within the range of the Weichselian glaciation (Last Glaciation, Vistulian).  The study aims to provide a qualitative assessment of geodiversity by evaluation of abiotic nature objects. The geotourist evaluation of the geosites in TFBR has been conducted on the basis of the criteria proposed by Dmytrowski and Kicińska with modifications by authors. The geotouristic evaluation of 32 geosites, including mining heritage, petrological, sedimentological, geomorphological  as well as hydrological and hydrogeological sites, located in the area of Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (TFBR). The evaluated geosites represent both perfect examples of typical features for the physiography of the TFBR as a young glacial landscape and values proving the uniqueness of the area on both regional and international scale. The authors proposed geosites that require improving their accessibility to enhance the geotourist attractiveness, recognized the necessity of marking out geotourist trails in the most attractive and diversified areas, and noticed the influence of extreme weather phenomena (whirwinds) on changes in geotourist attractiveness of some geosites. It is believed that the results of the conducted evaluation may favorably affect the importance, position and publicity of the whole area by supplementing the well-recognized biodiversity with geodiversity presented in the study.

How to cite: Jamorska, I., Belzyt, S., Wysocki, W., and Krawiec, A.: Geodiversity and valorization of abiotic objects in the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (N Poland), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-136, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-136, 2022.

Luiza Friedrich Garcia and Maria Helena Henriques

UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. In this sense, it is expected that UGGps, directly or indirectly in their activities, meet the necessary conditions for the implementation of an effective sustainable development for its inhabitants, therefore contributing to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This work analyzes how Portuguese UGGps and Aspiring UGGps are committed with one of these SDGs: achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls by ensuring women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunity for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic, and public life (SDG5). To this end, it was evaluated the gender composition in the management structure of five UGGps (Açores, Arouca, Estrela, Naturtejo and Terras de Cavaleiros,) and three Aspiring UGGps (Algarviensis, Oeste and Viana do Castelo) of Portugal. Data were collected from the geopark website, when available, and refers to gender composition of the governing bodies of each geopark. Unlike all the others, the Naturtejo UGGp website does not present any information on this issue. Results show that the gender composition of the managing team of the analyzed geoparks is quite diverse. While the Arouca UGGp shows a stronger representation of women (71%), Estrela UGGp (64%) and Viana do Castelo Aspiring UGGp (80%) are dominated by men. In the remaining geoparks, the gender composition is quite balanced, although leadership positions are mainly occupied by men; only the Arouca UGGp is coordinated by a woman. The lack of diversity in geosciences is a problem that affects everyone, and everyone has a responsibility to look around them, recognize the situation for what it is, and take the appropriate actions to make the necessary changes. Progress has been made, but women remain vastly outnumbered in geoscienctific issues when compared to men, particularly at higher levels of employment. The UNESCO Global Geoparks Secretariat has an ethical obligation to broaden their diversity and reduce the gender gap in decision making positions among the geoparks managing teams. And it should therefore advice applicants to provide opportunities of reducing the gender bias in decision making positions when new geoparks´ proposals are submitted and/or when existing geoparks are subject to revalidation, or to area or name modifications.

How to cite: Friedrich Garcia, L. and Henriques, M. H.: Women representation in UNESCO Global Geoparks of Portugal, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-178, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-178, 2022.

Juana Vegas, Eleuterio Baeza, Ana Cabrera, Andres Diez-Herrero, Nicolas Ferrer, Ines Galindo, Julio Garrote, Ruth Gonzalez-Laguna, Raquel Herrera, Javier Lario, Gonzalo Lozano, Alvaro Marquez, Esther Martin-Gonzalez, Pablo L. Mayer, M. Angeles Perucha, Miguel A. Rodriguez-Pascua, Carmen Romero, and Nieves Sanchez

Climate change causes impacts on the Earth system, negatively influencing biodiversity, habitats and ecosystems, with strong repercussions for human beings. Climate change also has a negative impact on the Geodiversity, which is perceptible on a human time scale in degradation and loss of geoheritage in volcanic islands. Thus it is urgent to develop research to evaluate the effects of climate change and its influence in geoconservation and public use in protected natural areas. It should also be noted that geoheritage is made up mainly of natural elements of a non-renewable nature, the loss of which is irreversible.

During the last decades, the economy of the Canary Islands has been closely linked to the public use of its Protected Natural Areas and to the tourism activities related to them. Given the great importance of the geoheritage included into the four National Parks of Canary Islands for multiple tourism sectors and indirectly for other sectors, it is not surprising that it is a matter of concern, and of urgent need, to explore the possible responses of the geosites to the climate change scenarios that several IPCC models have simulated for the coming decades in Spain and, specifically, for the Canary Islands. In this case, where the geosites of the Canary national parks have legal protection, their conservation status is not homogeneous and some are threatened in the short and medium term, with a high risk of degradation, which makes them worthy of forming a 'Red List of geoheritage'.

The most threatened geoheritage of the Canary National Parks has been identified in order to assess their vulnerability and risk of degradation due to the impacts of Climate Change. For this purpose, measures have been designed to assess the conservation status of the most threatened geosites whose evolution over time is not well known, including monitoring of active processes triggered by climate change. The use of direct and indirect mitigation measures, including public participation, have been considered to increase their resilience and adaptation.

With the 'Red List' geosites, the creation of a Digital Image Bank and full-scale replicas of sedimentary structures, fossils and minerals will be implemented as a preventive conservation measure. This climate change adaptation measure for geoconservation is very innovative and fully replicable and reproducible in other national and international protected natural areas. This Image Bank and the Replicas will also be a very effective tool for management as a transfer to public administrations and society whose main objective is to be able to digitally recreate the most threatened geosites, whose loss may occur within 100 years.

Funded by Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales, research project 2779/2021 “Impactos, vulnerabilidad y resiliencia de la Geodiversidad y el Patrimonio Geológico ante el Cambio Global en los Parques Nacionales Canarios (IVRIPARC)”

How to cite: Vegas, J., Baeza, E., Cabrera, A., Diez-Herrero, A., Ferrer, N., Galindo, I., Garrote, J., Gonzalez-Laguna, R., Herrera, R., Lario, J., Lozano, G., Marquez, A., Martin-Gonzalez, E., Mayer, P. L., Perucha, M. A., Rodriguez-Pascua, M. A., Romero, C., and Sanchez, N.: Impacts, vulnerability and resilience of Geoheritage to Climate Change in the four Canary Islands National Parks (Spain), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-194, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-194, 2022.

Julio Garrote, Andres Diez-Herrero, Juana Vegas, Daniel Vazquez-Tarrio, M. Angeles Perucha, and Pablo L. Mayer

The “Caldera de Taburiente” National Park is placed on the island of La Palma, the north-westernmost island of the Canary Islands archipelago. Declared National Park in 1954, its 47 km2 are located in the northern part of the island. The altitude ranges from 430 m a.s.l. in the bottom of the ‘Barranco de Las Angustias’ creek to 2426 m a.s.l. in the ‘Roque de Los Muchachos’ peak. The main part of the National Park is formed by the headwaters of the Barranco de Las Angustias, a semi-circular (8 km in diameter) basin which is a large erosive "caldera", since its morphology is actually the result of the superposition of erosive phases and giant landslides.

The National Park and its surroundings (as Natural Park and reserve areas) contain a variated geoheritage including 13 geosites of national relevance comprising Pliocene pillow lavas, pyroxenites, a dyke complex, metamorphic processes, springs, waterfalls and intense erosive landforms. Geosites also stand out paleontological sites of Cenozoic paleobotanical remains (leaves, stems, pine cones from Macaronesian tree species). Some of this paleontological remains are close to the creek bottom and exposed to river dynamics during flash floods, producing serious problems for geoconservation. As flash flood frequency and magnitude are been modified by present and future climate change and other historical human activities (tunnels for water collection, forestry and livestock management), it is necessary to improve hydromorphological flood assessments for geoheritage management and adopt sustainable risk mitigation measures.

The scarcely availability of meteorological data (rainfall data) and the absence of flow gauging data, together with a highly heterogeneous distribution of river bed sediment sizes, do not draw the best scenario for a fully hydraulic-based solution for geoheritage management. Despite this, probable peak flows related to extreme events in the basin have been hydraulic modelled with the aim to characterize flood variables (flow depth and velocity) in the surroundings of geosites. Based on these results, and depending on the location and characteristics of each geosite, hydro-geomorphological solutions were designed to reduce the erosive and sediment transport capacity of the flow. These solutions also had to take into account the geomorphologic characteristics of the river section (slope, width, entrenchment), which limit the applicability of some of the most widely used Nature Base Solutions (NBSs). Hydrological correction check dams for channel slope reduction and regulation, channel bank reinforcement for bank-erosion reduction, or rip-rap and vegetated dikes to derive flows were used to reduce flood risk over geoheritage.

Individual or combined NBSs are been implemented into the hydrodynamic model to get the better hydro-geomorphological based solution for each geoheritage site. Finally, in base to all these results, a geoheritage management proposal for “Caldera de Taburiente” National Park has been developed for National Park managers and La Palma Island and Canary Islands Governments.

Funded by Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales, research project 2779/2021 “Impactos, vulnerabilidad y resiliencia de la Geodiversidad y el Patrimonio Geológico ante el Cambio Global en los Parques Nacionales Canarios (IVRIPARC)”.

How to cite: Garrote, J., Diez-Herrero, A., Vegas, J., Vazquez-Tarrio, D., Perucha, M. A., and Mayer, P. L.: Hydro-geomorphological based solutions for geoheritage management in the ‘Caldera de Taburiente’ National Park (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-195, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-195, 2022.

Djamil Al-Halbouni, Osama AlRabayah, and Lars Rüpke

The Dead Sea area and its surroundings have suffered strong changes in the last decades, accompanied by a variety of natural hazards related to enhanced erosional processes, such as sinkholes, subsidence and flash floods. In this work we discuss the concepts and challenges of the establishment of a new UNESCO Global Geopark (UGGp) at the southeastern Dead Sea. The Geopark will thematically encompass the influence that the natural changes and related hazards have had on the local population, from geological, over historical up to recent times. The hydrogeology and geomorphology, i.e. the connection between erosion by water, dissolution of minerals and landscape evolution will be the main guiding theme that connects the Eastern Rim Highlands of Jordan with the Dead Sea rift valley through ephemeral wadis, vegetated springs areas and traditionally living communities. The creation of the UGGp is aimed at a holistic, sustainable development and management of the area by eco-tourism, and includes education on water resource management, hazard awareness and resilience, conservation as well as international geo- and bioscience research, especially on monitoring of Geohazards. The proposed territory contains a variety of geologic features from Cambrian (Umm Ishrin Sandstone), over Cretaceous (Kurnub, Ajlun and Belqa groups) up to the Quaternary deposits in alluvial fans, volcanic rocks (Neogene basalt), parts of the Lisan salt diapir and the recently exposed shoreline of the Dead Sea. Tectonically, the territory lies on the Arabian Peninsula, and is limited to the west by an active rift zone, the Dead Sea transform fault. The highlight and focus area of the Geopark lies near the SE shore of the DS, near Ghor Al-Haditha. It encompasses the active subsurface erosion zone, with a large variety of recent sinkholes and subsidence formations as well as a potpourri of mostly clayey-silt sediments consisting of a variety of precipitated evaporite minerals such as aragonite, gypsum, halite and detritic particles such as limestone, quartz and clay found all along the DS shore. Finally, a creation of such a space would be the forth in the Middle East, so an international reputation and visibility is guaranteed.

How to cite: Al-Halbouni, D., AlRabayah, O., and Rüpke, L.: A new UNESCO Global Geopark at the southern Dead Sea, Jordan – first concepts and hazard monitoring, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-293, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-293, 2022.

Jaime Bonachea, Victoria Rivas, Juan Remondo, Alberto González-Díaz, Pablo Cruz-Hernández, Pablo Valenzuela, and Javier Hernández

One of the goals of UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) is to contribute to the economic development of the territory by valuing geological heritage and linking it to other natural and cultural resources. Geotourism activities in UGGps are essential to achieve this objective.

Since 2018, within the framework of the European project ATLANTIC GEOPARKS (Interreg Atlantic area programme), the Valleys of Cantabria project is being promoted in order to declare a UGGP in the Cantabria region (Spain). The predominant economic activity in the aspiring territory is the tertiary sector (hotel, catering services and tourism), which is major in coastal areas besides fishing. However, livestock farming still plays a major role in rural and depopulated areas. The declaration of a Geopark would contribute to: (i) setting population and attract visitors to areas at risk to depopulation, and (ii) de-seasonalizing tourism, by offering new geotourism products that may include those linked to the geological, natural and cultural heritage of the region. The aiming goal is to commit to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of UNESCO's Agenda 2030, establishing synergies with other Geoparks, working with the population living in the area to promote geotourism, and using environmental education as a fundamental element that contributes to knowledge and social awareness.

The proposed geopark has a marked geomorphological character. Due to the existence of a great variety of landscapes and geomorphological landforms, the Valleys of Cantabria territory offers the visitor an assortment of resources related to geotourism, suitable for all audiences. The visitor can enjoy different viewpoints for observing glacial, river, karst or coastal landscapes and several routes of geological interest, which are referred to interpretive panels. It is worth mentioning the rich underground heritage within the area, one of the most important karstic landscapes of Europe and a paradise for speleology activities. To promote and value this resource, new itineraries focusing on the most representative karstic elements have been proposed within the candidacy, including visits to subterranean caves or climbing activities adapted to people with disabilities. A database including all geotouristic activities, with qualified staff, carried out on the aspiring geopark has been created and local companies that offer geotourism activities in the area for enjoying the geological, natural and cultural heritage (interpretative routes to walk or by boat, farm visits, speleology, climbing, canoeing, bird watching or cycling, among others.), have been identified.

How to cite: Bonachea, J., Rivas, V., Remondo, J., González-Díaz, A., Cruz-Hernández, P., Valenzuela, P., and Hernández, J.: Geotourism activities in the aspiring Geopark Valleys of Cantabria, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-451, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-451, 2022.

Anabela Ramos and Fernando C. Lopes

The studied area is located in the Serra da Leba, Humpata Plateau, the most central and elevated sector of the great Huila Plateau (southwest of Angola). Here a thick volcano-sedimentary sequence of Proterozoic age emerges, known as Chela Group, unconformably overlies Eburnean and pre-Eburnean granitoids. This sequence is covered in disconformity by the Leba Formation, consisting of clay, cherts and black dolomitic limestones with stromatolites.

In the area, in particular on the Leba EN280 road, outcrops have been inventoried and characterized which by its geological content can be defined as geosites: 1) Small quarry of clay in Humpata Plateau; 2) Old lime oven of Leba; 3) Viewpoint of Serra da Leba; 4) Slope of the first curve of the Leba Road; 5) Slope of the third loop of the Leba Road; 6) Reverse fault in granitoid rock; 7) Dolerites curve; 8) Ductile simple shear zone. The high scientific, didactic and aesthetic value of these outcrops justifies their integration in a geo-educational itinerary, contributing to the enhancement and awareness of the Serra da Leba's geological heritage, for its promotion and scientific and educational dissemination. A quantitative assessement of the selected sites to be classified as geosites that must be preserved (integration in a geoconservation strategy) will be purpose.

How to cite: Ramos, A. and Lopes, F. C.: Inventory, outcrop characterization and numerical assessement for a field class and geoconservation purpose on the Leba EN280 road (Huíla Plateau, SW Angola), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-482, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-482, 2022.

Yasmim Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, Maria Carolina Villaça Gomes, Jairo Valdati, and Thales Vargas Furtado

The geomorphological heritage can be set as geomorphosites, that are forms, processes and associated deposits in which a value can be attributed, such as scientific and cultural. The scientific value of geomorphosites can be expressed in the form of geomorfological maps, especially in detailed scale. In this approach of representation of the geomorphological heritage that this paper is developed. The geoheritage of Caminhos dos Canyons do Sul Geopark (CCSG), located in Southern Brazil, includes geomorphosites, among other types of geosites, distributed in five geomorphological units: Littoral Plain, Colluvium-alluvial Plain, Serra Geral Hills, Serra Geral Escarpment and Campos Gerais Plateau. In order to highlight the scientific values of the CCSG’s geomorphosites, detailed cartography was applied with the geomorphological legend of the Servizio Geologico d’Italia of 2018. This legend aims to represent lots of geomorphological forms and processes through specific symbols and colors. Geomorphosites were selected for description and representation in each geomorphological unit: (i) Peat bog in the Plateau: typical of the plateau given the favorable climatic conditions (cold temperatures and high humidity) and topographic conditions. The mapped peat bog is confined to the ondulations of the relief, being traversed by a watercourse that, in its final portion, flows directly into the bedrock composed of volcanic rocks from the Serra Geral group of the Paraná Volcanosedimentary Basin; (ii) Itaimbezinho Canyon in the Serra Geral Escarpment: extensive and narrow valley carved into the Serra Geral group. The high of the canyon slope is more than 700m, the map highlights these escarpment lines and vertical slopes, the Boi River that runs along the bottom of the valley over the alluvial deposits and, in addition, the slump-blocks deposits; (iii) Paredão da Areia Branca in the Serra Geral Hills: a residual hill that testifies the regression of the Serra Geral Escarpment unit. The map represents Paredão’s alongated shape, with structural forms such as scarps, convex hilltops and caves. Shapes related to the diference sedimentar lithologies are also evidenced, such as ruiniform shapes in sandstone rocks; (iv) Seco River in the Colluvium-Alluvial Plain: the Seco is a braided river, which is associated with the slope rupture between the escarpment and the plain. Its active and inactive channels, typical of the fluvial dynamics of this morphology, as well the fluvial islands were represented; (v) Itapeva Dunas in the Littoral Plain: aeolian deposits that composes a transgressive dunefield in an area of marine transgression and regression depositional systems from the Quaternary period The map represents the aeolian process with active and inactive dunes, also a particular fluvial dynamics, which is the upwelling of the water table generates a fluvial channel that breaks the foredunes and forming a alluvial fan. The sites of this work present the relief, the geodiversity and the geomorphological heritage of the CCSG. The legend used in the detailed geomorphological maps made it possible to represent the scientific elements observed in the field and could, in the future, be the base of CCSG geotouristic maps.

How to cite: Fontana dos Santos, Y. R., Villaça Gomes, M. C., Valdati, J., and Vargas Furtado, T.: Maps of the representing geomorphosites of the geomorphological units of the Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark, Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-677, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-677, 2022.

Thales Vargas Furtado, Jairo Valdati, Maria Carolina Villaça Gomes, and Yasmim Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos

The abiotic elements of the natural environment constitute the geoheritage through geosites, identified from the exceptional values ​​of geodiversity. Among these values, which range from its scientific to cultural potential, the educational one stands out. In this sense, the number of works in which geoheritage is used to teach geoscientific content is increasing. Such initiatives can be based on educational projects in the school space or in non-formal teaching spaces, including protected areas and geoparks. The Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark (CCSG), located in southern Brazil, presents unique natural aspects with a vast geodiversity and biodiversity, where canyons, waterfalls and paleoburrows stand out – abiotic elements in the landscape with high geoeducational potential. In Brazil, the school curriculum was restructured in 2018 into a National Common Curricular Base (NCCB), which regulates the essential contents worked in Brazilian schools. This work aims to identify skills and contents present in the NCCB that allow working geoscientific concepts based on the precepts of geodiversity, from geosites present in the CCSG. For this, we carried out an analysis of the curriculum to identify the contents to be addressed from the CCSG geoheritage, considering the geosites with educational value. The results indicate that there is no clear approach to geodiversity and its conceptual developments, such as geoheritage. However, the landforms and geomorphological compartments are contents that permeate all the final years of elementary school, such as the sixth year through the concept of landscape, in the seventh with the physical-natural aspects and in the eighth and ninth years with occupations and relationships. humans on the environment. One of the skills identified in the NCCB (EF06GE01) is to compare changes in landscapes in places of living and the uses of these places at different times. From the Fortaleza Canyon, it is possible to discuss the concept of landscape from the wide field of vision that encompasses from the plateau, escarpments, to the colluvial-alluvial plain, different vegetation covers and forms of land use, allowing the concept to be constructed from of experience in the field. It is also possible to address contents present in the skill (EF06GE04), which proposes to recognize the main components of the morphology of basins and hydrographic networks and their location in the modeled terrestrial surface. From the Itaimbezinho Canyon geosite, the typical geomorphological characteristics of the hydrographic basins are identified, such as the slopes, the drainage network, waterfalls and the intense erosive dynamics in this type of modeling, also highlighting the abundance of channels and available water resources. Therefore, the geoeducational approach is quite relevant, especially in the elementary school curriculum, seeking to value geoheritage, the importance of geodiversity as well as its educational value.

How to cite: Vargas Furtado, T., Valdati, J., Villaça Gomes, M. C., and Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, Y.: Geoeducation based on the geoheritage of the Caminho dos Caniôns do Sul Geopark – Southern Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-681, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-681, 2022.

Jairo Valdati, Maria Carolina Villaça Gomes, Yasmim Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, and Thales Vargas Furtado

In recent years, the geoheritage has gained relevance and prominence in academic research in Brazil.  Studies on geological/geomorphological diversity as an element of geoheritage are materialiazed in the several proposals of new geoparks made to UNESCO; however, the geoheritage as a cultural asset still requires closer attention. The goal of this study is to value terrain elements as geoheritage for their cultural importance in the territory of the Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark (CCSG). The CCSG is located in the South of Brazil and has as geoheritage elements of the terrain that stand out internationally, such as the canyons, inserted in the escarpments of the edge of the plateau.  This compartment, with approximately 1000 meters in height, divides the poorly dissected plateau from the flood plain, forming a landscape of unique scenic value in the Brazilian territory. The terrain was a fundamental element for the human occupation of this region, from the indigenous peoples to the colonial occupation. These three compartments, plateau, escarpments and plain, served as the basis for different human activities and cultures. The plateau, with its hills covered with steppe fields, served as the basis for the characteristic "gaúcho" culture, linked to cattle raising. In this unit, the stone walls that were used to contain the cattle, built with rocks of the local lithology, the volcanic rocks of the Serra Geral Group, are noteworthy. The plain, covered by the Ombrophylous Forest, was occupied with agricultural production. This compartment is formed mainly by alluvial fan-shaped deposits, with small elevations called lobules. These are used for subsistence agriculture, while the lower, wetter areas are used for commercial rice cultivation. Between these two compartments, plateau and plain, lies the edge of the plateau, with steep terrain and canyon-shaped valleys. This unit is what gives the landscape its uniqueness and is considered as a geopatrimonial site of international relevance. These terrain units, well defined as geomorphological compartments and forms of human occupation, are currently unique elements in the CCSG. However, in the past, the escarpments were obstacles for the connection of the culture of the plateau and the lowland culture. This connection was made by trails that allowed the exchange of products for subsistence of the people in the two geomorphological compartments. These trails were traced, prior to settlement, by local indigenous peoples. Later, these paths were used as an access route for the transport of cargo from mules, carried out by people called "tropeiros". These were specialized in the transport of food and animals along the paths that cut through the escarpments of the plateau. These paths are currently used as ecotourism trails, since the "tropeirismo" no longer exists as a commercial activity.  The geomorphological compartments, plateau, escarpment and plain, with characteristic terrain forms and distinct cultures, add the cultural importance that needs to be valued as geoheritage of the CCSG.

How to cite: Valdati, J., Villaça Gomes, M. C., Rizzolli Fontana dos Santos, Y., and Vargas Furtado, T.: Cultural heritage as geoheritage at the Caminhos dos Cânions do Sul Geopark, Southern Brazil, 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-682, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-682, 2022.

Mario Menjíbar-Romero and Juan F. Martinez-Murillo

Geoparks are territories characterising by remarkale geodiversity and/or impressive geosites which deserves their preservation as well as the dissemination. This study deals with the description of the ecogeomorphology and past and current human use from remarkable geosites included in the Andalusian Geoconservation Inventory.  All of them are located in the Subbéticas Natural Park and Geopark area (Province of Córdoba, in southern Spain). This geopark belongs to the European and World Geopark Network since 2006. The landscape and geology of the Geopark are closely related; ridges are formed of hard limestone; valleys are created in areas underlain by softer argillaceous carbonates and other detrital sediments. The rocks, which range in age from the Jurassic to the Tertiary, were deposited approximately between 200 million years and 25 million years ago. The rocks are rich in fossils and are noted for their Mesozoic ammonites. The Geopark is internationally recognised as one of the most significant areas for the study of the evolution of this group of fossils. In total, there 16-geosites within the geopark besides four more in the surroundings. The geosites are mainly related to karstic processes and landforms, but also there are others related to geological structures and fossils. This study is focussed in sharing the results of their description from a holistic point of view considering ecogeomorphology and human uses in order to enrich the current information from all of them and improving their dissemination among the geopark visitors.

How to cite: Menjíbar-Romero, M. and Martinez-Murillo, J. F.: Ecogeomorphology and human use description of the geosites included in the Andalusian Geoconservation Inventory from the Subbéticas Natural Park and Geopark (Spain), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-693, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-693, 2022.

Gianluca Esposito, Daniela D'Amico, Cinzia Sulli, Vania Mancinelli, Giorgio Paglia, Luciano Sammarone, and Enrico Miccadei

The Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park is located in the Central Apennines (Italy), in a vast mountainous area of about 1300 km2. It was founded in 1922, and it is renowned for conserving some of the most important Italian fauna species. Moreover, it is an international open-air laboratory for its geological-geomorphological heritage related to various paleogeographical and morphogenetic environments. Great geodiversity examples are still reflected today by the main mountain chains, offering scientists and tourists imaginary journeys through ancient coral atolls and deep blue seas. Valleys of glacial or fluvial origin, alluvial fans, paleolandslides, karst morphologies, and present-day landscapes still preserve the memory of these ancient environments. Here, we report on the methods, initiatives, and activities to improve and valorize Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park geodiversity. In detail, the enhancement of geoheritage has been widely pursued through a stepwise approach which involved (i) literature data analysis, (ii) census and harmonization of geosites and geomorphosites, (iii) design of thematic maps and visual legends, (iv) geological-geomorphological field surveys. The resulting data allowed us to produce, in strict collaboration with the park managers, innovative tools, such as geoturistic maps and itineraries. These tools are targeted at various potential users (i.e., tourists, residents, young people, schools, and other interested stakeholders) with the final aim to provide the landscape’s observers with a perception of the geological and geomorphological processes within their spatial and temporal scale. The geological heritage, deeply rooted in the area and to date only accessible to a limited number of experts, now needs to be introduced to a broader audience, sensitive to earth and environmental dynamics, and interested in protecting and preserving the territory. The correct classification of geodiversity in the form of geosites and geomorphosites and the evaluation of their vulnerability are fundamental issues in analyzing the relationship between human activity and natural processes involving the landscape.

How to cite: Esposito, G., D'Amico, D., Sulli, C., Mancinelli, V., Paglia, G., Sammarone, L., and Miccadei, E.: The geodiversity of the Abruzzo, Lazio, and Molise National Park (Central Italy), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-392, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-392, 2022.

Andrea Ferrando, Paola Coratza, Mauro Giorgio Mariotti, and Francesco Faccini

In recent times geoheritage and geodiversity studies have received a great amount of attention. Many different themes and research lines have been addressed by geoscientists, but still little attention has been given to underwater geoheritage, and its relationship with terrestrial geosites and biodiversity.

Giardini Botanici Hanbury is a small regional protected area in the westernmost part of Liguria (Northwestern Italy), at the border with France. It comprises a small (0.19 km2) terrestrial area, with a XIX century villa, the surrounding botanic gardens, the nearby coastline, and a marine area extended for 4.634 km2. The protected area also includes two Special Conservation Areas (under the European Habitats Directive): Capo Mortola and Capo Mortola Seabed. The protection of these areas is linked to the presence of very rich in species and well preserved Posidonia oceanica beds and benthic communities of biogenic-geogenic reefs.

The protected area comprises stunning geological and geomorphological features, both in the terrestrial and in the underwater part. The most important terrestrial feature is the Capo Mortola geosite, which has long been recognized at a regional level and has recently been included in the Italian National Inventory of Geosites. Capo Mortola is a synform fold, that involves strata of Nummulitic limestones, which are studied since the XIX century for the notable fossil content. The fold axis plunges seaward, so the structure continues under the sea level. In the marine part, the most notable feature is the “Polla Rovereto” spring, which is a submarine stillwater spring. It discharges more than 100 l/s, and it constitutes the main spring of the adjacent karst area.

In this research we provide an original geomorphological map of the Hanbury Botanic Gardens, comprehending either the terrestrial and the marine area. To design the map, a detailed field survey was carried out in the terrestrial part of the protected area, with the support of drills and remote sensing information. The geomorphology of the underwater area has been reconstructed partly by observations from the sea surface, partly from bibliographical data and information from previous underwater surveys. The main geoheritage features have been highlighted.

This map can provide insight on the relationship between terrestrial and marine geoheritage, and its influence on the biodiversity in a protected area. Furthermore, this map could be a powerful tool to develop geotourism in one of the most distinctive Ligurian protected areas.

How to cite: Ferrando, A., Coratza, P., Mariotti, M. G., and Faccini, F.: Geomorphological survey and mapping of the Giardini Botanici Hanbury and related Capo Mortola marine protected area (Liguria, Italy), 10th International Conference on Geomorphology, Coimbra, Portugal, 12–16 Sep 2022, ICG2022-463, https://doi.org/10.5194/icg2022-463, 2022.