In the past three decades high-precision GPS has been applied to support numerous applications in Geosciences. Currently, there are two fully operational Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and two more are in the implementation stage. The new Galileo and BDS systems already provide usable signals, and both, GPS and GLONASS, are currently undergoing a significant modernization, which adds more capacity, more signals, better accuracy and interoperability, etc. Meanwhile, the huge technology development provided GNSS equipment (in some cases even at low-cost) able to collect measurements at much higher rates, up to 100 Hz, hence opening new possibilities. Therefore, on one side, the new developments in GNSS stimulate a broad range of new applications for solid and fluid Earth investigations, both in post-processing and in real-time; on the other side, this, results in new problems and challenges in data processing which boost GNSS research. Algorithmic advancements are needed to address the opportunities and challenges in enhancing the accuracy, availability, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications.
This session is related to activities of IAG SC4.4 'GNSS Integrity and Quality Control' and IAG-ICCT JSG T.32 'High-rate GNSS for Geosciences and Mobility'. It is a forum to discuss new developments in high-precision GNSS algorithms and applications in Geosciences; in this respect, contributions from other branches in Geosciences (geodynamics, seismology, tsunamis, ionosphere, troposphere, etc.) are very welcome.
We encourage, but not limit, submissions related to:
- Modeling and strategies in high-precision GNSS,
- Multi-GNSS benefit for Geosciences,
- Multi-GNSS processing and product standards,
- Inter-system and inter-frequency biases and calibrations,
- New or improved GNSS products for high-precision applications (orbits, clocks, UPDs, etc.),
- Precise Point Positioning (PPP, PPP-RTK),
- High-rate GNSS,
- GNSS and other sensors (accelerometers, INS, ecc.) integration for high-rate applications,
- Ambiguity resolution and validation,
- CORS services for Geosciences (GBAS, Network-RTK, etc.),
- Precise Positioning of EOS platforms,
- Precise Positioning for natural hazards prevention,
- Monitoring crustal deformation and the seismic cycle of active faults,
- GNSS and early-warning systems,
- GNSS reflectometry,
- High-precision applications for Geosciences,
- and more.

Convener: Pawel Wielgosz | Co-conveners: Elisa Benedetti, Mattia Crespi, Xingxing Li, Felix Perosanz
| Attendance Mon, 04 May, 10:45–12:30 (CEST), Attendance Mon, 04 May, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)

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Chat time: Monday, 4 May 2020, 10:45–12:30

D1811 |
| solicited
| Highlight
Peter Teunissen, Amir Khodabandeh, and Safoora Zaminpardaz

G1 – Geodetic Theory and Algorithms

G1.3 High-precision GNSS: methods, open problems and Geoscience applications


Instantaneous Ambiguity Resolved GLONASS FDMA Attitude Determination


PJG Teunissen1,2, A. Khodabandeh3, S. Zaminpardaz4

1GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

2Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

3University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

4RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia


In [1] a new formulation of the double-differenced (DD) GLONASS FDMA model was introduced. It closely resembles that of CDMA-based systems and it guarantees the estimability of the newly defined GLONASS ambiguities. The close resemblance between the new GLONASS FDMA model and the standard CDMA-models implies that available CDMA-based GNSS software is easily modified [2] and that existing methods of integer ambiguity resolution can be directly applied. Due to its general applicability, we believe that the new model opens up a whole variety of carrier-phase based GNSS applications that have hitherto been a challenge for GLONASS ambiguity resolution [3]

We provide insight into the ambiguity resolution capabilities of the new GLONASS FDMA model, combine it with next-generation GLONASS CDMA signals [4] and demonstrate it for remote sensing platforms that require single-epoch, high-precision direction finding. This demonstration will be done with four different, instantaneous baseline estimators: (a) unconstrained, ambiguity-float baseline, (b) length-constrained, ambiguity-float baseline, (c) unconstrained, ambiguity-fixed baseline, and (d) length-constrained, ambiguity-fixed baseline. The unconstrained solutions are computed with the LAMBDA method, while the constrained ambiguity solutions with the C-LAMBDA method, thereby using the numerically efficient bounding-function formulation of [5]. The results will demonstrate that with the new model, GLONASS-only direction finding is instantaneously possible and that the model and associated method therefore holds great potential for array-based attitude determination and array-based precise point positioning.


[1] P.J.G. Teunissen (2019): A New GLONASS FDMA Model, GPS Solutions, 2019, Art 100.

[2] A. Khodabandeh and P.J.G. Teunissen (2019): GLONASS-L. MATLAB code archived in GPSTOOLBOX:


[3] R. Langley (2017): GLONASS: Past, present and future. GPS World November 2017, 44-48.

[4] S. Zaminpardaz, P.J.G. Teunissen and N. Nadarajah (2017): GLONASS CDMA L3 ambiguity resolution

and positioning, GPS Solutions, 2017, 21(2), 535-549.

[5] P.J.G. Teunissen PJG (2010): Integer least-squares theory for the GNSS compass. Journal of Geodesy, 84:433–447


Keywords: GNSS, GLONASS, FDMA, CDMA model, Instantaneous Attitude Determination, Integer Ambiguity Resolution

How to cite: Teunissen, P., Khodabandeh, A., and Zaminpardaz, S.: Instantaneous Ambiguity Resolved GLONASS FDMA Attitude Determination, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1810, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1810, 2020.

D1812 |
Lars Prange, Arturo Villiger, Stefan Schaer, Rolf Dach, Dmitry Sidorov, Adrian Jäggi, and Gerhard Beutler

The International GNSS service (IGS) has been providing precise reference products for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) GPS and (starting later) GLONASS since more than 25 years. These orbit, clock correction, coordinate reference frame, troposphere, ionosphere, and bias products are freely distributed and widely used by scientific, administrative, and commercial users from all over the world. The IGS facilities needed for data collection, product generation, product combination, as well as data and product dissemination, are well established. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is one of the Analysis Centers (AC) contributing to the IGS from the beginning. It generates IGS products using the Bernese GNSS Software.


In the last decade new GNSS (European Galileo and Chinese BeiDou) and regional complementary systems to GPS (Japanese QZSS and Indian IRNSS/NAVIC) were deployed. The existing GNSS are constantly modernized, offering - among others - more stable satellite clocks and new signals. The exploitation of the new data and their integration into the existing IGS infrastructure was the goal of the Multi-GNSS EXtension (MGEX) when it was initiated in 2012. CODE has been participating in the MGEX with its own orbit and clock solution from the beginning. Since 2014 CODE’s MGEX (COM) contribution considers five GNSS, namely GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou2 (BDS2), and QZSS. We provide an overview of the latest developments of the COM solution with respect to processing strategy, orbit modelling, attitude modelling, antenna calibrations, handling of code and phase biases, and ambiguity resolution. The impact of these changes on the COM products will be discussed.


Recent assessment showed that especially the Galileo analysis within the MGEX has reached a state of maturity, which is almost comparable to GPS and GLONASS. Based on this finding the IGS decided to consider Galileo in its third reprocessing campaign, which will contribute to the next ITRF. Recognizing the demands expressed by the GNSS community, CODE decided in 2019 to go a step further and consider Galileo also in its IGS RAPID and ULTRA-RAPID reference products. We summarize our experiences from the first months of triple-system (ULTRA)-RAPID analysis including GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo. Finally we provide an outlook of CODE’s IGS analysis with the focus on the new GNSS.

How to cite: Prange, L., Villiger, A., Schaer, S., Dach, R., Sidorov, D., Jäggi, A., and Beutler, G.: CODE IGS reference products including Galileo, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18142, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18142, 2020.

D1813 |
Krzysztof Sośnica, Radosław Zajdel, Grzegorz Bury, Dariusz Strugarek, and Kamil Kaźmierski

The European GNSS – Galileo can be considered as fully serviceable with 24 active satellites in space since late 2018. Galileo satellites have a different revolution period than that of GPS and GLONASS, and moreover, two additional Galileo satellites are orbiting in an eccentric orbit which helps to decorrelate some global geodetic parameters.

This contribution shows the results from Galileo-only, GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and the combined multi-GNSS solutions with a focus on Earth rotation parameters and geocenter coordinates based on the 3-year solution. We discuss the system-specific issues in individual GNSS-derived series and resonances between satellite revolution periods and Earth rotation. We found that the Galileo-based and GLONASS-based parameters are inherently influenced by the spurious signals at the frequencies which arise from the combination of the satellite revolution period and the Earth’s rotation, e.g. 3.4 days for Galileo and 3.9 days for GLONASS. On the other hand, we observe a systematic drift of GPS-based UT1-UTC values with a magnitude of 8.1 ms/year which is due to the revolution period of the GPS satellites which is equal to half of the sidereal day and causes a deep resonance. For Galileo, the UT1-UTC drift is sixteen times smaller than that of GPS and equals just 0.5 ms/year. GLONASS-derived pole coordinates and geocenter coordinates show large spurious offsets with respect GPS and Galileo solutions, as well as with respect to the IERS-C04-14 series and Satellite Laser Ranging data. GLONASS-specific problems can be partially reduced by applying a box-wing orbit model and by reducing the number of estimated empirical orbit parameters. The quality of Galileo-derived geocenter coordinates is comparable to the GPS-based results. The Galileo-derived polar motion is affected by systematic errors in receiver and satellite antenna offsets. The best results of geocenter coordinates and Earth rotation parameters can be obtained from the combined GPS+Galileo+GLONASS solutions, however, some system-specific issues still remain in the combination.


How to cite: Sośnica, K., Zajdel, R., Bury, G., Strugarek, D., and Kaźmierski, K.: Geocenter coordinates and Earth rotation parameters from GPS-only, GLONASS-only, Galileo-only, and the combined GPS+GLONASS+Galileo solutions , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1000, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1000, 2020.

D1814 |
Jianghui Geng, Shaoming Xin, and Simon Williams

Storm surges often strike the southern coast of North Sea in Europe during the winter season. The largest event on December 5-6, 2013 since 1953 pushed the water level to rise by up to 4 m within a few hours, which caused a transient but appreciable loading on the crust under the southern North Sea. Consequently, GNSS stations around this oceanic area experienced considerable displacements, which were up to 30 mm in the vertical while 5 mm in the horizontal component as predicted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Storm Surge Model (POLSSM). We processed the GPS/GLONASS data at 18 coastal stations from Nov. 1 until Dec. 31, 2013. We computed station displacements using precise point positioning ambiguity resolution every three hours to track subdaily loading deformations, and compared them with POLSSM predictions. The second- and third-order delays were mitigated using IGS global ionosphere map derived corrections; orbital repeat time (ORT) filtering, which aimed at reducing multipath effects, were enabled for both GPS and GLONASS on the observation level. We found that GNSS derived displacements presented high correlations of up to 0.7 with POLSSM predictions in the vertical direction over the 61 days; higher-order ionosphere corrections reduced the north RMS between GNSS solutions and POLSSM predictions by 0.2-0.3 mm, whereas the ORT filtering decreased the RMS by more than 10% for all three components. Introducing GLONASS data to GPS-only solutions further reduced the RMS to 5.9, 2.2 and 2.7 mm in the vertical, east and north components, suggesting a 6-12% improvement. Despite this millimeter-level agreement, the peak-to-peak vertical displacement of about 10 mm over the 6–24-h timescales for the largest surge event on December 5 was only marked marginally in the subdaily wavelet power spectra. Thanks to the spatial coherence among the 18 stations, the principal component analysis could enhance dramatically the resolution capability of subdaily GNSS in discriminating the subdaily vertical loading signals of 5-10 mm amplitude over the 6–24-h wavelet timescales. We demonstrate that multi-GNSS data have the potential to improve significantly the detection of subdaily geophysical signals dwelling on the periods of tens of minutes to hours.

How to cite: Geng, J., Xin, S., and Williams, S.: Resolving millimeter-level storm surge loading deformations using multi-GNSS data over the subdaily timescales, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1668, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1668, 2020.

D1815 |
Sebastian Strasser and Torsten Mayer-Gürr

The year 2020 is going to mark the first time of four global navigation satellite systems (i.e., GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou) in full operational capability. Utilizing the various available observation types together in global multi-GNSS processing offers new opportunities, but also poses many challenges. The raw observation approach facilitates the incorporation of any undifferenced and uncombined code and phase observation on any frequency into a combined least squares adjustment. Due to the increased number of observation equations and unknown parameters, using raw observations directly is more computationally demanding than using, for example, ionosphere-free double-differenced observations. This is especially relevant for our contribution to the third reprocessing campaign of the International GNSS Service, where we process observations from up to 800 stations per day to three GNSS constellations at a 30-second sampling. For a single day, this results in more than 200 million raw observations, from which we estimate almost 5 million parameters.

Processing such a large number of raw observations together is computationally challenging and requires a highly optimized processing chain. In this contribution, we detail the key steps that make such a processing feasible in the context of a distributed computing environment (i.e., large computer clusters). Some of these steps are the efficient setup of observation equations, a suitable normal equation structure, a sophisticated integer ambiguity resolution scheme, automatic outlier downweighting based on variance component estimation, and considerations regarding the estimability of certain parameter groups.

How to cite: Strasser, S. and Mayer-Gürr, T.: Efficient multi-GNSS processing based on raw observations from large global station networks, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3014, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3014, 2020.

D1816 |
Peter Steigenberger, Steffen Thölert, Gerardo Allende-Alba, and Oliver Montenbruck

All GLONASS satellites transmit navigation signals in the L1 and L2 frequency band whereas newer generations (M+ and K1) also utilize the L3 band. Previous studies have shown that the transmit power in the individual frequency bands can significantly differ for dedicated satellites. These differences are visible in the carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) of geodetic GNSS receivers and can be measured with a high-gain antenna. Whereas C/N0 allows for a continuous monitoring, high-gain antenna measurements are only performed on an irregular basis.

In April 2019, a drop in C/N0 could be observed for the GLONASS-M satellite R720. Measurements of the R720 equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) with the 30 m high-gain antenna of the German Aerospace Center show a reduction by up to 9 dB for L1 and 1.5 dB for L2 compared to earlier measurements obtained in June 2017. The 2019 EIRP measurements also show an asymmetry of ascending and descending arcs that was not present before the power loss and indicate a change in the apparent gain pattern of the R720 transmit antenna. The transmit power change is accompanied by discontinuities in the estimated satellite antenna phase center offsets (PCOs) by about 15 cm in the transmit antenna plane and inter-frequency differential code biases (DCBs) by up 0.6 ns. Several GLONASS PCO and DCB changes were already reported by Dach et al. (2019) but they could not show a direct relation to transmit power changes.

This contribution analyzes the impact of the R720 transmit power loss on C/N0 and high gain antenna measurements as well as PCO and DCB estimates. The current transmit antenna gain pattern is reconstructed based on repeated high-gain antenna measurements. Differential gain pattern are obtained from C/N0 measurements of geodetic receivers and low-gain GNSS antennas before and after April 2019. Furthermore, the impact on precise orbit determination is evaluated as transmit power affects the modeling of antenna thrust.

How to cite: Steigenberger, P., Thölert, S., Allende-Alba, G., and Montenbruck, O.: GLONASS R720 transmit power loss, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6685, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6685, 2020.

D1817 |
Jiaxin Huang, Xin Li, Hongbo Lv, and Yun Xiong

The performance of precise point positioning (PPP) can be significantly improved with multi-GNSS observations, but it still needs more than ten minutes to obtain positioning results at centimeter-level accuracy. In order to shorten the initialization time and improve the positioning accuracy, we develop a multi-GNSS (GPS + GLONASS + Galileo + BDS) PPP method augmented by precise atmospheric corrections to achieve instantaneous ambiguity resolution (IAR). In the proposed method, regional augmentation corrections including precise atmospheric corrections and satellite uncalibrated phase delays (UPDs) are derived from PPP fixed solutions at reference network and provided to user stations for correcting the dual-frequency raw observations. Then the regional augmentation corrections from nearby reference stations are interpolated on the client through a modified linear combination method (MLCM). With the corrected observations, IAR can be achieved with centimeter-level accuracy. This method is validated experimentally with Hong Kong CORS network, and the results indicate that multi-GNSS fusion can improve the performance in terms of both positioning accuracy and reliability of AR. The percentage of IAR for multi-GNSS solutions is up to 99.7%, while the percentage of GPS-only solutions is 88.7% when the cut-off elevation angle is 10°. The benefit of multi-GNSS fusion is more significant with high cut-off elevation angle. The percentage of IAR can be still above 98.4% for multi-GNSS solutions while the result of GPS-only solutions is below 43.5% when the cut-off elevation angle reaches 30°.  The positioning accuracy of multi-GNSS solutions is improved by 30.0% on the horizontal direction (0.7 cm) and 17.1% on the vertical direction (2.9 cm) compared to GPS-only solutions.

How to cite: Huang, J., Li, X., Lv, H., and Xiong, Y.: Multi-GNSS PPP instantaneous ambiguity resolution with precise atmospheric corrections augmentation, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5255, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5255, 2020.

D1818 |
Daqian Lyu, Tianbao Dong, Fangling Zeng, and Xiaofeng Ouyang

Precise point positioning (PPP) technique is an effective tool for time and frequency applications. Using phase/code observations and precise products, the PPP time transfer allows an accuracy of sub-nanoseconds within a latency of several days. Although the PPP time transfer is usually implemented in the post-processing mode, using the real-time PPP (RT-PPP) technique for time transfer with the shorter latency remains attractive to time community. In 2012, the IGS (International GNSS Service) launched an open-access real-time service (RTS) project, broadcasting satellite orbit and clock corrections on the Internet, which enables PPP time transfer in the real-time mode. In this contribution, we apply the RT-PPP for high-precision time transfer and synchronization. The GNSS receiver is required to be equipped with an atomic clock as the external local clock. We use the RT-PPP technique to compute the receiver clock offset with respective to the GNSS time scale. On the basis of clock offsets, we steer the local clock by frequency adjustment method. In this way, all the local clocks are synchronized to the GNSS time scale, making local clocks synchronized with each other.

The time scales of the RTS products are evaluated at first. Six kinds of the RTS products (IGS01, CLK10, CLK53, CLK80 and CLK93) on DOY220-247, 2019 are pre-saved to compute the receiver clock offsets. The clock offset with respect to the GPST (GPS Time) obtained from the IGS final product is applied as the reference. The standard deviations (STDs) of the clock offsets with respect to the reference are 0.63, 1.76, 0.28, 0.27 and 1.28 ns for IGS01, CLK10, CLK53, CLK80 and CLK93, respectively.

Finally, we set up a hardware system to examine the validity of our time synchronization method. The baseline of the time synchronization experiment is about 5 m. The synchronization error of the 1 PPS outputs is precisely measured by the frequency counter. The STD of the 4-days results is about 0.48 ns. The peak-to-peak value of the synchronization error is about 2.5 ns.

How to cite: Lyu, D., Dong, T., Zeng, F., and Ouyang, X.: Time Synchronization Method Based on Real-Time Precise Point Positioning, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12206, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12206, 2020.

D1819 |
Lajhon Campbell, William Holt, and Yu Chen

Strain rate fields within strike-slip regimes often possess complexity associated with along-strike  slip  rate  variations.  These along-strike  slip  rate  variations  produce dilatational  components  of  strain  rate  within  and  near  the  fault  zones  and  within  the adjacent block areas. These dilatation rates do not directly reflect the slip rate magnitude on the strike  slip  fault,  but  rather  the  relative  change in  along-strike  slip  rate.  Displacement rates measured  using  GPS  observations  reflect  the  full  deformation  gradient  field,  which may involve significant dilatational components and other off-fault deformation. Thus, using displacement rates  to  infer  slip  rate  and  locking  depth  of  major  strike-slip  faults  may introduce  errors  when  along-strike  slip  rate  variations  are  present.  On the  contrary,  true locking depth and slip rate can be obtained from the pure strike-slip component of shear strain rates. In this study we investigate the use of shear strain rates alone (obtained from the full displacement rate field of the SCEC 4.0 velocity field in southern California) to infer fault slip rate and locking depth parameters along the San Andreas (up to 37° N) as well as the San Jacinto fault zones. Such an  analysis is  critical  for  accurate  estimation  of  off-fault  strain  rates  outside  of  the major shear zones.

We conducted benchmarking tests to determine if accurate shear strain rates  can  be  obtained  from  a  synthetic  fault  slip  rate  field  possessing  the  same  station spacing as the SCEC 4.0 dataset. The synthetics were derived using Okada’s [1992] elastic dislocation routine (Coulomb  3.2).  These displacement  rates  were  interpolated  using  bi-cubic  Bessel  interpolation  to  infer the full  horizontal  velocity  gradient  tensor  field,  along with model uncertainties.  To test realistic conditions, along-strike slip  rates were put into the elastic dislocation model and model displacements were output at the true GPS station spacing in southern California from the SCEC 4.0 dataset. The modeled strain rate field shows negligible strain rate artifacts in most regions and both the shear strain and dilatation rates obtained  from  the  bi-cubic interpolation  were  well-resolved.  The inferred shear strain rate field was then  inverted, using a simple screw dislocation  forward model  for the best-fit  fault location,  fault locking depth,  and  fault  slip  rate.  Model parameter estimates were well resolved,  both  near  and away from fault slip rate transitions (± 1 km for fault locking depth; ± 1-2 mm/yr for fault slip rate). Test results to date show the method can resolve slip rates and locking depth within the zones of along-strike transition. Results to date from this methodology applied to southern California using the SCEC 4.0 GPS velocity field show  remarkably  well-resolved  and  prominent  shear  strain  rate  bands  that follow  both  the San Andreas and San  Jacinto  fault  systems.   The shear strain rates  reflect dramatic  along-strike  slip  rate  variations,  found  in  many  previous  studies.  However, fault locking depths are generally shallower than previously published results. Residual off-fault strain rates, not associated with the major strike-slip faults, appear to accommodate ~30% of the total Pacific-North American plate relative motion.

How to cite: Campbell, L., Holt, W., and Chen, Y.: Using GPS Derived Shear Strain Rates in Southern California to Constrain Fault Slip Rate, Locking Depth, and Residual Off-Fault Strain Rates, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21179, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21179, 2020.

D1820 |
Rui Fernandes, Xiaoxing He, Jean-Philippe Montillet, Machiel Bos, Tim Melbourne, Weiping Jiang, and Feng Zhou

The analysis of daily position Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series provides information about various geophysical processes that are shaping the Earth’s crust. The goodness of fit of a trajectory model to these observations is an indication of our understanding of these phenomena. However, the fit also depends on the noise levels in the time series and in this study we investigate for 568 GNSS stations across North America the noise properties, its relation with the choice of trajectory model and if there exists a relationship with the type of monuments. We use the time series of two processing centers, namely the Central Washington University (CWU) and the New Mexico Tech (NMT), which process the data using two different complete processing strategies.

We demonstrate that mismodelling slow slip events within the geodetic time series increases the percentage of selecting the Random-Walk + Flicker + White noise (RW+FN+WN) as the optimal noise model for the horizontal components, especially when the Akaike Information Criterion is used. Furthermore, the analysis of the spatial distribution of the RW component (in the FN+WN+RW) around North America takes place at stations mostly localised around tectonic active areas such as the Cascadia subduction zone (Pacific Northwest) or the San Andreas fault (South California) and coastal areas. It is in these areas that most shallow and drilled-braced monuments are also located. Therefore, the comparison of monument type with observed noise level should also take into account its location which mostly has been neglected in previous studies. In addition, the General Gauss-Markov (GGM) with white noise (GGM+WN) is often selected for the Concrete Pier monument especially on the Up component which indicates that the very long time series are experiencing this flattening of the power spectrum at low frequency. Finally, the amplitude of the white noise is larger for the Roof-Top/Chimney (RTC) type than for the other monument’s types. With a varying seasonal signal computed using a Wiener filter, the results show that RTC monuments have larger values in the East and North components, whereas the deep-drilled brace monuments have larger values on the vertical component.

How to cite: Fernandes, R., He, X., Montillet, J.-P., Bos, M., Melbourne, T., Jiang, W., and Zhou, F.: Spatial variations of stochastic noise properties of GNSS time series, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21260, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21260, 2020.

D1821 |
Michela Ravanelli and James Foster

The VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation) algorithm has been successfully applied to TIDs (Travelling ionospheric disturbances) detection in several real-time scenarios [1, 2]. VARION, thus, estimates sTEC (slant total electron content) variations starting from the single time differences of geometry-free combinations of GNSS carrier-phase measurements. This feature makes VARION suitable to also leverage GNSS observations coming from moving receivers such as ship-based GNSS receivers: the receiver motion does not affect the sTEC estimation process.

The aim of this work is to use the observations coming from two GNSS receivers installed on a ship moving near Kauai Island in the Hawaiian archipelago to detect the TIDs connected to the 2010 Maule earthquake and tsunami [3]. Indeed, this earthquake triggered a tsunami that affected all the Pacific region and that reached the Hawaiian islands after about 15 hours. All our analysis was carried out in post-processing, but simulated a real-time scenario: only the data available in real time were used.

In order to get a reference, the ship-based sTEC variations were compared with the ones coming from GNSS permanent stations situated in the Hawaiian Islands. In particular, if we considered the same satellite, the same TID is detected by both ship and ground receivers. As expected, the ship-based  sTEC variations are a little bit noisier since they are coming from a kinematic platform.

Hence, the results, although preliminary, are very encouraging: the same TIDs is detected both from the sea (ships) and land (permanent receivers).  Therefore, the VARION algorithm is also able to leverage observations coming from ship-based GNSS receivers to detect TIDs in real-time.

In conclusion, we firmly believe that the application of VARION to observation coming from ship-based GNSS receivers could really represent a real-time and cost-effective tool to enhance tsunami early warning systems, without requiring the installation of complex infrastructures in open sea.


[1] Giorgio Savastano, Attila Komjathy, Olga Verkhoglyadova, Augusto Mazzoni, Mattia Crespi, Yong Wei, and Anthony J Mannucci, “Real-time detection of tsunami ionospheric disturbances with a stand-alone gnss receiver: A preliminary feasibility demonstration, ”Scientific reports, vol. 7, pp. 46607, 2017.

[2] Giorgio Savastano, Attila Komjathy, Esayas Shume, Panagiotis Vergados, Michela Ravanelli, Olga Verkhoglyadova, Xing Meng, and Mattia Crespi, “Advantages of geostationary satellites for ionospheric anomaly studies: Ionospheric plasma depletion following a rocket launch,”Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 14, pp. 1734, 2019

[3] https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/official20100227063411530_30/executive

How to cite: Ravanelli, M. and Foster, J.: Detection of tsunami induced ionospheric perturbation with ship-based GNSS measurements: 2010 Maule tsunami case study, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11583, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11583, 2020.

D1822 |
Williams Kouassi, Georges Stienne, and Serge Reboul

It has been shown that the earth surface can be observed using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals as signals of opportunity. An important advantage of GNSS in this regard is that it provides a global coverage of the earth thanks to dozens of satellites, projected to be 120 by 2030, distributed in various constellations.

GNSS signals parameters such as the carrier phase and the amplitude can be used for example for soil moisture estimation, sea ice detection or sea surface altimetry, which is an important indicator for studying climate evolution. As the sea level varies in centimeters, sea surface altimeters have to be very precise. This accuracy can be achieved using satellite altimeters, provided the availability of precise validation and calibration techniques and in-situ experiments. The objective of this study is the definition of an original GNSS buoy system for satellite altimeters calibration.

GNSS buoy systems are a cheap and light alternative solution to mareographs and can provide high rate measurements. In our approach using this system, we consider, as observable, the phase difference between incoming GPS-L1 signals at a reference, fixed antenna at ~10m height on the ground and at a buoy antenna on the sea. In an analogy with a GNSS reflectometry system, the buoy can be compared to a specular reflection point, but presents the advantage of collecting the data from all visible satellites at the same location. The signals sensed by both antennas are digitized before processing.

Assuming that the horizontal two-dimensions position of the buoy is accurately known by GNSS positioning (which is more efficient in these dimensions than for estimating the height of the buoy), a new phase observable evolving linearly in the [-π , π] interval as a function of the sine of the satellite elevation can be defined. The slope of this linear evolution is proportional to the height between the two antennas, which is the parameter to estimate. For accuracy and robustness purpose, the estimation of this slope is realized using a circular-linear regression technique that includes the fusion of the data from all visible satellites signals. Indeed, we can show that, using the full span of the sines of visible satellites elevations, centimeter accuracy can be reached for integration times as short as a few milliseconds. The GNSS buoy technique described in this work is evaluated on synthetic and real data.

How to cite: Kouassi, W., Stienne, G., and Reboul, S.: Fusion applied to phase altimetry in a GNSS buoy system, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-15474, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-15474, 2020.

D1823 |
Maximilian Semmling, Sebastian Gerland, Thomas Gerber, Markus Ramatschi, Galina Dick, Jens Wickert, and Mainul Hoque

The exploitation of GNSS signals for reflectometry opens several fields of application over the ocean, land and in the cryosphere. Coherence of the reflection allows precise measurements of the carrier phase and signal amplitude for accurate sea surface altimetry and sea ice characterisation. A coherence condition can be set by a threshold of the signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). Previous simulations suggest that an SNR > 30 dB will ensure a coherent processing of the signal.

This paper presents reflectometry measurements that provide signal coherence information. The measurements have been conducted on two research vessels: R/V Lance and R/V Polarstern. The objective is to reveal the required conditions for coherent reflectometry depending on sea state and sea ice occurrence. Three data sets from expeditions of the two research vessels to Fram Strait, the Northern Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean are analysed.

On both ships a GORS (GNSS Occultation Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver with three antenna links has been installed. A common up-looking link is dedicated to direct signal observations. Two additional side-looking links allow sampling the reflected signal with right- and left-handed polarization (RHCP and LHCP). The respective setups have suitable positions to observe grazing sea surface reflections (< 30 deg elevation angle). The antennas are mounted on Lance and Polarstern about 24 m and 22 m above sea level, respectively.

Reflection events are recorded continuously covering more than 70 days. Each event comprises a track of the satellite signal in the grazing angle elevation range. On average 2-3 reflection events were recorded in parallel. The results of the analysis show that in coastal waters (German Bight and Svalbard fjords) up to 44%, 37% (RHCP, LHCP) of the measurements meet the coherence condition. On the high sea it is rarely met, only <0.5% of RHCP and LHCP records fulfill the coherence condition there. The rate of coherent observations increases up to 14%, 13% (RHCP, LHCP) in case of sea ice occurrence.

It can be concluded that the sea state plays an important role for coherent reflectometry. Applications of coherent reflectometry over the ocean may concentrate on the retrieval of sea ice properties and altimetry in coastal waters. For the early data set, recorded in Fram Strait 2016, the estimation of sea concentration has been demonstrated. At present the Polarstern setup continues reflectometry measurements in the MOSAiC expedition with unique opportunities for sea ice observations in the central Arctic.

The limits of coherent reflectometry at high sea became clear. However, it is worth noting that the direct signal link meets the SNR condition also at high sea with an average rate of 55%. This result motivates further investigations to exploit the direct link of shipborne GNSS for atmospheric and ionospheric soundings on the sparsely covered ocean using coherent phase delay measurements.

How to cite: Semmling, M., Gerland, S., Gerber, T., Ramatschi, M., Dick, G., Wickert, J., and Hoque, M.: Coherent GNSS reflections over the sea surface - A classification for reflectometry, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18035, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18035, 2020.

D1824 |
Periklis-Konstantinos Diamantidis, Grzegorz Klopotek, and Rüdiger Haas
The emergence of BeiDou and Galileo as operational Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), in addition to Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS which are already in use, opens up possibilities in delivering geodetic products with higher precision. Apart from ensuring the homogeneity of the derived products, multi-GNSS analysis takes the advantage of new frequencies and an improved sky coverage. This should lead to better phase ambiguity resolution and an improved estimation of target parameters such as zenith wet delays (ZWD), troposphere gradients (GRD) and station positions. The International GNSS Service (IGS) has realised this potential by initiating the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) which provides orbit, clock and observation data for all operational GNSS. Correspondingly, the multi-technique space geodetic analysis software c5++ has been augmented with a MGEX-compliant GNSS module. Based on this new module and the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach using six-month of data, an assessment of the derived geodetic products is carried out for several GNSS receivers located at the Onsala core site. More specifically, we perform both single- and multi-GNSS data analysis using Kalman filter and least-squares methods and assess the quality of the derived station positions, ZWD and GRD. A combined solution using all GNSS together is carried out and the improvement with respect to station position repeatabilities is assessed for each station. Inter-system biases, which homogenise the different time scale that each GNSS operates in and are necessary for the multi-GNSS combination, are estimated and presented. Finally, the applied inter-system weighting is discussed as well as its impact on the derived geodetic products.

How to cite: Diamantidis, P.-K., Klopotek, G., and Haas, R.: Assessment of geodetic products from MGEX analyses for the Onsala site, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-965, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-965, 2020.

D1825 |
Experimental Study on GNSS-R to Detect Effective Reflector Height
Cemali Altuntas and Nursu Tunalioglu
D1826 |
The Effect of the State-of-the-Art Mapping Functions on Precise Point Positioning
Faruk Can Durmus and Bahattin Erdogan
D1827 |
Tao Geng and Zhihui Ding

The variometric approach, based on time difference technique in which single-receiver code and carrier phase observations are processed along with available broadcast orbits and clocks, presents a high accuracy on estimating receiver velocity (at mm/s level) in real time. In order to analyze the effect of ionospheric delay on velocity estimation, we evaluate the velocity estimation accuracy of six selected stations with different latitude at approximately 120-degree longitudes during a solar cycle from 2009 to 2019. Compared with the low-solar activity year, velocity estimation RMS during the high-solar activity year will increase by 2-4 mm/s in the east, north and up direction. Velocity estimation RMS time series agree well with the sunspot number time series. The correlation coefficients of six stations between RMS values and sunspot number are 0.45-0.66, 0.39-0.52, 0.39-0.63 in the east, north and up direction respectively. The accuracy of velocity estimation is positively correlated with the sunspot number. We also reconstructed seismic velocity waveforms caused by the 2017 Mw 6.5 Jiuzhaigou earthquake using variometric approach. The results show that multi-GNSS fusion can improve the velocity accuracy by 1-2 mm/s in the horizontal component and 3-4 mm/s in vertical component, with an improvement of 47%, 54%, 41% in the east, north, up direction compared with GPS-only results.

How to cite: Geng, T. and Ding, Z.: The effect of multi-GNSS and ionospheric delay on real-time velocity estimation with the variometric approach, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1904, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1904, 2020.

D1828 |
Tuna Erol and D.Ugur Sanli

Commercial software are usually refered to in national surveying practice and local deformation studies. Since their working environment is user friendly and implementation is easy, they could be prefered by many surveying practitioners or even researchers. However their usage is usually limited to 20-30 km due mainly to their crude ambiguity resolution algorithms and  the fact that they usually use broadcast ephemeris and standard troposphere models.  Since usualy the tropospheric zenith delay is not estimated but obtained from a standard troposphere model, the accuracy of the vertical component would be affected as the height difference between baseline points grows. As the baseline length becomes >20-30 km the tropospheric error would be coupled with orbital errors. Results based on large height difference would affect positioning solutions as well as local geoid determination studies. Monitoring local deformation such as landslides would also be affected if there is large height difference between the crown and the toe. The level of baseline dependent error is usually well covered in surveying standards manual however the effect of large height difference is generally ignored. In this study, we made an attempt to quantify vertical positioning error levels both considering large height difference between baseline points and longer baseline lengths. We used the data of CORS stations in the western US for the simulation of the observing session duration. TOPCON’s software MAGNET (Ver 4.0.1) was used to process the GNSS data. It appears that every 10 km increase in the baseline length and every 100 m increase in the height difference would cause 2.59mm and 1.24 mm vertical positioning error respectively. 

How to cite: Erol, T. and Sanli, D. U.: Quantifying baseline length and height-difference dependent errors from commercially available software, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2089, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2089, 2020.

D1829 |
Yang Jiang, Yang Gao, and Michael Sideris

To provide hazard assessment in rapid or real-time mode, accelerations due to seismic waves have traditionally been recorded by seismometers. Another approach, based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), known as GNSS seismology, has become increasingly accurate and reliable. In the past decade, significant improvements have been made in high-rate GNSS using precise point positioning and its ambiguity resolution (PPPAR). To reach cm-level accuracy, however, PPPAR requires specific products, including satellite orbit/clock corrections and phase/code biases generated by large GNSS networks. Therefore, the use of PPPAR in real-time seismology applications has been inhibited by the limitations in product accessibility, latency, and accuracy. To minimize the implementation barrier for ordinary global users, the Centre National D’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France has launched a public PPPAR correction service via real-time internet streams. Broadcasting via the real-time service (RTS) of the international GNSS service (IGS), the correction stream is freely provided. Therefore, in our work, a new approach using PPPAR assisted with the CNES product to process high-rate in-field GNSS measurements is proposed for real-time earthquake hazard assessment. A case study is presented for the Ridgecrest, California earthquake sequence in 2019. The general performance of our approach is evaluated by assessing the quality of the resulting waveforms against publicly available post-processing GNSS results from a previous study by Melgar et al. (2019), Seismol. Res. Lett. XX, 1–9, doi: 10.1785/ 0220190223. Even though the derived real-time displacements are noisy due to the accuracy limitation of the CNES product, the results show a cm-level agreement with the provided post-processed control values in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) values in time and frequency domain, as well as seismic features of peak-ground-displacement (PGD) and peak-ground-velocity (PGV). Overall, we have shown that high-rate GNSS processing based on PPPAR via a freely accessible service like CNES is a reliable approach that can be utilized for real-time seismic hazard assessment.

How to cite: Jiang, Y., Gao, Y., and Sideris, M.: Real-time earthquake hazard assessment based on high-rate GNSS PPPAR, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2515, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2515, 2020.

D1830 |
Baris Tas, Tuna Erol, and Yener Turen

The evaluation of the observation data obtained from the GPS system is performed with software. The software used today is divided into academic, web-based and commercial software. Researches generally focus on academic software and web-based services that have become widespread in recent years.Commercial software is often used by daily users, mostly in classical geodesy. These softwares differ from each other; users, their purpose of use, processing methods, accuracy, users knowledge level etc. In this study, we focused commercial software’s (Topcon Magnet version 4.0.1) accuracy of GPS positioning in single and multiple base solutions.

10 stations included in IGS network in California, USA, one base and 2, 3 and 4 network solution results in different session times (1h to 24h) positioning accuracy was achieved. In our study, it has been found that the accuracy obtained for the horizontal components North and East varies between 2 mm and 8 mm and vertical component Up varies between 3 mm and 54 mm.

In evaluations with a reference station distance of up to 100km, increasing the number of more than 2 reference stations (3 or 4) for horizontal compenents (North and East) did not make a significant contribution to accuracy. In the case of vertical component (Up) accuracy, it is determined that accuracy is affected by interstation distance and observation time more than the number of reference stations(1, 2, 3 or 4). it was found that it was meaningful to increase the accuracy of the vertical component to be observation time for as long as possible and reference base stations to be selected from the closest possible stations. Avoidance of short observation time (1 hour and less) for all three components was found to be important in terms of accuracy to be achieved.

Keywords: Commercial software, GPS, Multiple base solution.

How to cite: Tas, B., Erol, T., and Turen, Y.: The Effect of Multiple Baseline Evalution with Commercial Software on GPS Position Accuracy, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-3267, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-3267, 2020.

D1831 |
Performance Evaluation of PPP-AR Method for Engineering Surveys with Embedded GNSS Chipset in a Smartphone
Caneren Gul, Taylan Ocalan, and Nursu Tunalioglu
D1832 |
Andrzej Araszkiewicz and Damian Kiliszek

The poster presents the impact of the use of Galileo observations on daily GNSS position solutions. Analysis were carried out at EUREF Permanent Network. For 34 EPN stations full calibration tables developed by IGG, Univ. Bonn and containing correction E01 and E05 are available. We prepared for them a daily solutions, independently for GPS and Galileo. In most analysis for GPS solutions, also here, L1 and L2 frequencies are used. For them phase centre corrections are available for long time. For Galileo solutions generally E1 and E5a frequencies are used. In this analysis we prepare two Galileo solutions. To correct the E5a signal we used E05 values and in the second case the G02 values (as it is done in most cases when there are no full PCO/PCV tables available). There is a clear bias in height between this two Galileo solutions. Analysis has shown also that we get more consistent GPS and Galileo solutions, when G02 values instead of E05 are used for E5a signal.

How to cite: Araszkiewicz, A. and Kiliszek, D.: Incomplete and complete PCO/PCV chamber calibrations – impact of Galileo observations, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7254, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7254, 2020.

D1833 |
Damian Kiliszek, Andrzej Araszkiewicz, and Krzysztof Kroszczynski

In recent years, one can notice a significant development of the PPP, which both increases accuracy and speeds up the convergence time of the receiver position. New or improved computational algorithms have been developed. This development can also be seen in real-time measurements made possible by the IGS RTS. Other new trends are the development of PPP-AR and the use of cheap receivers such as smartphones. However, the development of the PPP method can be particularly seen in multi‑GNSS measurements. This applies to the continuous development of existing GPS and GLONASS systems and the emergence of new Galileo and BDS systems that have a significant impact on PPP. The development of multi GNSS will increase the number of satellites observed, which improves geometry and PDOP, and increases product accuracy or increases the number of available signals and frequencies. The use of multi-GNSS is possible thanks to the IGS MGEX.

This research shows how the accuracy and convergence time by the PPP changes with the development of GPS, GLONASS and Galileo systems. We used the globally distributed MGEX stations for three different weeks, each one from 2017, 2018 and 2019. The analysis was made for different constellations: GPS, GLONAS, Galileo, GPS+GLONAS, GPS+Galileo, GLONASS+Galileo and GPS+GLONASS+Galileo for different cut-off elevation angles: 0⁰, 5⁰, 10⁰, 15⁰, 20⁰, 25⁰, 30⁰, 35⁰ and 40⁰.

Based on the analysis, we show a progressive improvement of accuracy and a shortening of convergence time in recent years. This is especially visible for calculations with multi-GNSS, obtaining the best results for GPS+GLONASS+Galileo for the last analysed period. Already in 2019 on average, about 22 satellites were observed using a total of three systems together. It has also been shown that in 2019, the Galileo system already allows for positioning with high accuracy anywhere on Earth. On average, around 7 Galileo satellites were observed in 2019, where in 2017 on average, fewer than 5 satellites were observed. It has also been shown that the GPS still provides the highest accuracy and has the greatest impact on multi-GNSS positioning accuracy. Even for the GLONASS+Galileo, poorer accuracy was obtained than for GPS‑only. However, for the GLONASS+Galileo solution, a smaller error distribution and lower standard deviation values were obtained than for GPS-only. This may indicate constant bias-related error values (IFB, ISB) and poorer product quality. In addition, for higher elevation angles, it was shown that better accuracy was obtained for Galileo‑only than for GLONASS-only, but only for the third period. It was also noted that for the joint of GLONASS+Galileo, it eliminated errors that occurred in the GLONASS-only, for which, in the second period, much larger errors were obtained than for the other periods. Finally, the influence of multi-GNSS positioning for positioning in constraint conditions was demonstrated by analysing the effect of the elevation angle. It has been shown that even for elevation angle of 40⁰, the use of GPS+GLONASS+Galileo allowed obtaining about 90% of the availability of solutions with accuracy in estimation the position of individual cm.

How to cite: Kiliszek, D., Araszkiewicz, A., and Kroszczynski, K.: Accuracy of PPP along with the development of GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7614, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7614, 2020.

Chat time: Monday, 4 May 2020, 14:00–15:45

D1834 |
Marcus Franz Glaner, Robert Weber, and Sebastian Strasser

Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the most promising processing techniques for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. By the use of precise satellite products (orbits, clocks and biases) and sophisticated algorithms applied on the observations of a multi-frequency receiver, coordinate accuracies at the decimetre/centimetre level for a float solution and at the centimetre/millimetre level for a fixed solution can be achieved. In contrast to relative positioning methods (e.g. RTK), PPP does not require nearby reference stations or a close-by reference network. On the other hand PPP has a non-negligible convergence time. To make PPP more competitive against other high-precision GNSS positioning techniques, scientific research focuses on reducing the convergence time of PPP.


In this contribution, we present results of PPP with focus on integer ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) using satellite products from different analysis centers. The resulting coordinate accuracy and convergence behaviour are evaluated in various test scenarios. In these test cases we distinguish between the use of satellite products from Graz University of Technology, which are calculated using a raw observation approach, and nowadays publicly available satellite products of different analysis centers (e.g. CNES, CODE). All those products enable PPP-AR in different approaches. To shorten the convergence time, we investigate and compare different PPP processing approaches using GPS and Galileo observations. The use of 2+ frequencies and alternatives to the classical PPP model, which is based on two frequencies and the ionosphere-free linear combination are discussed (e.g. uncombined model with ionospheric constraint). The PPP calculations are performed with the in-house software raPPPid, which has been developed at the research division Higher Geodesy of TU Vienna and is part of the Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS PPP).

How to cite: Glaner, M. F., Weber, R., and Strasser, S.: PPP-AR with GPS and Galileo: Assessing diverse approaches and satellite products to reduce convergence time, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7792, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7792, 2020.

D1835 |
| Highlight
Felix Perosanz, Georgia Katsigianni, Sylvain Loyer, Mini Gupta, Alvaro Santamaria, and Flavien Mercier

The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique using the GPS has become a popular alternative to the differential approach. Thanks to the MGEX pilot project of the IGS, precise orbit and clock products from other constellations like Galileo, Beidou, GLONASS are today available. This presentation focusses on GPS and Galileo systems and compares their individual performance to a combined processing.

Resolving GNSS phase observations biases to their correct integer values significantly improves the precision and the accuracy of the estimated parameters. However, PPP with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) requires to deal with “hardware” biases at the satellite and receiver level. Nevertheless, several Analysis Centers within the IGS community are providing these biases. Using the orbit, clock and bias products of the GPS and Galileo constellations provided by the CNES-CLS group, we were able to compare PPP and PPP-AR station coordinates repeatability from a network of around 50 stations during 6 months. For both static and cinematic solutions, the hybridized solution significantly exceeds both individual ones.



How to cite: Perosanz, F., Katsigianni, G., Loyer, S., Gupta, M., Santamaria, A., and Mercier, F.: Improving PPP static and cinematic positioning by combining GPS and Galileo data., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7645, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7645, 2020.

D1836 |
Dawid Kwaśniak and Sławomir Cellmer

For many years GPS and GLONNAS were leading navigation systems. However, recent years two new navigational systems have appeared. These systems are the European Galileo System and the Chinese BeiDou System (BDS). The full operability of both systems is foreseen for 2020. The BDS is quickly developing in last years and still increasing number of satellites allows to use this system for positioning. GPS and BDS systems share some of their signals frequencies. These shared signals frequencies allows to combine observation of both systems. The goal of this study is use the BDS along with GPS for positioning purpose.

For test purpose a self-made software was created in MatLab. It consists of three modules.  First is responsible for reading RINEX files, second for the DGPS or the DGNSS in case of combined GPS and BDS observations and the third one uses The Modified Ambiguity Function Approach (MAFA) method for precise positioning purposes. MAFA is a method of processing GNSS carrier phase observations. In this method the integer nature of  ambiguities is taken into account using appropriate form of mathematical model. The theoretical Foundations of Precise Positioning Using MAFA will be presented. For test purpose data from three different days for the same baseline was used. Test was divided on two parts. In the first part short static sessions were performed for GPS only BDS only and for GPS and BDS combination. In the second part data was tested in RTK mode for GPS only, BDS only and for GPS and BeiDou System combination.

BDS allows to obtain an accuracy on the same level as GPS. The usage of GPS and BDS combinations allows to increase the precision of the obtained result comparing to GPS only solution. Very important thing is to remember about inter system bias (ISB) - the difference between the receiver hardware delays affecting the signals from different systems, that can affect for the results.

How to cite: Kwaśniak, D. and Cellmer, S.: Precise Positioning with the Modified Ambiguity Function Approach using BDS and GPS observations, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6830, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6830, 2020.

D1837 |
Qing Li and Robert Weber

Usually train positioning is realized via counting wheel rotations (Odometer), and correcting at fixed locations known as balises. A balise is an electronic beacon or transponder placed between the rails of a railway as part of an automatic train protection (ATP) system. Balises constitute an integral part of the European Train Control System, where they serve as “beacons” giving the exact location of a train. Unfortunately, balises are expensive sensors which need to be placed over about 250 000 km of train tracks in Europe.

Therefore, recently tremendous efforts aim on the development of satellite-based techniques in combination with further sensors to ensure precise train positioning. A fusion of GNSS receiver and Inertial Navigation Unit (IMU) observations processed within a Kalman Filter proved to be one of potential optimal solutions for train traction vehicles positioning.

Today several hundreds of trains in Austria are equipped with a single-frequency GPS/GLONASS unit. However, when the GNSS signal fails (e.g. tunnels and urban areas), we expect an outage or at least a limited positioning quality. To yet ensure availability of a reliable trajectory in these areas, the GNSS sensor is complemented by a strapdown IMU platform and a wheel speed sensor (odometer).

In this study a filtering algorithm based on the fusion of three sensors GPS, IMU and odometer is presented, which enables a reliable train positioning performance in post-processing. Odometer data are counts of impulses, which relate the wheel’s circumference to the velocity and the distance traveled by the train. This odometer data provides non-holonomic constraints as one-dimensional velocity updates and complements the basic IMU/GPS navigation system. These updates improve the velocity and attitude estimates of the train at high update rates while GPS data is used to provide accurate determination in position with low rates. In case of GNSS outages, the integrated system can switch to IMU/odometer mode. Using the exponentially weighted moving average method to estimate of measurement noise for odometer velocity helps to construct measurement covariance matrices. In the presented examples an IMU device, a GPS receiver and an Odometer provide the data input for the loosely coupled Kalman Filter integration algorithm. The quality of our solution was tested against trajectories obtained with the software iXCOM-CMD (iMAR) as reference.

How to cite: Li, Q. and Weber, R.: GNSS/IMU/Odometer based Train Positioning , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7856, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7856, 2020.

D1838 |
Beata Milanowska, Paweł Wielgosz, Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk, and Wojciech Jarmołowski

Since 1998 Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAAC) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) routinely provide global ionosphere maps (GIMs). They are used for a wide range of geophysical applications, including supporting precise positioning and improving space weather analysis. These GIMs are generated by different analysis centers with the use of different modelling techniques. Therefore they have different accuracy levels, which has already been evaluated in several studies. Until 2014 all GIMs were provided with 2-hour temporal resolution, and since 2015 some of the IAACs have started to provide their products with higher resolutions, up to 30 - 60 minutes. Since GIMs have different temporal resolutions, we investigated whether map interval affected their accuracies.

In this study we carried out IAAC GIM accuracy analysis for years 2014 and 2018, corresponding to high and low solar activity periods, respectively. Since in 2014 IAAC GIMs had 2-hour resolution, we also evaluated UQRG maps supplied with 15-minute interval. For low solar activity period (2018) we evaluated 4 models: CASG, CODG, EMRG and  UQRG. In addition, we studied ionosphere map performance during two selected geomagnetic storms: on 19 February 2014 and 17 March 2015. Our accuracy evaluation was based on GIM-TEC comparisons to differential STEC derived from GNSS data and VTEC derived from altimetry measurements.

The results show that temporal interval has no significant impact on the overall, annual map RMS during both high and low solar activity periods. However, during geomagnetic storms, when reducing map interval, the map accuracy improves by almost 25%.

How to cite: Milanowska, B., Wielgosz, P., Krypiak-Gregorczyk, A., and Jarmołowski, W.: Accuracy analysis of global ionospheric maps in relation to their temporal resolution and solar activity level., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9715, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9715, 2020.

D1839 |
Maria Kaselimi, Nikolaos Doulamis, and Demitris Delikaraoglou

Knowledge of the ionospheric electron density is essential for a wide range of applications, e.g., telecommunications, satellite positioning and navigation, and Earth observation from space. Therefore, considerable efforts have been concentrated on modeling this ionospheric parameter of interest. Ionospheric electron density is characterized by high complexity and is space−and time−varying, as it is highly dependent on local time, latitude, longitude, season, solar cycle and activity, and geomagnetic conditions. Daytime disturbances cause periodic changes in total electron content (diurnal variation) and additionally, there are multi-day periodicities, seasonal variations, latitudinal variations, or even ionospheric perturbations that cause fluctuations in signal transmission.

Because of its multiple band frequencies, the current Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) offer an excellent example of how we can infer ionosphere conditions from its effect on the radiosignals from different GNSS band frequencies. Thus, GNSS techniques provide a way of directly measuring the electron density in the ionosphere. The main advantage of such techniques is the provision of the integrated electron content measurements along the satellite-to-receiver line-of-sight at a large number of sites over a large geographic area.

Deep learning techniques are essential to reveal accurate ionospheric conditions and create representations at high levels of abstraction. These methods can successfully deal with non-linearity and complexity and are capable of identifying complex data patterns, achieving accurate ionosphere modeling. One application that has recently attracted considerable attention within the geodetic community is the possibility of applying these techniques in order to model the ionosphere delays based on GNSS satellite signals.

This paper deals with a modeling approach suitable for predicting the ionosphere delay at different locations of the IGS network stations using an adaptive Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). As experimental data we used actual GNSS observations from selected stations of the global IGS network which were participating in the still-ongoing MGEX project that provides various satellite signals from the currently available multiple navigation satellite systems. Slant TEC data (STEC) were obtained using the undifferenced and unconstrained PPP technique. The STEC data were provided by GAMP software and converted to VTEC data values. The proposed CNN uses the following basic information: GNSS signal azimuth and elevation angle, GNSS satellite position (x and y). Then, the adaptive CNN utilizes these data inputs along with the predicted VTEC values of the first CNN for the previous observation epochs. Topics to be discussed in the paper include the design of the CNN network structure, training strategy, data analysis, as well as preliminary testing results of the ionospheric delays predictions as compared with the IGS ionosphere products.   

How to cite: Kaselimi, M., Doulamis, N., and Delikaraoglou, D.: An adaptive convolutional neural network model for ionosphere prediction, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9818, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9818, 2020.

D1840 |
Rafal Sieradzki and Jacek Paziewski

The main ionospheric trough represents a large scale depletion of plasma density elongated in longitude, which is typically observed at the boundary between high- and mid-latitude ionosphere. The trough is characterized  by a steep density gradient in a poleward direction and gradual on the equatorward site. According to the recent studies it begins in the late afternoon, moves equatorward during the night hours and rapidly retreats to higher latitudes at a dawn. Due to the dynamic of auroral oval, this ionospheric feature exhibits a high temporal variability and shifts equatorward during the geomagnetic activity. In this work we demonstrate the initial assessment of the ionospheric trough detection performed with GNSS-based relative STEC values. The basis of this indicator are time series of  geometry-free combination with removed background variations. The separation of these low-term effects is realized with a polynomial fitting applied to the particular arcs of data. Such processed data have an accuracy of phase measurements and provide an epoch-wise information on enhancement/depletion of plasma density. In order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed approach for the trough detection, we have analyzed the state of the ionosphere during different geomagnetic conditions. In our investigations we have used the data from several tens of stations located in the northern hemisphere, what makes possible to provide the comprehensive view of this ionospheric phenomenon. The results have confirmed that the network-derived relative STEC values can be successfully used for the monitoring ionospheric trough. Its signature is more pronounced for expanded auroral oval during increased geomagnetic activity and reach in such case a few TEC units.     

How to cite: Sieradzki, R. and Paziewski, J.: The detection of ionospheric trough with GNSS measurements., EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10676, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10676, 2020.

D1841 |
Yannick Breva, Johannes Kröger, Tobias Kersten, and Steffen Schön

In absolute positioning approaches, e.g. Precise Point Positioning (PPP), antenna phase center corrections (PCC) have to be taking into account. Beside PCC for carrier phase measurements, also codephase center corrections (CPC) exist, which are antenna dependent delays of the code. The CPC can be split into a codephase center offset (PCO) and codephase center variations (CPV). These corrections can be applied in a Single Point Positioning (SPP) approach, to improve the accuracy in the positioning domain. The CPC vary with azimuth and elevation and are related to an antenna, which is oriented towards north. If the antenna is wrongly oriented, the effect cannot be compensated and wrong corrections will be added to the observations.

The Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) established a concept to determine CPC for multi GNSS signals, where a robot tilts and rotates an antenna under test precisely around a specific point. Afterwards time differenced single differences are calculated, which are the input to estimate the CPC by using spherical harmonics (8,8). First studies in our working group showed, that an improvement of the position in a SPP are possible, if antenna pattern for the codephase are considering and correctly applied.

In this contribution, we present the improvement of a SPP and PPP approach by considering CPC for different low cost antennas with multi GNSS signals. Beside the positioning domain, an analysis of the CPC in observation domain, by evaluating the deviations of single differences from zero mean, is performed. Furthermore, we quantify the impact of a disoriented antenna, e.g. oriented in east direction, in the positioning and observation domain by using north oriented CPC. We show, that this impact can be compensating in a post-processing by rotating the antenna pattern. Finally, we present some results of different calibrations, where the antennas are disoriented on the robot and compared to the estimated CPC pattern with the post-processing approach and discussed their impact on the positioning. 

How to cite: Breva, Y., Kröger, J., Kersten, T., and Schön, S.: Codephase center corrections for multi GNSS signals and the impact of misoriented antennas, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9846, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9846, 2020.

D1842 |
Preliminary Positioning Results From NGS’s Upcoming Multi-GNSS Processing Software
Bryan Stressler, Jacob Heck, Andria Bilich, and Clement Ogaja
D1843 |
Mustafa Serkan Işık, Volkan Özbey, Ejder Bayır, Yiğit Yüksel, Serdar Erol, and Ergin Tarı

The use of Python programming language in the academic community increased in recent years. Python is a multi-purpose language and has an easy syntax which makes it appropriate for routine computations. However, there are very few attempts to write GNSS related libraries in Python programming language.

GNSSpy is a free and open-source library for handling multi GNSS and different versions (2.X and 3.X) of RINEX files. It provides Single Point Positioning (SPP) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions by least squares adjustment using precise ephemeris, differential code biases (DCB) and clock corrections from different solutions. GNSSpy can be used for editing (slicing, decimating, merging) and quality checking (multipath, ionospheric delay, SNR) for RINEX files. It can be successfully used for visualizing GNSS data such as skyplot, azimuth-elevation, time-elevation, ground track, and visibility plot. GNSSpy can be downloaded from GitHub. The toolkit is still being improved by the authors.

How to cite: Işık, M. S., Özbey, V., Bayır, E., Yüksel, Y., Erol, S., and Tarı, E.: GNSSpy: Python Toolkit for GNSS Data, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13973, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13973, 2020.

D1844 |
Iwona Kudłacik, Jan Kapłon, Grzegorz Lizurek, Mattia Crespi, and Grzegorz Kurpiński

High-rate GNSS observations are usually related to earthquake analysis and structural monitoring. The sampling frequency is in the range of 1-100 Hz and observations are processed in the kinematic mode. Most of the research on short-term dynamic deformations is limited to natural earthquakes with magnitudes exceeding 5 and amplitudes of at least several centimetres up to even meters. The high frequency GNSS stations positions monitoring is particularly important on mining areas due to the mining damages. On the underground mining areas the seismic tremors are regular and there are several hundreds of events annually of magnitude over 2 with maximum magnitudes of 4. As mining tremors are shallow and very frequent, they cause mining damages on infrastructure.

Here, we presented the application of GNSS-seismology to the analysis of anthropogenic seismic activity, where the event magnitude and amplitude of displacements significantly lower. We examined the capacity to detect mining tremors with high-rate GPS observations and demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge that even subcentimeter ground vibrations caused by anthropogenic activity can be measured this way with a very good agreement with seismological data. One of the most-felt mining shocks in Poland in recent years occurred on January 29, 2019 (12:53:44 UTC) M3.7 event in the area of Legnica-Głogów Copper District and was successfully registered by high-rate GNSS stations co-located with seismic stations. In this mining tremor the peak ground displacements reached 2-16  mm and show the Pearson’s correlation value in range of 0.61 to 0.94 for band-pass filtered horizontal displacements.

How to cite: Kudłacik, I., Kapłon, J., Lizurek, G., Crespi, M., and Kurpiński, G.: High-rate GNSS positioning for tracing anthropogenic seismic activity, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-17792, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-17792, 2020.

D1845 |
Pierre Zeiger, José Darrozes, Frédéric Frappart, Guillaume Ramillien, Laurent Lestarquit, Philippe Bonneton, Natalie Bonneton, and Valérie Ballu

The Reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-R) is a bi-static radar system in which the receiver collect GNSS signals reflected from the Earth surface and compares them with corresponding direct signals. Measurements can be performed on the waveforms to determine the elevation of the free surface, leading to applications such as ocean altimetry, inland water level variations, soil moisture, snow depth and atmospheric water changes. This study presents the potential of in-situ GNSS-R for tidal bore detection and characterization, and compares it to high rate GNSS observations and other reference datasets.

The data we used were acquired on 17th and 18th October 2016 in the Garonne River, at 126 km upstream the mouth of the Gironde estuary. We processed GNSS-based elevations from data acquired on a buoy at a 20 Hz sampling rate using differential GNSS (DGNSS) technique. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements as well as pressure data were used for validation purposes. These techniques show good results in estimating the amplitude of the first wave, the period of the tidal bore and the oceanic tides. All of these datasets were compared to the retrieval of GNSS-R signals above the river. We have processed the changes in water height throughout the acquisition using Larson et al. (2013) and Roussel et al. (2015) techniques. We finally separate the atmospheric component from the tidal bore and the oceanic tides ones.


Larson, K. M., Löfgren, J. S., and Haas, R. (2013). Coastal sea level measurements using a single geodetic gps receiver. Advances in Space Research, 51(8):1301–1310.

Roussel, N., Ramillien, G., Frappart, F. et al. (2015). Sea level monitoring and sea state estimate using a single geodetic receiver. Remote Sensing of Environment, 171:261 – 277.

How to cite: Zeiger, P., Darrozes, J., Frappart, F., Ramillien, G., Lestarquit, L., Bonneton, P., Bonneton, N., and Ballu, V.: Comparison of high rate GNSS and GNSS-R measurements for detecting tidal bores in the Garonne River, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20898, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20898, 2020.

D1846 |
Shouzhou Gu

With the development of various navigation systems, there is a sharp increase in the number of visible satellites. Accordingly, the probability of multiply gross measurements will increase. However, the conventional RAIM methods are difficult to meet the demands of the navigation system. In order to solve the problem of checking and identify multiple gross errors of  receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), this paper designed full matrix of single point positioning by QR decomposition, and proposed a new RAIM algorithm based on fuzzy clustering analysis with fuzzy c-means(FCM). And on the condition of single or two gross errors, the performance of hard or fuzzy clustering analysis were compared. As the results of the experiments, the fuzzy clustering method based on FCM principle could detect multiple gross error effectively, also achieved the quality control of precision point positioning and ensured better reliability results.

How to cite: Gu, S.: PPP RAIM Algorithm of based on Fuzzy Clustering Analysis, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21092, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21092, 2020.

D1847 |
Bingfeng Tan

By December 2019, twenty-four new-generation BeiDou (BDS-3) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites, three Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and one Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellite have been launched, symbolizing its starting of global coverage.

The observations of a very limited number of 17 International GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS) stations and 80 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations from October 2018 to October 2019 have been processed to determine the orbits of combined BDS-3 and BDS-2 satellites. All of the latest official BDS-2 and BDS-3 satellite phase center offsets (PCOs) and other satellite parameters were used in the data process. The internal consistency (daily boundary discontinuity) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) validations are conducted for the orbit validation. The average three-dimensional root-mean-square error (RMS-3D) of 24-hour overlapping arcs for BDS-2 and BDS-3 satellites is within 0.1m and 0.15m, respectively. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation reports that the orbit radial component for BDS-2 and BDS-3 satellites is within 0.1m. The orbit accuracy of BDS-3 is slightly lower than that of BDS-2 satellite presently.

How to cite: Tan, B.: Initial Assessment of Precise Orbit Determination for Combined BDS-2 and BDS-3 Satellites, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22166, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22166, 2020.

D1848 |
Kan Wang and Ahmed El-Mowafy

Australia and New Zealand has initiated a two-year test-bed in 2017 for the new generation of Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS). In addition to the legacy L1 service, the test-bed broadcasts SBAS messages through L5 to support the dual-frequency multi-constellation (DFMC) service for GPS and Galileo. Furthermore, PPP corrections were also sent via L1 and L5 to support the PPP service for dual-frequency GPS users and GPS/Galileo users, respectively.

The positioning and integrity monitoring process are currently defined for the aeronautical DFMC SBAS service in [1]. For land applications in road transport, users may encounter problems in complicated measurement environments like urban areas, e.g., more complicated multipath effects and frequent filter initializations of the carrier-smoothed code observations. In this study, a new weighting model related to the elevation angles, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and the filter smoothing time is developed. The weighting coefficients adjusting the impacts of these factors are studied for the open-sky, the suburban and the urban scenarios. Applying the corresponding weighting models, the overbounding cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the weighted noise/biases are searched and proposed for these scenarios.

Using real data collected under different measurement scenarios mentioned above, the DFMC SBAS positioning errors and protection levels are computed in the horizontal direction based on the proposed weighting models and the proposed overbounding CDFs. The results are compared with the case applying only the traditional elevation-dependent weighting model. While the positioning accuracy and protection levels did not change much for the open-sky scenario, the RMS of the positioning errors and the average protection levels are found to be reduced in both the suburban and urban scenarios. 

[1] EUROCAE (2019) Minimum operational performance standard for Galileo/global positioning system/satellite-based augmentation system airborne equipment. The European Organisation for civil aviation equipment, ED-259, February 2019

How to cite: Wang, K. and El-Mowafy, A.: Positioning and integrity monitoring using the new DFMC SBAS service in the road transport, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-195, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-195, 2020.

D1849 |
Jinzhong Mi, Dehai Li, and Xiao Liu

In order to deal with the discontinuity and deficient availability of indoor positioning, a private cloud platform of location service was built in this paper, and a hybrid positioning technology was realized. In this platform, dynamic deployment, elastic computing, and on-demand cloud computing services was implemented by the hardware resource virtualization. The limits in large users online service and data communication were overcome by utilizing microservices management and its cloud-push-service component. In the hybrid cloud positioning, a method of beacon node correction and autonomous trajectory estimation was proposed. This method could improve continuity and usability of indoor positioning, and reach a positioning accuracy of 2m approximately. At last, by integrating indoor map and hybrid indoor positioning, the cloud software and terminal application had been developed for public location service.

How to cite: Mi, J., Li, D., and Liu, X.: A Cloud Platform and Hybrid Positioning Method for Indoor Location Service, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2260, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2260, 2020.

D1850 |
Yun Xiong, Yongqiang Yuan, Jiaqi Wu, Xin Li, and Jiaxin Huang

Precise clock product of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is an important prerequisite to support real-time precise positioning service. The developments of multi-constellation and multi-frequency GNSS open new requirements for real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, the estimation model of multi-GNSS and multi-frequency integer recovery clock (IRC) is developed to improve both the accuracy and efficiency of real-time clock estimates. In the proposed method, the undifferenced ambiguities are fixed to integers, thus the integer properties of the ambiguities are recovered and the accuracy of the clock estimates is also improved. Moreover, benefitting from the removal of large quantities of ambiguity parameters, the computation time is greatly reduced which can guarantee high processing efficiency of real-time clock estimates. Multi-GNSS observations from 150 globally distributed Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) tracking stations were processed with the proposed model. Compared to the float satellite clocks, the precision of the real-time IRC with respect to CODE 30 s final multi-GNSS satellite clock products were improved by 53.0%, 42.7%, 63.7% and 33.9% for GPS, BDS, Galileo and GLONASS, respectively. The average computation time per epoch with multi-GNSS observations was improved by 97.1% compared to that of standard float clock estimation. Kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution was also performed with the derived real-time IRC products. Compared to the float PPP solutions, the position accuracy of the multi-GNSS IRC-based fixed solutions was improved by 77.2%, 49.7% and 52.7% from 24.2, 13.3 and 30.7 mm to 5.5, 6.7 and 14.5 mm for the east, north and up components, respectively. The results indicate that ambiguity fixing can be successfully achieved by using the derived the IRC products. In addition, the estimation model of multi-frequency IRC products is also investigated to promote the capability and application of real-time PPP AR under multi-frequency signals.

How to cite: Xiong, Y., Yuan, Y., Wu, J., Li, X., and Huang, J.: Real-time estimation of multi-GNSS and multi-frequency integer recovery clock with undifferenced ambiguity resolution , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-5270, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-5270, 2020.

D1851 |
| Highlight
Marco Fortunato, Michela Ravanelli, and Augusto Mazzoni

The release of Android GNSS Raw Measurements API, (2016) and the growing technological development introduced by the use of multi-GNSS and multi-frequency GNSS chipsets – changed the hierarchies within the GNSS mass-market world. In this sense, Android smartphones became the new leading products. Positioning performances and quality of raw GNSS measurements have been studied extensively. Despite the greater susceptibility to multipath and cycle slip due to the low cost antenna used, a positioning up to sub-meter accuracy can be achieved. Among the improvements in positioning and navigation, the availability of GNSS measurements from Android smartphones paved new ways in geophysical applications: e.g. periodic fast movements reconstruction and ionospheric perturbances detection.  In fact, considering the number of Android smartphones compatible with the Google API, additional costless information can be used to densify the actual networks of GNSS permanent stations used to monitor atmospheric conditions. However, an extensively analysis on the reconstruction of ionospheric conditions with Android raw measurements is necessary to prove the accuracy achievable in future ionosphere monitoring networks based on both permanent GNSS station and Android smartphone.

The aim of this work is to assess the performance of multi-frequency and multi-GNSS smartphone – in particular, Xiaomi Mi 8 and Huawei Mate 20 X – in the reconstruction of real-time sTEC (slant Total Electron Content) variations meaningful of ionospheric perturbations. A 24-hour dataset of 1Hz GNSS measurements in static conditions was collected from the two smartphones in addition to data collected from M0SE, one of the EUREF/IGS permanent stations. The VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-time Ionosphere Observations) algorithm, based on the variometric approach and developed within the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of Sapienza University of Rome, was used to retrieve sTEC variations for all the observation periods.

The results, although preliminary, show that it is possible to study also from the smarthphone the trend of sTEC variations with elevation: lower elevation angles cause noisier sTEC variations. RMSE of the order of 0.02 TECU/s are found for elevation angles higher than 20 degrees as it happens for permanent stations. At the same time, the sTEC variations were compared to the overall measurements noise, due to both environmental and receiver noise, in order to statistically define the correlation between RMSE and derived sTEC variation.

Although the results obtained in this work are encouraging, still further analyses need to be carried out especially at latitudes where ionosphere conditions and perturbations play a major role. However, the possibility to perform such analyses on datasets collected worldwide is prevented from their availability. The last part of this work is therefore focused on the identification of a methodology to share with the GNSS community to collect, store and share GNSS measurements from Android smartphones to enable the researchers to enlarge the spatial and temporal boundaries of their research in the field of ionosphere modelling with mass-market devices. 

How to cite: Fortunato, M., Ravanelli, M., and Mazzoni, A.: Ionosphere Monitoring with Multi-Frequency and Multi-GNSS Android Smartphone: A Feasibility Study Towards GNSS Big Data Applications for Geosciences, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9450, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-9450, 2020.

D1852 |
Teng Liu, Baocheng Zhang, Yunbin Yuan, and Xiao Zhang

The ionospheric delay accounts for one of the major errors that the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) suffer from. Hence, the ionosphere Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) map has been an important atmospheric product within the International GNSS Service (IGS) since its early establishment. In this contribution, an enhanced method has been proposed for the modeling of the ionosphere VTECs. Firstly, to cope with the rapid development of the newly-established Galileo and BeiDou constellations in recent years, we extend the current dual-system (GPS/GLONASS) solution to a quad-system (GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BeiDou) solution. More importantly, instead of using dual-frequency observations based on the Carrier-to-Code Leveling (CCL) method, all available triple-frequency signals are utilized with a general raw-observation-based multi-frequency Precise Point Positioning (PPP) model, which can process dual-, triple- or even arbitrary-frequency observations compatibly and flexibly. Benefiting from this, quad-system slant ionospheric delays can be retrieved based on multi-frequency observations in a more flexible, accurate and reliable way. The PPP model has been applied in both post-processing global and real-time regional VTEC modeling. Results indicate that with the improved slant ionospheric delays, the corresponding VTEC models are also improved, comparing with the traditional CCL method.

How to cite: Liu, T., Zhang, B., Yuan, Y., and Zhang, X.: Ionosphere VTEC modeling with the raw-observation-based PPP model:an advantage demonstration in the multi-frequency and multi-GNSS context, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-12914, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-12914, 2020.

D1853 |
Andrea Gatti, Giulio Tagliaferro, and Eugenio Realini

Receiver antenna calibration plays an important role in precise point positioning (PPP). The correct management of the phase center offset and variations (PCV) and multipath effects can drastically improve the estimation of tropospheric parameters and the stability of the position over short measurement sessions. Correction parameters, to compensate for PCV, are usually computed in laboratory on all the geodetic grade antennas, but they are not available for low-cost apparatus; multipath can be partially mitigated by a robot calibration on site but this is an expensive procedure that is rarely adopted. Multipath staking maps (MPS) using carrier phase observation residuals are a cheap and powerful tool to generate site-specific corrections, effective for reducing both near-field and far-field effects. These maps can be generated by gridding multiple residuals falling in a cell of a pre-determined size. In this work, we propose to compute a set of polynomial coefficients of a Zernike expansion from the residuals of a PPP uncombined least-squares adjustment performed by the open-source goGPS processing software; these coefficients can be later used to synthesize corrections of the observations for the next processing of the target station. In contrast with gridding techniques, this approach allows a to generate smoother corrections and allows a limited automatic extrapolation of the correction values in areas of the sky that were not covered by observations in the set of data used in the calibration phase. The results show that the technique is effective in the modelling of multipath and residual phase center variations allowing a drastic reduction of the undifferenced residuals. Zernike polynomials are a sequence of polynomials orthogonal on the unit disk, vastly used in optics but, to our knowledge, never considered for GNSS applications, their symmetric properties and the circular support area makes them an interesting object of investigation for other possible usages in GNSS processing.

How to cite: Gatti, A., Tagliaferro, G., and Realini, E.: Site Characterization and Multipath Maps Using Zernike Polynomials, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-15265, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-15265, 2020.

D1854 |
Gianpaolo Cecere, Antonio Avallone, Vincenzo Cardinale, Angelo Castagnozzi, Ciriaco D'Ambrosio, Giovanni De Luca, Luigi Falco, Nicola Angelo Famiglietti, Carmine Grasso, Antonino Memmolo, Felice Minichiello, Raffaele Moschillo, Giulio Selvaggi, Luigi Zarrilli, and Annamaria Vicari

In the last 15 years, INGV has built an important geodetic research infrastructure (RING - Rete Integrata Nazionale GNSS) consisting of a distributed network over the national territory of more than 200 GNSS sensors. Data are recorded in real and quasi real-time in various INGV centre of acquisition, with the aim to provide geodetic products useful to the scientific community. Presently, RING provides daily GPS 30 seconds files distributed in Rinex format. Here we introduce a prototype service for broadcasts real-time streaming GNSS/GPS data from a subset of the RING stations. We will show two use cases of the services that are streaming for raw data exchange for the estimation of the Total Electron Content (TEC), and streaming of GNSS corrections for positioning in NRTK (Network Real Time Kinematic). GNSS signals at different frequencies can be used for the estimation of the Total Electron Content (TEC) due to the dispersive characteristics of the ionosphere. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, instead, has been effectively used, and we will show some examples, for various research campaigns such as the precision positioning of seismic arrays, the real-time positioning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) used for topographic mapping, and landslide monitoring.

How to cite: Cecere, G., Avallone, A., Cardinale, V., Castagnozzi, A., D'Ambrosio, C., De Luca, G., Falco, L., Famiglietti, N. A., Grasso, C., Memmolo, A., Minichiello, F., Moschillo, R., Selvaggi, G., Zarrilli, L., and Vicari, A.: The INGV-RING GNSS Real-Time Services for geophysical, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-17342, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-17342, 2020.

D1855 |
Hael Sumaya

Detection of the recent crustal deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben, which is part of the European Cenozoic rift system, is of interest for geoscience researcher. In April 2008 the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Scences de laTerre) established an international joint venture called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). GRUN network consists now of approximately 100 permanently operating reference stations.

The GPS observations acquired at these sites between 2002 and 2017 have been processed in different methods applying state-of-the art strategies and parameters. The resulting GPS coordinate time series have been analysed in order to extract the surface velocities for horizontal and vertical components. In this research, we will discuss the results by using different strategies of GNSS data reprocessing, PPP comparing to network solution. Advantages and disadvantages between both solutions for this kind of GNSS application, intraplate deformation, will be presented. The velocity of the height component will be also compared with the results of levelling data. One strategy or a combined solution should be selected to detect the detailed information on the present-day intraplate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben.

How to cite: Sumaya, H.: PPP or network solution for detection of surface displacements?, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19983, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19983, 2020.