The session deals with the documentation and modelling of the tectonic, deformation and geodetic features of any type of volcanic area, on Earth and in the Solar System. The focus is on advancing our understanding on any type of deformation of active and non-active volcanoes, on the associated behaviours, and the implications for hazards. We welcome contributions based on results from fieldwork, remote-sensing studies, geodetic and geophysical measurements, analytical, analogue and numerical simulations, and laboratory studies of volcanic rocks.
Studies may be focused at the regional scale, investigating the tectonic setting responsible for and controlling volcanic activity, both along divergent and convergent plate boundaries, as well in intraplate settings. At a more local scale, all types of surface deformation in volcanic areas are of interest, such as elastic inflation and deflation, or anelastic processes, including caldera and flank collapses. Deeper, sub-volcanic deformation studies, concerning the emplacement of intrusions, as sills, dikes and laccoliths, are most welcome.
We also particularly welcome geophysical data aimed at understanding magmatic processes during volcano unrest. These include geodetic studies obtained mainly through GPS and InSAR, as well as at their modelling to imagine sources.
The session includes, but is not restricted to, the following topics:
• volcanism and regional tectonics;
• formation of magma chambers, laccoliths, and other intrusions;
• dyke and sill propagation, emplacement, and arrest;
• earthquakes and eruptions;
• caldera collapse, resurgence, and unrest;
• flank collapse;
• volcano deformation monitoring;
• volcano deformation and hazard mitigation;
• volcano unrest;
• mechanical properties of rocks in volcanic areas.
Volcano monitoring with instrument networks: novel techniques, observations and interpretations
Over the past few years, major technological advances allowed to significantly increase both the spatial coverage and frequency bandwidth of geochemical and geophysical observations at active volcanoes. Establishment of high-rate GPS networks, continuous gravity meters, dense arrays of broad-band seismometers, and networks of instruments for the quantitative measurement of volcanic gas emissions now permits an unprecedented, multi-parameter vision of the surface manifestations of mass transport beneath volcanoes. Accompanying these progresses are new models and processing techniques leading to innovative paradigms for the interpretation and inversion of observational data. Within this context, this session aims at bringing together a multidisciplinary audience to discuss about the most recent innovations in monitoring approaches and to present observations, methods and models that increase our understanding of volcanic processes.
We welcome contribution related to (1) New instruments and techniques for the measurement of geophysical and geochemical parameters, from in-situ methods to ground-, air- and space-based remote sensing techniques; (2) Reports of significant case histories, documenting the relationships between the measured parameters and the evolving volcanic processes; (3) New modelling frameworks for the interpretation of the observed data, and their significance in terms of eruption forecasting.
The session will provide an opportunity to discuss volcanic activity from a monitoring perspective on a wide range of volcanoes. We therefore encourage submission of papers that are easily understandable to a broad, multi-disciplinary audience.
Remote sensing measurements, from passive optical to active radar sensors, have become classical techniques to study and monitor Earth’s active volcanoes. They are commonly used by many volcano observatories and scientists around the World as obvious monitoring tools and complements to other ground-based geophysical techniques, such as GNSS, seismic, infrasound and gravimetric monitoring networks.
Nowadays, the number of satellite images available at no charge for scientific purpose is still increasing. New low-cost approaches, such as micro-satellite constellations and Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), are in constant development. The spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions of sensors are continuously improved. All these types of evolution make volcano remote sensing more accurate and comprehensive than before, allowing the scientists to better decipher the volcanic activity and the associated underlying magmatic processes.
In the present session, we invite all contributions that deal with the study and monitoring of active volcanoes using recent imaging sensors on-board space-, air- or ground-based platforms. Targeted remote sensing techniques are essentially –but not restricted to– ground surface deformation, topographic changes, ash and gas emissions, thermal detection, measurements and mapping, and geological mapping. Research based on time-series datasets processing and modelling, complementary remote sensing approaches and/or the combination of remote sensing with ground-based monitoring techniques are encouraged.
Volcanic Islands are environments created by the growth of volcanoes in the sea, modified by geologic, environmental, biological and human activity. They are highly varied in geology, terrain, environment and social makeup. They are fragile environments in that they respond rapidly to global or local changes in a way that links geology, social activity and environment. Dealing with a complex object such as volcanic island requires a multidisciplinary approach on their on-land and submarine processes that crosses scientific, social and economic boundaries. From a geological and geophysical perspective there are numerous aspects that need to be addressed to acquire a comprehensive picture of how volcanic islands are born, grow up, evolve and die. These include their geodynamic setting, magmatism, volcanism, hydrothermalism, tectonics, and erosion and material transport, as well as their associated hazards and risks, environmental change record, or energy and economic resources. With the aim at integrating all this multidisciplinary research into a single forum of discussion, we offer this scientific session on Volcanic Islands, in which any geological and geophysical research on such complex environments will be more than welcome.
We invite multidisciplinary contributions - both observational (seismology, geodetics, geobarometry etc.) and modelling (computational, analogue etc.) - on magma transport in the crust through dykes and sills. Understanding dykes and sills is vital as they serve both as the conduits that feed eruptions (and must be monitored to evaluate volcanic hazards), and as the bodies that build the crust. Although considerable uncertainties in our understanding of magma plumbing systems remain, recent events in Iceland (2014 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun rifting event) have demonstrated how progress can be made by combining diverse observations from traditionally distinct disciplines.
Magma ascent, degassing and eruptive dynamics: linking experiments, models and observations
Interaction between the different phases (exsolved and dissolved volatiles, liquid melt, crystals and pyroclasts) that separate during magma evolution, ascent and storage as a result of interlinked fluid, thermodynamic and chemical processes have a dramatic influence on eruption dynamics, resulting in a plethora of explosive eruptions types.
On one side, constraining volatile budget in magmas and quantifying degassing processes is a fundamental task to better understand the role of volatile elements on eruption dynamics. On the other side, the complex shallow plumbing system dynamics produces seismic and acoustic events, ground deformation and changes in the hydrothermal system often preceding or follow the explosive activity and direct field observations can constrain individual eruptive processes.
For this reason, the session aims at gathering field observation and experimental and modeling studies on eruptive processes to unlock the complex dynamics of volcanic activity. We hereby invite contributions focusing on (but not restricted to) volatiles in magmas, crystallization dynamics, effusive/explosive transition, rheology of gas-liquid-solid mixtures, fragmentation processes.
Further we like to stimulate discussion on how multidisciplinary approaches can be used to advance the interpretation of geochemical and petrological observations on magmatic products and more specifically on the quantification of disequilibria processes during volcanic eruptions.
Rates, timescales and mechanisms of magmatic and volcanic processes: from mantle source to emplacement or eruption.
Magmatic and volcanic systems involve a range of dynamic processes that govern magma generation, ascent, emplacement, and eruption. The timescales of these processes are of paramount importance to understanding the evolution of magmatic reservoirs and mush zones during crystallization, assimilation, mixing, and volatile exsolution. Depending on the ascent timescale, these processes may operate far from compositional and textural equilibrium, induced by rapidly changing environmental parameters (e.g., P, T, fO2).
Rates and mechanisms of crustal emplacement or eruption, are also crucial in characterizing volcanic hazards. We welcome analytical, numerical, experimental, geophysical, and field-based studies addressing rates and timescales of volcanic and plutonic processes. These may include radiogenic isotope dating, mineral geospeedometry, in situ X-ray microtomography experiments, crystal size distribution analysis, and fluid dynamics. Also, we welcome interdisciplinary studies probing the mechanisms and timescales of volcanic phenomena. We finally encourage studies highlighting the role of time in characterizing volcanic hazards and how improved knowledge adds societal support for fast response to rapidly evolving geological processes.
Fluid-solid interactions in volcanic processes over different time-scales: an investigation through geophysical and volcanological data
In active volcanic systems the seismic source mechanisms are often driven by the interactions between the circulating fluids and the surrounding solid structures. Understanding the dynamics of the processes involved in these interactions is necessary to characterize the overall behavior of a volcano and the eventual transition mechanisms among stationarity, unrest phase and eruption. The starting point in this context is to have high-quality data (seismological, geochemical, geodetic, etc.) on several parameters, acquired both over several years of monitoring activity and focused field experiments, providing the opportunities to interrogate relevant physicochemical processes at diverse spatial and temporal scale. .
This session is addressed to those contributions that shed light on solid-fluid coupling processes in active volcanic systems over different time scales, with implications for early warning and hazards. In this context, studies that concern changes in the status of volcanic activity, which are relevant for the characterization of a volcano dynamical behavior or the identification of possible eruption precursors, throughout field experiments or analytical studies, are also welcome. In particular, contributions that adopt innovative techniques or multi-disciplinary approaches involving seismological data are strongly encouraged.
Sediment transport processes on volcanoes – Field, Imaging and Experimental approaches
Volcanic edifices consist of diverse suites of pyroclastic successions, originated from primary (e.g. tephra fall, lava flow) and reworking processes (e.g. alluvial activity). The volcanoclastic sediments have witnessed the magma fragmentation and subsequent transportation mechanism as flow, turbulent current or tephra fall. Such pyroclastic deposits therefore hold key evidence to understand volcano-stratigraphy, eruption re-occurrence rates, and dominant transportation modes. This session aims to discuss sedimentary and volcanological aspects of volcanoclastic deposits. We invite presentations covering (1) field-based description and interpretation of volcanoclastic sediments, (2) reconstruction of eruptive and sediment transport processes, (3) experimental and numerical simulation of volcano-related sediment transport, and (4) development of new methodologies to understand the formation of volcanoclastic sediments. These topics are critical to understand volcanic phenomena and to improve upon existing volcanic monitoring efforts, and to forecast volcanic hazards in the future.
Glaciers and volcanoes interact in a number of ways, including instances where volcanic/geothermal activity alters glacier dynamics or mass balance, via subglacial eruptions or the deposition of supraglacial tephra. Glaciers can also impact volcanism, for example by directly influencing mechanisms of individual eruptions resulting in the construction of distinct edifices. Glaciers may also influence patterns of eruptive activity when mass balance changes adjust the load on volcanic systems. However, because of the remoteness of many glacio-volcanic environments, these interactions remain poorly understood.
In these complex settings, hazards associated with glacier-volcano interaction can vary from lava flows to volcanic ash, lahars, pyroclastic flows or glacial outburst floods. These can happen consecutively or simultaneously and affect not only the earth, but also glaciers, rivers and the atmosphere. As accumulating, melting, ripping or drifting glaciers generate signals as well as degassing, inflating/ deflating or erupting volcanoes, the challenge is to study, understand and ultimately discriminate these potentially coexisting signals. We wish to fully include geophysical observations of current and recent events with geological observations and interpretations of deposits of past events.
We invite contributions that deal with the mitigation of the hazards associated with ice-covered volcanoes, that improve the understanding of signals generated by ice-covered volcanoes, or studies focused on volcanic impacts on glaciers and vice versa. Research on recent activity is especially welcomed. This includes geological observations e.g. of deposits in the field or remote-sensing data, together with experimental and modelling approaches. We also invite contributions on past activity and glaciovolcanic deposits. We aim to bring together scientists from volcanology, glaciology, seismology, geodesy, hydrology, geomorphology and atmospheric science in order to enable a broad discussion and interaction.
New frontiers of multiscale monitoring, analysis and modeling of environmental systems
Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented in collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales. In particular, a special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring high natural risk areas, such as: volcanic, seismic, slope instability and other environmental context.
We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, geotechnical and soil science. In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geodynamics processes are also welcome.
Finally, a special reference is devoted to the integration through the use of GeoWeb platforms and the management of visualization and analysis of multiparametric databases acquired by different sources
Submarine Volcanic Activity and Associated Hazards: Recent and ancient perspectives
More than 75% of the volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Recent unrest observed at many submarine volcanoes raises serious concerns regarding the level of risk posed to local communities. Many parameters of submarine to emergent volcanic activity are under active investigation, including how explosive activity varies with water depth, magma properties and magma composition. This session brings together experts from diverse disciplines to explore hazards posed to island and coastal communities as well as mechanisms of submarine to emergent volcanic activity.
The session will include presentations that integrate innovative and emerging technologies to enable focused and multi-disciplinary studies of recent and ancient eruptions and their products, as well as breakthrough developments in understanding the impact of disastrous submarine volcanic hazards on present and past societies.
We call for abstracts in the following areas:
- Identification of submarine volcanic hazards such as explosive eruptions, volcanic earthquakes, submarine landslides, hydrothermal emissions and volcanogenic tsunamis.
- Studies of the mechanics of submarine and emergent volcanic eruptions and formation of oceanic islands.
- Investigations of optimal monitoring technologies and state of the art methods that provide new insights into explorations of submarine volcanoes, which host hydrothermal systems, mineral deposits and biomediated processes.
- Recommendations for volcanic crisis management, public awareness and preparedness through an improved understanding of the hazards and impacts of submarine volcanoes.
The aims of the session are (1) to discuss methodological and instrumental advances in geophysical imaging of volcanoes and (2) to explore new knowledge provided by these studies on the internal structure and physical processes of volcanic systems. We invite contributors from all geophysical areas, such as seismology, electromagnetics/geoelectrics, gravimetry/magnetics, muon tomography, remote sensing, and other geophysical observations applied to volcanic systems ranging from near-surface hydrothermal activity to magmatic processes at depth.
This year's session is focused on the contribution of geophysical imaging to better understand volcanological processes. We particularly welcome studies where complementary imaging techniques, as well as multi-disciplinary datasets, are integrated to investigate subsurface hydrothermal and magmatic processes.