Union-wide
Side Events
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Inter- and Transdisciplinary Sessions

Session programme

OS

OS – Ocean Sciences

MAL2
Convener: Alberto Montanari
MAL12
Convener: Karen J. Heywood
MAL43
Convener: Karen J. Heywood
DM16
Convener: Karen J. Heywood

OS1 – Ocean General Circulation and Climate

OS1.0

This session will include the lecture by Richard Greatbatch, the winner of the Ocean Sciences Division's Fridjhof Nansen medal for 2020.

The North Atlantic exhibits a high level of natural variability from interannual to centennial time scales, making it difficult to extract trends from observational time series. Climate models, however, predict major changes in this region, which in turn will influence sea level and climate, especially in western Europe and North America. Another important issue is the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean as well as the cryosphere with the ocean, and how this affects the climate.

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Including Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture
Convener: Karen J. Heywood | Co-conveners: Monika Rhein, Bablu Sinha
OS1.1

For the open session, we welcome contributions on all aspects of ocean circulation from observations, models and theory, from regional to global scales, from air-sea exchanges to abyssal mixing. We particularly encourage studies on the interannual to decadal variability and the internal and externally forced physical processes in the ocean. Because accurate estimation of energy and mass fluxes is critical for the closure of the ocean energy budget and the ocean’s impact on the atmosphere, this session also welcomes works dealing with processes at the ocean’s boundaries. This includes studies focusing on the fundamentals of air-sea physics, on the ocean’s interaction with the cryosphere, as well as physical processes occurring at topographic boundaries. As usual the OS1.1 session also welcomes submissions that do not fit to any of the other special sessions; this includes equatorial oceanography and the Pacific Ocean.

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Convener: Alejandra Sanchez-FranksECSECS | Co-conveners: Sophie Cravatte, Maria Paz Chidichimo, Clément VicECSECS
OS1.5 | PICO

Theoretical and model studies show that the ocean is a chaotic system interacting with the atmosphere: uncertainties in ocean model initial states may grow and strongly affect the simulated variability up to multidecadal and basin scales, with or without coupling to the atmosphere. In addition, ocean simulations require both the use of subgrid-scale parameterizations that mimick crudely unresolved processes, and the calibration of the parameters associated with these parameterizations, while respecting numerical stability constraints. Oceanographers are increasingly adopting ensemble simulation strategies and probabilistic analysis methods, and developing stochastic parameterizations for modeling and understanding the ocean variability in this context of multiple uncertainties.

Presentations are solicited about the conception and analysis of ocean ensemble simulations, the characterization of ocean model uncertainties, and the development of stochastic parameterizations for ocean models. The session will also cover the dynamics and structure of the ocean chaotic variability, its relationship with the atmospheric variability, and the use of dynamical system or information theories for the investigation of the oceanic variability. We welcome as well studies about the propagation of the ocean chaotic variability towards other components of the climate system, about its consequences regarding ocean predictability, operational forecasts, detection and attribution of climate signals, climate simulations and projections.

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Co-organized by NP5
Convener: Thierry Penduff | Co-conveners: William K. Dewar, Guillaume Sérazin, Laure Zanna
OS1.6

This session will focus on variability in the ocean and its role in the wider climate system using both observations and models. Areas to be considered will include both ocean heat uptake and circulation variability as well as exploring the use of sustained ocean observing efforts and models to make progress in understanding the ocean’s role in the climate system. More than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system has been stored in the ocean, which mitigates the rate of surface warming. Better understanding of ocean ventilation mechanisms, as well as the uptake, transport, and storage of oceanic heat are therefore essential for reducing the uncertainties on global warming projections. Circulation variability and connectivity, particularly from the South Atlantic to the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean, are also of interest as well as how they are driven by local-, large- or global-scale processes or teleconnections. Sustained observations at sea are being made within a wide variety of programmes and are leading to significant advances in our ability to understand and model climate. Thus, this session will also explore ongoing and planned sustained ocean observing efforts and illuminate their roles in improving understanding of the ocean’s role in the climate system. For example, air-sea flux moorings are being maintained at select sites to assess models and air-sea flux fields. Deep temperature and salinity measurements are being made at time series moorings and will be made by deep Argo floats. Significant advances are also being made using Argo floats for biogeochemistry and carbon measurements. Such observations provide the means to develop linkages between sustained ocean observing and climate modelling. In conclusion, the session will consider key aspects of ocean variability and its climate relevance, as well as encouraging the use of observations and models to enhance understanding of these areas.

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Co-organized by CL2
Convener: Simon Josey | Co-conveners: Léon ChafikECSECS, Damien DesbruyeresECSECS, Yavor KostovECSECS, Iselin Medhaug
OS1.7

Please note that this session will be linked to a special session for the presentation of the Fridtjof Nansen Medal. We also have Daniela Domeisen and Caroline Katsman as invited speakers.

The North Atlantic exhibits a high level of natural variability from interannual to centennial time scales, making it difficult to extract trends from observational time series. Climate models, however, predict major changes in this region, which in turn will influence sea level and climate, especially in western Europe and North America. In the last years, several projects have been focused on the Atlantic circulation changes, for instance OVIDE, RACE, OSNAP, and ACSIS. Another important issue is the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean as well as the cryosphere with the ocean, and how this affects the climate.

We welcome contributions from observers and modelers on the following topics:

-- climate relevant processes in the North Atlantic region in the atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere
-- atmosphere - ocean coupling in the North Atlantic realm on time scales from years to centuries (observations, theory and coupled GCMs)
-- interpretation of observed variability in the atmosphere and the ocean in the North Atlantic sector
-- comparison of observed and simulated climate variability in the North Atlantic sector and Europe
-- response of the atmosphere to changes in the North Atlantic
-- dynamics of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
-- variability in the ocean and the atmosphere in the North Atlantic sector on a broad range of time scales
-- changes in adjacent seas related to changes in the North Atlantic
-- role of water mass transformation and circulation changes on anthropogenic carbon and other parameters
-- linkage between the observational records and proxies from the recent past

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Co-organized by AS1
Convener: Richard Greatbatch | Co-conveners: Monika Rhein, Bablu Sinha
OS1.9

Observations and model simulation illustrate significant ocean variability and associated air-sea interactions from regional to global scale and on diurnal to inter-annual time scales. This session is devoted to the understanding of the tropical and subtropical ocean dynamics, its interaction with the overlying atmosphere from the equator to mid-latitudes and its climate impacts on adjacent to remote areas.
Relevant processes in the ocean include upper and deep ocean circulation, mild SST gradients to sharp fronts, eddies, filaments, tropical instability waves, warm pools, cold tongues and eastern boundary upwellings. Furthermore, we are interested in air-sea interactions related to both the seasonal cycle and the development of modes of variability from local to basin scale. Wind variations related to Madden-Julian Oscillation, cyclones, and convective systems, as well as those leading the air-sea coupled modes (e.g., the Meridional Mode and Atlantic Niño) are welcome. Finally, we also seek contributions examining the causes and impacts of systematic model errors in simulating the local to regional climate.
Studies based on direct observations, reanalysis, reconstructions as well as model simulations are welcome.

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Co-organized by AS2/CL2
Convener: Peter Brandt | Co-conveners: Alban Lazar, Marie-Lou BacheleryECSECS, Noel Keenlyside, Marta Martín-ReyECSECS, Teresa Losada, Ingo Richter
OS1.10

The Indian Ocean is unique among the other tropical ocean basins due to the seasonal reversal of monsoon winds and concurrent ocean currents, lack of steady easterlies that result in a relatively deep thermocline along the equator, low-latitude connection to the neighboring Pacific and a lack of northward heat export due to the Asian continent. These characteristics shape the Indian Ocean’s air-sea interactions, as well as its variability on (intra)seasonal, interannual, and decadal timescales. They also make the basin and its surrounding regions, which are home to a third of the global population, particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change: robust trends in heat transport and freshwater fluxes have been observed in recent decades in the Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent region. Advances have recently been made in our understanding of the Indian Ocean’s circulation, interactions with adjacent ocean basins, and its role in regional and global climate. Nonetheless, significant gaps remain in understanding, observing, modeling, and predicting Indian Ocean variability and change across a range of timescales.
This session invites contributions based on observations, modelling, theory, and palaeo proxy reconstructions in the Indian Ocean that focus on understanding recent observed and projected changes in Indian Ocean physical and biogeochemical properties and their impacts on ecological processes, links between Indian Ocean variability and monsoon systems on (intra)seasonal to interannual timescales, interactions and exchanges between the Indian Ocean and other ocean basins, natural decadal variability, and extreme events. Contributions are sought in particular that address research on the Indian Ocean grand challenges highlighted in the recent IndOOS Decadal Review, and as formulated by the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change (CLIVAR), the Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (SIBER), and the International Indian Ocean Expedition 2 (IIOE-2) programs.

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Co-organized by BG4/CL4
Convener: Caroline Ummenhofer | Co-conveners: Yan Du, Alejandra Sanchez-FranksECSECS, Jérôme Vialard
OS1.11

The rapid decline of Arctic sea ice in the last decade is a dramatic indicator of climate change. The Arctic sea ice cover is now thinner, weaker and drifts faster. The ocean is also changing; the volume of freshwater stored in the Arctic and has increased as have the inputs of coastal runoff from Siberia and Greenland. Concurrently inflows from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have warmed. As the global surface temperature rises, the Arctic Ocean is speculated to become seasonally ice-free in the 21st century, which prompts us to revisit our perceptions of the Arctic system as a whole. What could the Arctic look like in the future? How are the present changes in the Arctic going to affect the lower latitudes? What aspects of the changing Arctic should future observations, remote sensing and modelling programmes address? The scientific community is investing considerable effort in making the current knowledge of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Arctic more systematic, in exploring poorly understood coupled atmosphere-sea-ice-ocean processes to improve prediction of future changes in the Arctic.

In this session, we invite contributions from a variety of studies addressing the recent past, present and future Arctic. We encourage submissions examining interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice and on studies linking changes in the Arctic to the global ocean. Submissions with a focus on emerging cryospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical processes and their implications are particularly welcome.

The session promotes results from current Arctic programmes and discussions on future plans for Arctic Ocean modelling and measurement strategies, and encourage submissions on the results from the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC).

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Co-organized by AS4/BG4/CL2/CR6
Convener: Yevgeny Aksenov | Co-conveners: Paul A. Dodd, Céline Heuzé, Krissy Reeve
OS1.12

The Southern Ocean around the latitudes of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is a key region for the vertical and lateral exchanges of heat, carbon and nutrients, with significant impacts on the climate system as a whole. The role of the Southern Ocean as a sink of anthropogenic carbon and heat, and as a source of natural carbon in present and future climate conditions remains uncertain. To reduce this uncertainty, understanding the physical and biogeochemical processes underlying the Southern Ocean internal variability and its response to external forcing is critical. Recent advances in observational capabilities, theoretical frameworks, and numerical models (e.g. CMIP6 simulations) are providing a deeper insight into the three-dimensional patterns of Southern Ocean change. This session will discuss the current state of knowledge and novel findings concerning the role of the Southern Ocean in past, present, and future climates. In particular, it will address physical, biological, and biogeochemical processes, including interior ocean mixing and transport pathways, the cycling of carbon and nutrients, as well as ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, and their wider implications for lower latitudes and the global climate.

Highlight: Solicited speaker Michael Meredith will report on the outcomes of the Polar Regions chapter of the recent "IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate" during this session.

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Co-organized by BG4/CL4
Convener: Alexander HaumannECSECS | Co-conveners: Ivy FrengerECSECS, Lavinia Patara, Christian Turney
OS1.13

In recent years the interaction between the ocean and the cryosphere in the marginal seas of the Southern Ocean has become a major focus in climate research. Questions such as "Why has Antarctic sea ice only recently begun to decline?", "What controls the inflow of warm water into ice shelf cavities and how does it interact with the ice?", and “What are the dominant processes in ice-ocean boundary layers?” have attracted scientific and public attention. Recent advances in observational technology, data coverage, and modeling provide scientists with a better understanding of the mechanisms involving ice-ocean interactions of various types in the far South. Processes on the Antarctic continental shelf have been identified as missing links between the cryosphere, the global atmosphere and the deep open ocean that need to be captured in large-scale and global model simulations. Similarly, our limited knowledge of processes in ice-ocean boundary layers, such as heat and salt fluxes that control the melt rate, has been identified as a limitation on our ability to fully understand, let alone parameterize melting and freezing at interfaces between the ocean and ice shelves, icebergs, glaciers, and sea ice.

This session includes studies of the Southern Ocean's marginal seas including the Antarctic continental shelf and ice shelf cavities, as well as process studies with a particular focus on ice-ocean boundary layers and on all scales, from the ice-ocean interface to local to basin-scale to circumpolar. Physical and biogeochemical interactions between ice shelves, sea ice and the open ocean will be presented, along with their impacts on the greater Antarctic climate system. Presentations include theoretical studies as well as those based on in-situ observations, remote sensing, and process-scale, regional and global models. While the primary focus of the session is on ice-ocean interactions, we also includes contributions on ice-covered freshwater lakes.

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Co-organized by BG4/CL2/CR6
Convener: Xylar Asay-Davis | Co-conveners: Louis-Alexandre CoustonECSECS, Leo Middleton, Nadine SteigerECSECS, Irena VankovaECSECS
ITS1.11/OS1.14

Comprehensive studies to address ocean science issues require synergistic collaboration across the globe between many subdisciplines including science, engineering, environment, society and economics. However, it is a challenge to unify these aspects under a common program or study, and as such has been recognized as a main goal of the United Nations “Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030)”. Consequently, this session will bring together early-career representatives from a wide range of subdisciplines to demonstrate the strength of an interdisciplinary and intercultural approach when addressing global concerns, such as the dynamic impacts of climate change, focusing on the North Atlantic region as an example.

Continuous and comprehensive data is crucial to our understanding of the ocean. Yet, developing the advanced tools and technologies required for long-term ocean monitoring is not merely an engineering problem, as the data produced by these instruments will have future environmental and socio-economic impacts. A comprehensive view of the ocean also requires an understanding of past conditions. Thus, this session will also include contributions from paleo-oceanography to link the past to the future. In this vein, we will discuss our attempts at transdisciplinary and transcultural collaboration and share what we have learned for future approaches.

We invite contributions from a wide range of enthusiasts, including those in the natural sciences (e.g. biology, physics), applied sciences (e.g. engineering and technology, business), humanities (e.g. law), and social sciences (e.g. economics, political science). We also invite contributions from educators and administrators who are interested in experimenting with novel methods of building and encouraging research within interdisciplinary and multicultural graduate school programs.

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Co-organized by EOS4/CL4
Convener: Allison ChuaECSECS | Co-conveners: Jacqueline BertlichECSECS, Kriste Makareviciute-FichtnerECSECS, Subhadeep RakshitECSECS
GD7.2

Interdisciplinary study of the Northeast Atlantic region offers an extraordinary opportunity to advance understanding of interactions and co-dependencies between the solid Earth, ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere and climate. Understanding these issues are of critical importance to Europe and Scandinavia, and they are of global relevance. The unprecedented surge in exploration of the Northeast Atlantic Realm that has unfolded in recent years has delivered major leaps forward in understanding its geological structure, dynamics and development, economic resources and volcanism. Examples include the complexity of the conjugate volcanic rifted margins, contact metamorphism of carbon-rich shales by sill intrusions, producing thermogenic methane, the discovery of widespread continental crust in the ocean, the critical role of the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe bathymetric ridge in influencing ocean circulation between the Arctic and the Atlantic south of Iceland, mapping of gas hydrates and the study of crustal structure beneath the Greenland icecap. Throughout the Cenozoic these factors have influenced ocean and atmosphere composition and circulation, climate change, and the growth, wastage and transport of ice. Detailed understanding of the interdependencies of these phenomena in the past and through time is arguably of critical importance to understanding the current, rapid changes in the natural environment. The goal of this special session is to bring together diverse contributions drawing on all the above disciplines in order to identify potentially fertile areas for broad, cross-disciplinary study of the Northeast Atlantic Realm moving forward.

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Co-organized by CL1/OS1/TS6
Convener: Laurent Geoffroy | Co-conveners: G.R. Foulger, Dieter Franke, Catherine Kissel
CR1.2

The largest single source of uncertainty in projections of future global sea level is associated with the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). In the short-term, it cannot be stated with certainty whether the mass balance of the AIS is positive or negative; in the long-term, the possibility exists that melting of the coastal shelves around Antarctica will lead to an irreversible commitment to ongoing sea level rise. Observational and paleoclimate studies can help to reduce this uncertainty, constraining the parameterizations of physical processes within ice sheet models and allowing for improved projections of future global sea level rise. This session welcomes presentations covering all aspects of observation, paleoclimate reconstruction and modeling of the AIS. Presentations that focus on the mass balance of the AIS and its contribution towards changes in global sea level are particularly encouraged.

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Co-organized by CL4/G3/OS1
Convener: Steven Phipps | Co-conveners: Florence Colleoni, Chris Fogwill, Taryn Noble
CR1.1

This session explores improvements in our understanding and quantification of past, present and future ice sheet and sea-level changes. We invite contributions about the following topics:

How to improve the reliability of the projections using observations (paleo and present), models and model intercomparison exercises (ISMIP6, and others); assessment of uncertainties and probability distributions of the ice sheets' contribution to sea level change; emerging processes; feedbacks coming from interactions between components (ice sheets, ocean, atmosphere, solid earth). We focus on the present and future (multi-centennial) Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, but paleo-studies are encouraged if they shed a light on the mentioned topics.

This session is related to both ISMASS (http://www.climate-cryosphere.org/activities/groups/ismass) and ISMIP6 (http://www.climate-cryosphere.org/activities/targeted/ismip6).

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Co-organized by CL4/OS1, co-sponsored by CliC
Convener: Frank Pattyn | Co-conveners: Konstanze HaubnerECSECS, Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, Helene Seroussi, Donald SlaterECSECS
CR5.7

Ice shelves and tidewater glaciers are sensitive elements of the climate system. Sandwiched between atmosphere and ocean, they are vulnerable to changes in either. The recent disintegration of ice shelves such as Larsen B and Wilkins on the Antarctic Peninsula, current thinning of the ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, and the recent accelerations of many of Greenland's tidewater glaciers provide evidence of the rapidity with which those systems can respond. Changes in marine-terminating outlets appear to be intimately linked with acceleration and thinning of the ice sheets inland of the grounding line, with immediate consequences for global sea level. Studies of the dynamics and structure of the ice sheets' marine termini and their interactions with atmosphere and ocean are the key to improving our understanding of their response to climate forcing and of their buttressing role for ice streams. The main themes of this session are the dynamics of ice shelves and tidewater glaciers and their interaction with the ocean, atmosphere and the inland ice, including grounding line dynamics. The session includes studies on related processes such as calving, ice fracture, rifting and mass balance, as well as theoretical descriptions of mechanical and thermodynamic processes. We seek contributions both from numerical modelling of ice shelves and tidewater glaciers, including their oceanic and atmospheric environments, and from observational studies of those systems, including glaciological and oceanographic field measurements, as well as remote sensing and laboratory studies.

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Co-organized by OS1
Convener: Adrian Jenkins | Co-conveners: Rachel CarrECSECS, Angelika Humbert, Nicolas Jourdain, Inga Monika Koszalka
CR1.3

Fifty years of routine in-situ and satellite observations have revealed the progressive deterioration of Antarctica’s most vulnerable regions to climate change: the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctic ice sheets. The rapid destabilisation of Larsen A and B ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula and the ongoing, potentially irreversible ice losses at Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, West Antarctica, have been linked to a complex marriage of ocean and atmosphere forcing mechanisms impinging on the continent from the Weddell, Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas. These phenomena have raised questions about the past and future stability of the ice sheets and water mass properties, and have motivated research focused on elucidating the precise ice-ocean-atmosphere interactions controlling oceanographic and cryospheric change over palaeo- to contemporary timescales. Offshore, similar questions have arisen regarding the role of seabed topography and changing sea ice patterns and circumpolar oceanographic conditions, and how such phenomena may ultimately impact ice sheet mass-losses.

This session welcomes contributions examining the range of controls driving cryospheric and oceanic change across the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctic Ice Sheet regions, as well as those in the wider Weddell Sea sector. Together with model and remotely sensed studies, this session will showcase early results from the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration and several recent research campaigns conducted in the Weddell Sea.

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Co-organized by CL4/OS1
Convener: Christine BatchelorECSECS | Co-conveners: Kiya RivermanECSECS, Frazer ChristieECSECS, Katherine HutchinsonECSECS, David Vaughan
CR6.2

Recent years have seen significant reductions in Arctic sea ice extent, and a redistribution of sea ice in the Antarctic. Climate projections suggest a reduction of the sea ice cover in both poles, with the Arctic becoming seasonally ice free in the latter half of this century.

The scientific community is investing considerable effort in organising our current knowledge of the physical and biogeochemical properties of sea ice, exploring poorly understood sea ice processes, and forecasting future changes of the sea ice cover.

In this session, we invite contributions regarding all aspects of sea ice science and sea ice-climate interactions, including snow and sea ice thermodynamics and dynamics, sea ice-atmosphere and sea ice-ocean interactions, sea ice biological and chemical processes, and sea ice models. A focus on emerging processes and implications is particularly welcome.

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Co-organized by OS1
Convener: Daniel Feltham | Co-conveners: Daniela Flocco, Andrew Wells, Shiming Xu, Vishnu NandanECSECS
ITS3.1/NP1.2

Several subsystems of the Earth system have been suggested to react abruptly at critical levels of anthropogenic forcing. Well-known examples of such Tipping Elements include the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, the polar ice sheets and sea ice, tropical and boreal forests, as well as the Asian monsoon systems. Interactions between the different Tipping Elements may either have stabilizing or destabilizing effects on the other subsystems, potentially leading to cascades of abrupt transitions. The critical forcing levels at which abrupt transitions occur have recently been associated with Tipping Points.

It is paramount to determine the critical forcing levels (and the associated uncertainties) beyond which the systems in question will abruptly change their state, with potentially devastating climatic, ecological, and societal impacts. For this purpose, we need to substantially enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the Tipping Elements and their interactions, on the basis of paleoclimatic evidence, present-day observations, and models spanning the entire hierarchy of complexity. Moreover, to be able to mitigate - or prepare for - potential future transitions, early warning signals have to be identified and monitored in both observations and models.

This interdisciplinary session invites contributions that address Tipping Points in the Earth system from the different perspectives of all relevant disciplines, including

- the mathematical theory of abrupt transitions in (random) dynamical systems,
- paleoclimatic studies of past abrupt transitions,
- data-driven and process-based modelling of past and future transitions,
- early-warning signals
- the implications of abrupt transitions for Climate sensitivity and response,
- ecological and societal impacts, as well as
- decision theory in the presence of uncertain Tipping Point estimates

Confirmed invited speaker: Michael Ghil

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Including Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture
Co-organized by CL4/CR7/OS1
Convener: Niklas BoersECSECS | Co-conveners: Peter Ditlevsen, Timothy Lenton , Anna von der Heydt, Ricarda Winkelmann
CL1.16

Significant advances in our understanding of the Meso- and Cenozoic development of polar regions have been made over the last two decades by studying continental shelf, slope, or deep sea sediment sequences. These include more detailed reconstructions of the climatic, oceanographic, and tectonic evolution of high northern and southern latitudes over various time scales, as well as reconstructions of past ice-sheet dynamics and studies of marine geohazards. Data have been obtained from conventional and high-resolution 2D and 3D seismic surveying, as well as from a growing number of short sediment cores and targeted high-latitude deep drilling expeditions (e.g. IODP, MeBO). The same techniques have also been applied in fjords, which link the continental margins with the interiors of landmasses and act as “miniature ocean basins”. Fjord settings allow us to study similar geological processes to those that acted on glaciated continental margins but at smaller scales. The variety of sediment inputs (e.g. glacial, fluvioglacial, fluvial, biological) to fjord basins along with relatively high sedimentation rates provides the potential for high-resolution palaeoclimatic and palaeooceanographic records on decadal to centennial timescales.

The aim of this session is to bring together researchers working on both northern and southern high latitudes processes spanning various spatio-temporal scales, to provide a multi-disciplinary picture of polar regions. We welcome submissions focussing on (but not limited to) records of past climatic change, tectonics, oceanography and ecosystems, and the associated links with ice sheets and glacier behaviour, ice-ocean interactions and glacial-marine sedimentary processes. Studies that integrate different datasets, data types, or that marry observations with numerical modelling are also encouraged.

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Co-organized by OS1/SSP3
Convener: Johann Philipp KlagesECSECS | Co-conveners: Florence Colleoni, H. Christian Hass, Kelly Hogan, Michele Rebesco, Kasia K. SliwinskaECSECS, Madeleine VickersECSECS, Andrew ChristECSECS
CL4.20

ENSO and its interactions with other tropical basins are the dominant source of interannual climate variability in the tropics and across the globe. Understanding the dynamics, predictability, and impacts of ENSO and tropical basins interactions, and anticipating their future changes are thus of vital importance for society. This session invites contributions regarding all aspects of ENSO and tropical basins interactions, including: dynamics, multi-scale interactions; low frequency, decadal and paleo variability; theoretical approaches; ENSO diversity; global teleconnections; impacts on climate, society and ecosystems; seasonal forecasting and climate change projections of ENSO and its tropical basins interactions. Studies aimed at understanding ENSO and its tropical basins interactions in models of a range of complexity are especially welcomed, including analysis of CMIP model intercomparisons.

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Co-organized by AS1/NP2/OS1
Convener: Dietmar Dommenget | Co-conveners: Daniela Domeisen, Eric Guilyardi
AS1.23

This session investigates mid-latitude cyclones and storms on both hemispheres. We invite studies considering cyclones in different stages of their life cycles from the initial development, to large- and synoptic-scale conditions influencing their growth to a severe storm, up to their dissipation and related socioeconomic impacts.
Papers are welcome, which focus also on the diagnostic of observed past and recent trends, as well as on future storm development under changed climate conditions. This will include storm predictability studies on different scales. Finally, the session will also invite studies investigating impacts related to storms: Papers are welcome dealing with vulnerability, diagnostics of sensitive social and infrastructural categories and affected areas of risk for property damages. Which risk transfer mechanisms are currently used, depending on insured and economic losses? Which mechanisms (e.g. new reinsurance products) are already implemented or will be developed in order to adapt to future loss expectations?

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Co-organized by CL4/NH1/OS1
Convener: Gregor C. Leckebusch | Co-conveners: Joaquim G. Pinto, Uwe Ulbrich
AS2.2

Changes in the Arctic and Antarctic climate systems are strongly related to processes in the boundary layer and their feedbacks with the free troposphere, ocean and ice. An adequate understanding and quantification of these processes is necessary to improve predictions of future changes in the polar regions and their teleconnection with mid-latitude weather and climate, including meridional transport of heat, moisture and chemical constituents. Processes include atmosphere-ocean-ice (AOI) interactions, physical and chemical snow processes (e.g. snow photochemistry), exchange of chemical constituents including biogeochemical impacts , sources of aerosol, polynya formation processes, sea ice production and loss, and cloud formation, which represent key processes for the atmosphere, ocean and the cryosphere. AOI interactions are also triggered by and have feedbacks with synoptic systems and mesoscale weather phenomena such as cold air outbreaks, katabatic winds and polar lows. Associated processes also include the effect of extreme events such as warm air advection and clouds on the surface energy budget and related boundary layer exchanges. In addition, understanding natural processes including AOI interactions is essential to understand of the background atmosphere to quantify the anthropogenic impacts. Shallow inversions, mostly during winter-time, lead to high air pollutant concentrations. Even though severe air pollution episodes are frequently observed in the Arctic, knowledge on urban emission sources, transport and atmospheric chemical processing of pollution, especially under cold and dark conditions, are poorly understood. Similarly, the polar boundary layer can involve complicated radiative processes such as shallow stable layers with fog present. In addition, polar boundary layers can mediate chemical, aerosol, and isotope exchanges between the atmosphere and the firn important to the interpretation of ice core records.
This session is intended to provide an interdisciplinary forum to bring together researchers working in the area of boundary layer processes and high-latitude weather and climate (including snow physics, air/snow chemistry, and oceanography). Cryosphere and atmospheric chemistry processes (the focus of the IGAC/SOLAS activity “CATCH” and the IGAC/IASC activity “PACES”) are highly relevant to this session. We also encourage preliminary results from field programs such as MOSAiC and other high-latitude research efforts.

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Co-organized by CL2/CR7/OS1
Convener: William Neff | Co-conveners: Jo Browse, Julia Schmale, Michael Tjernström, Gillian Young
CL4.14

The Arctic Realm is changing rapidly and the fate of the cryosphere, including Arctic sea ice, glaciers and ice caps, is a source of concern. Whereas sea ice variations impact the radiative energy budget, thus playing a role in Arctic amplification, the Greenland Ice Sheet retreat contributes to global sea level rise. Moreover, through various processes linking the atmosphere, ice and ocean, the change in the Arctic realm may modify the atmospheric and ocean circulation at regional to global scales, the freshwater budget of the ocean and deep-water formation as well as the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The processes and feedbacks involved operate on all time scales and thus require several types of information: satellite and instrumental data, climate models, and reconstructions based on geological archives. In this session, we invite contributions from a range of disciplines and across time scales, including observational data, historical data, proxy data, model simulations and forecasts, for the past, present and future climate. The common denominator of these studies will be their focus on a better understanding of mechanisms and feedbacks on short to long time scales that drive Arctic and subarctic changes and their impact on climate, ocean and environmental conditions, at regional to global scales, including possible links to weather and climate outside the Arctic.

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Co-organized by CR7/OS1
Convener: Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz | Co-conveners: Anne de Vernal, Michal Kucera, Mimmi OksmanECSECS
CL4.15

The Arctic sea ice and high latitude atmosphere and oceans have experienced significant changes over the modern observational era. The polar climate is crucial for the Earth’s energy and water budget, and its variability and change have direct socio-economic and ecological impacts. Thus, understanding high-latitude variability and improving predictions of high latitude climate is highly important for society. Predictability studies indicate that decadal to multi-decadal variations in the oceans and sub-seasonal to multi-year sea ice variations are the largest sources of predictability in high latitudes. However, dynamical model predictions are not yet in the position to provide us with accurate predictions of the polar climate. Main reasons for this are the lack of observations in high latitudes, insufficient initialization methods and shortcomings of climate models in representing some of the important climate processes in high latitudes.
This session aims for a better understanding and better representation of the mechanisms that control high latitude variability and predictability of climate in both hemispheres from sub-seasonal to multi-decadal time-scales in past, recent and future climates. Further, the session aims to discuss ongoing efforts to improve climate predictions at high latitudes at various time scales (as e.g. usage of additional observations for initialization, improved initialization methods, impact of higher resolution, improved parameterizations) and potential teleconnections of high latitude climate with lower latitude climate. We also aim to link polar climate variability and predictions to potential ecological and socio-economic impacts and encourage submissions on this topic.
The session offers the possibility to present results from the ongoing projects and research efforts on the topic of high-latitude climate variability and prediction, including, but not limited to the WWRP Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP), NordForsk-project ARCPATH, and the H2020-projects APPLICATE, INTAROS, BlueAction, and PRIMAVERA.

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Co-organized by AS4/OS1
Convener: Torben Koenigk | Co-conveners: Neven-Stjepan Fuckar, Yongqi Gao, Helge Goessling
CL4.16

The North Pacific’s sensitivity to forcing and feedbacks to background climate are an important, but largely open question in assessments of global climate, both in the modern and geological past. Enhanced knowledge of processes of past climate change is crucial to separate between natural and anthropogenic forcing, and to enhance the reliability of future climate projections. On a spatial scale, this region also comprises major oceanographic patterns including Boundary Current systems e.g., Kuroshio/Oyashio, or the Alaskan Stream and several frontal regions. In addition, complex exchange processes and interactions between the open North Pacific and its marginal seas from low to high latitudes create a spatially heterogenous region, with small-scale mixing and both temporal and spatial variations in the system at atmospheric, and oceanic surface, subsurface and deep levels.
We aim to provide a comprehensive collection of original contributions and syntheses that foster the dynamic and four-dimensional understanding of the evolution of climate and oceanic modes in the North Pacific, including links and teleconnections to low latitudes (e.g. West Pacific Warm Pool) and polar regions, as well as to global ocean circulation and climate patterns.
We welcome contributions across all time scales, from the geological past to present. Results may be based on instrumental or proxy data, as well as climate modelling. The session should advance our process-oriented understanding of the complex role of the North Pacific and its marginals seas in regulating biogeochemical cycles, ocean overturning circulation, and ocean-atmosphere carbon budgets. These past climate scenarios can be used to create a framework for the identification of potential thresholds in the current, warming Earth system.

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Co-organized by OS1
Convener: Xun GongECSECS | Co-conveners: Lester Lembke-JeneECSECS, Gerrit Lohmann, Xuefa Shi
CL4.2

State of the art climate models are now run for past, present and future climates. This has opened up the opportunity for paleoclimate modelling and data together to inform on future climate changes. To date, most research in this area has been on constraining basic metrics such a climate sensitivity. In addition, and just as importantly for mankind, the Earth's climate is highly variable on all spatial and temporal scales with implications for understanding both the industrial epoch
and future climate projections. These changes in variability (spatial or temporal) can impact the recurrence frequency of extreme events which can have catastrophic effects on society. Yet, it is unclear if a warmer future is one with more or less climate variability, and at which scales. A multitude of feedbacks are involved.

We welcome contributions that improve quantification, understanding and prediction of past, present and future climate and its variability in the Earth System across space and time scales. This includes contributions looking at "steady state" climate features such as climate sensitivity as well as those investigating changes in climate variability and scaling properties. The session is multidisciplinary and brings together studies related to atmospheric science, oceanography, glaciology, paleoclimatology and nonlinear geoscience, to examine the complementarity of ideas and approaches. We particularly encourage submissions that combine models run for the past, present and future with data syntheses to constrain the spread of future predictions, submissions which combine models and data in the past to make strong conclusions or testable hypotheses about the future, as well as work highlighting future experiments and data required to strengthen the link to the future. We welcome contributions using case studies, idealised or realistic modelling, synthesis, and model-data comparison studies that provide insights into past, present and future climate variability on local to global, and synoptic to orbital timescales. Members of the PAGES working group on Climate Variability Across Scales (CVAS) are welcome.

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Co-organized by AS4/CR7/NP3/OS1
Convener: Julia Hargreaves | Co-conveners: Kira Rehfeld, Thomas Laepple, Shaun Lovejoy
SSP2.8

Today the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) represents a crucial part of the global thermohaline circulation by acting as a low latitude heat source for the polar regions. The IPWP’s importance in deciphering past and future coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics is highlighted by the complex interactions between this region and globally significant climatic systems like the Australasian Monsoon, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).

This session will explore the IPWP’s role in global climate change and its emergence as a biogeographic diversity hot spot from the geological past to the present. We invite submissions on a broad range of topics in sedimentology, palaeontology, paleoclimatology/-oceanography, and data-model comparisons to assemble a comprehensive view of the Cenozoic evolution of the entire Indo-Pacific Region. We encourage submissions stratigraphically synthesising marine-terrestrial multi-proxy archives, and those investigating teleconnections between the IPWP, zonal (ENSO/IOD), and high latitude processes. Finally, this session will examine how the long-term evolution of the global monsoons and the ITCZ affected feedbacks between IPWP, Australasian hydroclimate and tectonic/weathering processes.

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Co-organized by CL1/OS1
Convener: Gerald AuerECSECS | Co-conveners: Anna Joy DruryECSECS, Or BialikECSECS, Kate Littler, Mathias Harzhauser
ITS3.2/NH10.7

Climate change is projected to result in an increase in extreme and compound weather events, which pose a growing threat to human well-being and the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Further warming is also projected to reduce the efficacy of carbon sinks acting as negative feedbacks on warming and increase the risk of crossing tipping points and triggering cascading changes in the climate and ecosystems. These processes may reduce the Earth system’s resilience, which has the potential to further amplify climate change and extremes and worsen societal impacts.

Maintaining Earth in the Holocene-like conditions that have enabled the development of the world’s societies will require better understanding of feedbacks and tipping dynamics in both the human world and the biophysical Earth. Societies will need to embark on rapid socio-economic and governance transformations in order to both reduce the risk of triggering tipping points and to improve societal resilience to increasingly likely extreme events. Earth resilience brings the complex dynamics and perturbations associated with human activities into Earth system analysis, and increasingly captures socio-economic as well as biophysical dynamics.

In this session we welcome transdisciplinary and cross-scale contributions relating to climate extremes, tipping dynamics, and Earth resilience, covering topics ranging from the cascading impacts of extreme and compound events, key feedbacks and tipping points in both biophysical and human systems, enhancing societal resilience to extreme events, and the potential for rapid social transformations to global sustainability.

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Co-organized by BG1/CL2/CR7/NP8/OS1, co-sponsored by Future Earth
Convener: Markus Reichstein | Co-conveners: David Armstrong McKayECSECS, Jana Sillmann, Dorothea Frank, Jonathan Donges

OS2 – Coastal Oceans, Semi-enclosed and Marginal Seas

OS2.1

Contributions are invited on innovative observational, theoretical and modelling studies concerning physical processes in coastal and shelf seas. Processes can include hydrodynamics (e.g., waves, tides, currents and Stokes drift, upwelling, eddies, density structures), transport of material (e.g., sediments, contaminants, litter, nutrients), and morphodynamics and sea-bed structure (e.g., evolution of bed forms, banks, Holocene-Antropogene strata or basin shape). Study areas are envisaged between the base of the shelf break and the seaward limit of the surf zone, including tidal basins. However, contributions on processes outside these geographical limits will be considered where they significantly influence processes within these limits. Equally, contributions on climate dynamics, biogeochemistry, and man-made structures will be considered where they significantly influence, or are significantly influenced by, the processes aimed at in this session. Special attention will be given to interactions between physics, biology and biogeochemistry and to global to local scaling of processes, their relative importance, and the representation of these transitions in models. A sub-session is envisaged on the Baltic Sea, with emphasis on the Baltic Earth programme, focusing on sea-level variability, salinity dynamics and water budget, biogeochemical feedbacks, extreme events and anthropogenic induced changes. Another sub-session focuses on the interaction between freshwater continental discharge and adjacent coastal seas, from their initial mixing and transformation in estuaries to the formation of buoyant river plumes and their spreading in coastal and shelf areas. The dynamics and variability of river plumes are key factors for understanding mechanisms of spreading, transformation, and redistribution of continental discharge and river-borne constituents (nutrients, terrigenous sediments, anthropogenic pollutants, litter) in coastal seas and their influence on the adjacent continental shelf.

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Convener: Johan van der Molen | Co-conveners: Huib E. de Swart, Andreas Lehmann, Alexander Osadchiev, Julie D. Pietrzak
OS2.2

Oceanographic processes at coastal scales present a number of differences with respect to deep water oceanography, which result in higher prediction errors. In shallow water coastal domains the bottom topography exerts a strong control on the resulting wave/current fields and other factors need to be accounted for (stratification and mixing effects, land boundary condition). Moreover, the coupling between wind, waves, currents and sediments at limited scales, or even the choice of numerical strategy (nested meshes, finite-elements, etc.) may also play a critical role in the quality of the predictions. Coastal observations are therefore necessary to drive numerical models, combining in-situ data and satellite images. The advent of new satellite capabilities (resolution and sensors like for instance those of the Sentinel constellation) and new modelling advances (coupling and boundary conditions) with coastal observatories should allow starting a quantum leap in coastal oceanography.

These issues are even more relevant in a framework of changing climate, since coastal and transitional areas are strongly impacted by climate. Because of these reasons, it is timely to discuss recent advances in fields such as: integrated ocean-atmosphere-sediment modelling approaches and the physics of their coupling mechanisms; the hydrological, biogeochemical, geomorphological variability of coastal regions; the availability and use of coastal in-situ observations; and standards, procedures and data formats to make data ready for use in an integrated coastal ocean monitoring system. Following this, some of the themes we invite for this session are satellite/in-situ measurements, coastal assimilation, atmosphere-ocean-sediment model coupling and error/prediction limits as well as the contribution of coastal ocean science to operational oceanography. Finally, how these main processes control coastal variability (hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and bio-geochemical processes) and applications to improve our knowledge on how these processes interact with coastal infrastructure or activities.

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Convener: Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla | Co-conveners: Davide Bonaldo, Sandro Carniel, Manuel Espino Infantes, Emil Stanev
OS2.5

The session would like to overview recent developments and understanding, by observations and modelling, of the Southern European Seas (SES) general circulation, physical processes, biogeochemical interactions and their ecosystems. Themes of particular interest are: - Interaction of scales and processes in the SES: hydrodynamic and ecosystem interactions at multiple temporal and spatial scales (down to submesoscale), coastal processes and shelf-to-open sea interactions, straits dynamics, ocean response to atmospheric forcing, impact of environmental conditions on ecosystem functions from local to regional scales; - Assessing, understanding and predicting the potential impact of climate change in the SES: long term trends, occurrence of extreme events, development of downscaled models at basin and regional scales, novel approaches to model marine ecosystems, ecosystem functions and biodiversity; - Integrated Observing System in the SES: development of new sensors, scale of interests, development of advanced methodologies for upscaling local information, new satellite products, processes that need to be monitored, identification of data gaps (eg. observing system experiments); - Operational Oceanographic products in the SES: merging of observations and modelling products, downstream products development in the framework of the Mediterranean Sea Oceanography Network for GOOS (MONGOOS). Production and use of services for continuously advance in the scientific understanding and technological development in support to sustainable Blue Growth, SDGs implementation.
- Science-based Integrated management of the SES: support to Marine Spatial Planning and deployment of Marine Protected Areas , scenario studies, mapping of anthropogenic pressures, habitat and ecosystem services, potential support for nature-based solutions and/or sustainable exploitation of marine resource.

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Convener: Gianmaria Sannino | Co-conveners: Arthur CapetECSECS, Vanessa Cardin, Alejandro Orfila, Katrin Schroeder
ITS2.4/HS12.1

This session provides a platform for cross-disciplinary science that addresses the continuum of the river and its catchment to the coastal sea. We invite studies across geographical borders; from the source to the sea including groundwater, and across the freshwater-marine water transition. The session welcomes studies that link environmental and social science, address the impacts of climate change and extreme events, and of human activities on water and sediment quality and quantity, hydromorphology, biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services of River-Sea systems, and that provide solutions for sustainable management of the River-Sea social-ecological system.
We need to fully understand how River-Sea-Systems function. How are River-Sea-Systems changing due to human pressures? What is the impact of processes in the catchment on marine systems function, and vice versa? How can we discern between human-induced changes or those driven by natural processes from climate-induced variability and extreme events? What will the tipping points of socio-ecologic system states be and what will they look like? How can we better characterise river-sea systems from the latest generation Earth observation to citizen science based observatories. How can we predict short and long term changes in River-Sea-Systems to manage them sustainably? What is the limit to which it is possible to predict the natural and human-influenced evolution of River-Sea-Systems? The increasing demand to jointly enable intensive human use and environmental protection in river-sea systems requires holistic and integrative research approaches with the ultimate goal of enhanced system understanding.

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Co-organized by BG4/GM6/NH5/OS2/SSP3, co-sponsored by IAS
Convener: Jana Friedrich | Co-conveners: Debora Bellafiore, Dietrich Borchardt, Andrea D'Alpaos, Michael Rode
ERE2.3 | PICO

There is a global need for low carbon energy, and marine renewable energy could make a significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change, as well as providing a high-technology industry. Marine renewable energy includes offshore wind, wave, tidal range (lagoons and barrages), and tidal-stream energy, as well as technologies such as ocean thermal energy conversion, salinity gradients and desalination. Understanding the environment these marine renewable energy devices are likely to operate in is essential when designing efficient and resilient devices. Accurate characterisation of the resource is of clear importance, whilst interactions with the environment, and between other “blue economy” developments, is essential for the development of the industry and marine spatial plans. Indeed, synergies exist when considering the sustainable use of the ocean’s energy, such as multi-purpose platforms integrating marine renewable energy devices and aquaculture.
This session is designed to share information on new research techniques and methods to better understand the resource and the environment, including mapping tools, numerical modelling approaches, and observations. We welcome contributions that will further the development of the blue economy: for example, resource characterization, design considerations (e.g. extreme and fatigue loadings), and environmental impacts. The session will also include studies of impacts, from physical and biological, to societal interactions (e.g. effects to tourism). Research areas are envisaged to include but not restricted to: modelling and quantification of the interaction of the device to the marine environment (e.g. changes in hydrodynamics) as well as on the biology directly; cumulative impacts of large and multiple developments (potentially of differing technologies or marine stressors); new technologies for quantification; management of space; collision; noise.

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Co-organized by OS2
Convener: Rory O'Hara Murray | Co-conveners: Michela De Dominicis, Matt Lewis
ITS5.7/CL2.14

It has been shown that regional climate change interacts with many other man-made perturbations in both natural and anthropogenic coastal environments. Regional climate change is one of multiple drivers, which have a continuing impact on terrestrial, aquatic and socio-economic (resp. human) environments. These drivers interact with regional climate change in ways, which are not completely understood. Recent assessments all over the world have partly addressed this issue (e.g. Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea region, BACC (2008, 2015); North Sea Climate Change Assessment, NOSCCA (2011); Canada’s Changing Climate Report, CCCR (2019)).
This session invites contributions, which focus on the connections and interrelations between climate change and other drivers of environmental change, be it natural or human-induced, in different regional seas and coastal regions. Observation and modelling studies are welcome, which describe processes and interrelations with climate change in the atmosphere, in marine and freshwater ecosystems and biogeochemistry, coastal and terrestrial ecosystems as well as human systems. In particular, studies on socio-economic factors like aerosols, land cover, fisheries, agriculture and forestry, urban areas, coastal management, offshore energy, air quality and recreation, and their relation to climate change, are welcome.
The aim of this session is to provide an overview over the current state of knowledge of this complicated interplay of different factors, in different regional seas and coastal regions all over the world.

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Co-organized by BG4/HS12/NH10/OS2
Convener: Marcus Reckermann | Co-conveners: Ute Daewel, Helena Filipsson, Markus Meier, Markus Quante
G3.4

Low-lying coastal areas can be an early casualty to accelerating rates of sea-level rise, especially if land subsidence enhances such rates. More and more studies indicate that land subsidence due to natural and anthropogenic causes, including excessive groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers, peat oxidation due to surface water drainage through land reclamation, urbanization and agricultural use, as well as sediment starvation due to construction of dams and artificial levees, have caused damages to wetland ecosystems and increased flooding risk. While sea-level rise is a global issue and requires a global collaborative response, natural and anthropogenic coastal subsidence develops mainly at the local to regional scale, and its causes and severity vary substantially from place to place. Therefore, specific communities living on coastal areas can try to offset or reduced land subsidence.

The combination of geological and historical measurements and data from ongoing monitoring techniques is required to understand all drivers of coastal land motion and their contributions to past, present, and future subsidence. Research on coastal subsidence encompasses multidisciplinary expertise, requiring measuring and modeling techniques from geology, geodesy, natural hazards, oceanography, hydrogeology, and geomechanics. In this session, we want to bring together the expertise of all the involved disciplines. We invite contributions on all aspects of coastal subsidence research including recent advances on i) measurement through ground-based and remote sensing techniques, ii) numerical models, iii) their applicability to distinguish between the different drivers contributing to land subsidence, and iv) quantification of coastal hazards associated to relative sea-level rise. In particular, efforts towards characterizing human intervention on coastal land motion are welcome.

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Co-organized by HS13/NH8/OS2
Convener: Makan A. KaregarECSECS | Co-conveners: Simon Engelhart, Thomas FrederikseECSECS, Pietro Teatini, Niamh CahillECSECS
BG4.1

The coastal ocean has been increasingly recognized as a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. This session aims at fostering our understanding of the roles of coastal environments and of exchange processes, both natural or perturbed, along the terrestrial / coastal sea / open ocean continuum in global biogeochemical cycles. During the session recent advancements in the field of coastal and shelf biogeochemistry will be discussed. Contributions focusing on carbon and nutrient and all other element's cycles in coastal, shelf and shelf break environments, both pelagic and sedimentary, are invited.

This session is multidisciplinary and is open to observational, modelling and theoretical studies in order to promote the dialogue. The session will comprise subsections on coastal carbon storage, and on benthic biogeochemical processes.

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Co-organized by OS2
Convener: Helmuth Thomas | Co-conveners: William Austin, Alberto V. Borges, Arthur CapetECSECS, Craig SmeatonECSECS
NP7.2

Modelling the interaction of water waves with varying current is an important issue, especially in nearshore and coastal areas and for a variety of engineering applications.
These applications include wave structure interactions, with the problematics related to oil and naval industries, but also renewable energies.
The problematic is also important when considering coastal management, and harbour maintenance and exploitation.
Also, this interaction often leads to the formation of extreme wave events with detrimental effects.
Significant scientific effort was undertaken during the last fifty years to model linear, weakly or strongly nonlinear water waves with constant, or slowly varying currents.
When variations are stronger, the difficulty remains important.
In this session, contributions are invited relating experimental, numerical and theoretical works designed to improve the understanding of water waves and current interactions, including wave and current stability, wave dynamics, and energy propagation.
Contributions describing the specific problematics, from the point of the applications, are also deeply welcome.

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Co-organized by NH5/OS2
Convener: Julien Touboul | Co-conveners: Konstandinos Belibassakis, Anne-Claire Bennis, Efim Pelinovsky
GM6.3

Examining coastal morphodynamics from the nearshore through to inland dune systems is fundamental in understanding their short- to long-term behaviour. Coastal processes operate across large spatial and temporal scales and therefore comprehending their resulting landforms is complex.

At the coast, dunes provide the physical barrier to flooding during high energy storms, while beaches and nearshore areas help dissipate storm impact through a series of dynamic interactions involving sediment transfers and at times rapid morphological changes. Investigation of complex interactions between these three interconnected systems has become essential for understanding coastal behaviour.

This session, sponsored by the IGU-UGI Commission on Coastal Systems, welcomes contributions from coastal scientists interested in the measurement and modelling of the nearshore 25-0 m zone (waves, currents and sediment transport) and terrestrial coastal processes (on beaches and dunes) and responses within the three sub-units at various scales. The session will highlight the latest research developments in this part of the planet's geomorphic system and facilitate knowledge exchange between the submerged and sub-aerial coastal zones.

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Co-organized by OS2/SSP3, co-sponsored by CCS
Convener: Derek Jackson | Co-conveners: Emilia Guisado-Pintado, Irene Delgado-Fernandez
GM6.4

Coasts worldwide face a great variety of environmental impacts as well as increased anthropogenic pressures of coastal zone urbanization and rapid population growth. Over the last decade coastal erosion has emerged as a widespread problem that causes shoreline retreat and irreversible land losses. The attempts of managers and other stakeholders to cope with erosion using different types of hard engineering methods may often aggravate this problem, damaging natural landscape and coastal ecosystems in unexpected and unpredicted ways. Other negative impacts of human activities on littoral environments are chronic and punctual pollution of beach and coastal sediments with associated health risks for human beings. Chronic pollution is often observed in coastal areas close to factories, industries and human settlements - because of waste water discharges, punctual contamination is often linked to beach oiling.
The session gives priority to the subjects of coastal geomorphology: evolution of coastal landforms, coastal morphodynamics, coastline alterations and various associated processes in the coastal zone, e.g. waves and sediment drift, which shape coastal features and cause morphological changes. Contributions to this session will focus on the mechanisms responsible for coastal erosion and shoreline behaviour (advance or retreat) and will address the many natural and human factors involved. The topics may include work on predictions of shoreline change and discussions on the effects of human activities and their continuing contribution to coastal changes. The session will also cover submissions on coastal vulnerability to the combined effects of natural and human-related hazards, any type of coastal and environmental sensitivity classifications, and risk assessments. Globally, coastal dunes are seriously threatened as people tend to modify landforms and habitats through their actions and regulations, and the session invites also studies on natural and human-induced geomorphological changes of sand dunes, and recent projects and examples of dune eco-restoration and re-building.
Last, but not the least, studies related to Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), including Integrated Coastal Management (ICM), are also welcome. For any MSP and ICM, it is essential to consider the dynamics across the land-sea interface, i.e. the Land-Sea Interactions (LSI) that involve both natural processes and the impact of human activities.

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Co-organized by OS2, co-sponsored by CCS - IGU
Convener: Hannes Tõnisson | Co-conveners: Margarita Stancheva, Andreas Baas, Giorgio Anfuso, Guillaume Brunier
GM6.2

The world’s deltas and coastal wetlands support over 350 million people, yet account for less than 1% of the Earth’s surface. They protect people and assets from flooding and erosion, are increasingly considered as part of ‘nature-based’ or ‘soft engineered’ flood and erosion protection approaches and support an extensive range of ecosystem services and high levels of biodiversity. Yet coastal wetlands and delta are facing myriad threats due to biodiversity loss, habitat degradation, sea-level rise, subsidence, sediment extraction and compaction, groundwater extraction and modifications of their upstream catchments. Predicting how these sedimentary environments respond to combinations of such drivers (e.g. the changed frequency/magnitude of storm events) requires greater knowledge of their resistive properties at a range of scales, from landform response to extreme events to whole-system response to steadily shifting baselines (e.g. sea level rise).
This session aims to bring together the state-of-the-science knowledge from a range of disciplines (geomorphology, hydrology, ecology, biogeochemical and social sciences). We are committed to supporting early career researchers and this session should be of interest to practitioners working in the field of flood and erosion protection, particularly in the river and coastal context.

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Co-organized by OS2
Convener: Christopher HackneyECSECS | Co-conveners: Rachael CarrieECSECS, Frances DunnECSECS, Iris Moeller, Grigorios VasilopoulosECSECS
GM6.1

Coastal wetland ecosystems, such as salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass beds and tidal flats, are under increasing pressure from natural and anthropogenic processes shifting climatic conditions, and are declining in area and habitat quality globally. These environments provide numerous ecosystem services, including flood risk mediation, biodiversity provision and climate change mitigation through carbon storage. Hence, the need to get a deeper understanding of processes and interactions in these environments, and how these may be altered by climate change has never been greater. This is the case for ‘managed’, restored wetlands and natural systems alike.
This session will bring together studies of coastal wetland ecosystems across climates and geomorphic settings, to enhance the understanding of ecosystem service provisioning, interactions between hydrodynamics, sediment and ecology, and identify best future management practices. Studies of all processes occurring within coastal wetlands are invited. This includes, but is not exclusive to, sediment dynamics, hydrology, hydrodynamics, biogeochemistry, morphological characterisation, geotechnical analysis, bio-morphodynamics, ecological change and evolution, impact of climate change, sea level rise, anthropogenic and management implications. Multidisciplinary approaches across spatial and temporal scales are encouraged, especially in relation to global climate change. This session aims to enhance our understanding of basic processes governing coastal wetland dynamics and to propose sustainable management solutions for contemporary environmental pressures.

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Co-organized by BG4/HS13/OS2
Convener: Mark Schuerch | Co-conveners: Thorsten BalkeECSECS, Helen BrooksECSECS, Ruth Reef, Christian SchwarzECSECS
NH5.1

Tsunamis can produce catastrophic damage on vulnerable coastlines, essentially following major earthquakes, landslides or atmospheric disturbances. After the disastrous tsunamis in 2004 and 2011, tsunami science has grown significantly, opening new fields of research for various domains, and also in regions where the tsunami hazard was previously underestimated.
Numerical modeling, complemented with laboratory experiments, are essential to quantify the tsunami hazard. To this end, it is essential to rely on complete databases of past tsunami observations, including both historical events and results of paleotsunami investigations. Furthermore, a robust hazard analysis has to take into account uncertainties and probabilities with the more advanced approaches such as PTHA.
Because the vulnerability of populations, of infrastructures and of the built environment in coastal zones increases, integrated plans for tsunami risk prevention and mitigation should be encouraged in any exposed coastline, consistent with the procedures now in place in a growing number of Tsunami Warning System.

The tsunami session welcomes multidisciplinary contributions covering any of the aspects mentioned here, encompassing field data, regional hazard studies, observation databases, numerical modeling, risk studies, real time networks, operational tools and procedures towards a most efficient warning.

A focus on recent tsunami events all over the globe is encouraged, as well as on the achievements of recent research and operational projects.

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Co-organized by OS2/SM2
Convener: Helene Hebert | Co-conveners: Alberto Armigliato, Miquel Canals, Ira Didenkulova
NH5.2

The scope of this session includes different aspects of large-amplitude wave phenomena in the ocean such as freak or rogue waves, surface and internal waves, as well as waves trapped by currents and bathymetry. The session is focused on the understanding of the physical mechanisms which cause extreme events, and the derivation of appropriate mathematical models for their description and advanced methods for their analysis. An essential part of such studies is the validation of new models and techniques versus laboratory and in-situ data. Special attention is paid to the description of wave breaking processes, and the interaction of large-amplitude waves with coastal structures.

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Co-organized by NP7/OS2
Convener: Alexey Slunyaev | Co-conveners: Amin Chabchoub, Henrik Kalisch, Efim Pelinovsky
NH5.5

Coastal areas are vulnerable to ocean, atmospheric and land-based hazards. This vulnerability is likely to be exacerbated in future with, for example, sea level rise, changing intensity of tropical cyclones, increased subsidence (e.g. from groundwater extraction, tectonics), and increasing socio-economic development coupled to coastal squeeze in, particularly, the urbanised low elevation coastal zone. This calls for a better understanding of the underlying physical processes and their interaction with the coast. Numerical models therefore play a crucial role in characterizing coastal hazards and assigning risks to them. Drawing firm conclusions about current and future changes in this environment is challenging because uncertainties are often large, such as coastal impacts of likely and unlikely (also called high-end) sea level changes for the 21st century. Furthermore, studies addressing coastal impacts beyond this century pose new questions regarding the timescale of impacts and adaptation activity. This session invites submissions focusing on assessments and case studies at global and regional scales of potential physical impacts of tsunamis, storm surge, sea level rise, waves, and currents on coasts. We also welcome submissions on near-shore ocean dynamics and also on the socio-economic impact of these hazards along the coast.

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Including Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture
Co-organized by GM6/OS2
Convener: Luke JacksonECSECS | Co-conveners: Joern Behrens, Renske de WinterECSECS, Goneri Le Cozannet, Nicoletta LeonardiECSECS

OS3 – Ocean Biogeochemistry and Biology

OS3.1 | PICO

Ocean oxygen loss is one of the key consequences of climate change and has the potential to critically impact marine biogeochemical cycles and ecology. Current time series projections and climate models identify an unusually rapid decline in oxygen concentrations, particularly in tropical regions. However, our understanding of how stable this trend is over longer time scales, how adaptable ecosystems are, and if negative or positive feedback mechanisms exist is insufficient.

We seek to identify major gaps in knowledge helping to quantify the rate of ocean deoxygenation and its impact on both biogeochemistry and marine life. To do so, this session aims to bring together scientists from across disciplines including physical oceanography, climate modeling, biogeochemistry, and deep time experts. Our aim is not only to bring our results together but to conclude on what changes in ocean oxygen content can be identified across different ocean areas and different geological timescales.

We invite contributions that investigate ocean deoxygenation in the past, present and future ocean, and its physical, chemical and/or biological drivers, using observational or model-based approaches at regional or global scales.

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Co-organized by BG4
Convener: Bastien QuesteECSECS | Co-convener: Carolin LöscherECSECS
OS3.5

Due to the growing pressures on marine resources and the ecosystem services demand, the interest of scientific and politic world is moving to ensure marine ecosystems conservation and environmental sustainable development providing policies to meet the UN 2030 Agenda Goal 14 in order to “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”. To act against the decline of the ocean health and to create a framework of stakeholders, the UN proposed the establishment of the “Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development” able to bring regional knowledge and priorities together in an international action plan. Anthropogenic activities could have an impact on the marine environment and affect the ecosystem equilibrium. The marine environment is a dynamic, sensitive and fragile area in which it is advantageous to apply new methodologies and observing methods to increase the quantity and quality of the data. Since ocean dynamical affect the dispersion of pollutants such as chemicals, plastics, noise and invasive species, the ecosystems status should be analyzed through the study of abiotic variables distribution at a proper spatio-temporal scale. To analyze the ocean environmental quality, a large amount of data obtained by global observation systems (e.g. GOOS, EMODNET) is needed, which requires the development of cost-effective technologies for integrated observing systems and to support the study of, e.g., biological variables. The session focuses on marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, technological developments for the study of abiotic and biotic factors, with a focus on anthropogenic impacts. Multidisciplinary approaches using data coming from multiple sources are encouraged. Integration of mathematical models, in-situ and remote observations is suggested with the aim to develop methods, technologies and best practices to maintain, restore and monitor biodiversity and to guarantee sustainable use of marine resources. The following topics will be discussed: effects of pollution on biota considering their natural and anthropogenic sources; short-term and long-term impact of economic activities on the seabed; potential remediation of diverse anthropogenic alterations on the seafloor; global change effects on marine ecosystem; new technology development; advanced methods for collection, data processing, and information extraction; benthic and pelagic community dynamics; economic evaluation of natural capital.

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Co-organized by BG4
Convener: Marco Marcelli | Co-conveners: Paola Del Negro, Roberta FerrettiECSECS, XIAOXIA SUN, Markus Weinbauer, Sebastiaan van de VeldeECSECS, Sarah ParadisECSECS
OS3.8

Marine biogeochemical cycles regulate air-sea CO2 exchanges and oceanic carbon sequestration that, ultimately, controls the Earth’s climate. Key actors of these cycles are marine particulate and dissolved organic matter (OM) whose comprehension of the dynamics is one of the most pressing issue in marine science. However, marine biogeochemical cycles are impacted by anthropogenic pollution and there is an urgent need of quantifying sources and fluxes of the contaminants to the marine environment as well as to analyse and understand their possible effects on marine ecosystems and human health.
This session opens to in-field, laboratory and biogeochemical modelling studies that can help to understand where we are and what future directions must be taken to get insights into organic matter and pollutants cycle. The mechanisms of OM production, removal and accumulation, and correlation with optical properties are far from being unravelled. Limited knowledge exists on the impact of phytoplankton metabolism and environmental conditions on OM production as well as on the mechanisms determining its biological lability.
We would like to share the current research on how the multiple sources of anthropogenic pollution impact marine biogeochemical cycles, such as pollutant leaching from plastics and direct contamination of the water by contaminated rivers, aerosols, or submarine groundwater. In this session we aim at discussing mechanisms driving OM dynamics, transfer of pollutants through the marine trophic web, the effects of climate change on OM and pollutants cycle as well as scenarios of mitigation and adaptation to mercury and POP’s pollution.
We encourage submissions dealing with in-situ and space-based observational studies about OM dynamics, at the global as well as at the regional scale Inter-disciplinary studies are strongly encouraged. The session welcomes direct measurements of contaminant fluxes, isotopic or other approaches to tracing contamination, modelling, experimental incubations with contaminants, mesocosm studies and toxicity assessments, with particular attention to Hg and POP (persistent organic pollutants) cycles in the estuarine, coastal and ocean environments.
Thanks to this session we aim to gather together experts in physical, biogeochemical, optical and satellite oceanography. Other compartments of the earth system, and related societal, ecosystem and human health impact studies are welcome as well.

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Including OS Division Outstanding ECS Lecture
Convener: Emanuele Organelli | Co-conveners: Donata Melaku Canu, Camille RichonECSECS, Chiara Santinelli, Lars-Eric Heimburger, Paolo Lazzari
CR7.1

Decreasing sea-ice coverage, increasing permafrost-derived inputs and increasing ice sheet and glacier discharge will continue to affect high latitude environments in the coming decades under all future climate scenarios. Such changes at the interface between the ocean and the cryosphere raise questions about the downstream effects in marine ecosystems, as increased meltwater discharge is likely to impact not only coastal hydrology but also biogeochemistry, sediment transport and ecosystem services such as fisheries and carbon sequestration. However, the impact of increasing melt on fjord and coastal environments is poorly constrained, impacting our ability to make predictions regarding the consequences of future climate change. In order to understand the effect of changing cryosphere-derived inputs on high latitude fjords and marine coastal environments, knowledge concerning the physical and biochemical perturbations occurring in the sea ice and water column and the structure, function and resilience of affected ecosystems must be integrated. In this session we explicitly welcome cross-disciplinary attempts to understand how far reaching the effects of sea-ice, permafrost derived material and glacial changes are on marine biogeochemistry, productivity, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Topics may include, yet are not limited to, the effect of sea-ice, permafrost, and glacier discharge on sea-ice and water column structure, primary and secondary production, community structure, macronutrient and micronutrient availability, microbial processes, the carbonate system, and the biological carbon pump. Modelling experiments, and studies based on long-term observational records including sediment traps and proxy reconstructions from marine sediment cores are also welcome.

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Co-organized by BG4/CL4/OS3
Convener: Sofia Ribeiro | Co-conveners: Jade HattonECSECS, Mark HopwoodECSECS, Letizia Tedesco, Anna Pienkowski, Jonathan HawkingsECSECS, Susann Henkel, Hong Chin NgECSECS
BG2.7

A remote sensing signal acquired by a sensor system results from electromagnetic radiation (EM) interactions from incoming or emitted EM with atmospheric constituents, vegetation structures and pigments, soil surfaces or water bodies. Vegetation, soil and water bodies are functional interfaces between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The physical types of EM used in RS has increased during the years of remote sensing development. Originally, the main focus was on optical remote sensing. Now, thermal, microwave, polarimetric, angular and quite recently also fluorescence have been added to the EM regions under study.
This has led to the definition of an increasing number of bio-geophysical variables in RS. Products include canopy structural variables (e.g. biomass, leaf area index, fAPAR, leaf area density) as well as ecosystem mass flux exchanges dominated by carbon and water exchange. Many other variables are considered as well, like chlorophyll fluorescence, soil moisture content and evapotranspiration. New modelling approaches including models with fully coupled atmosphere, vegetation and soil matrices led to improved interpretations of the spectral and spatio-temporal variability of RS signals including those of atmospheric aerosols and water vapour.
This session solicits for papers presenting methodologies and results leading to the assimilation in biogeoscience and atmospheric models of cited RS variables as well as data measured in situ for RS validation purposes. Contributions should preferably focus on topics related to climate change, food production (and hence food security), nature preservation and hence biodiversity, epidemiology, and atmospheric chemistry and pollution (stratospheric and troposphere ozone, nitrogen oxides, VOC’s, etc). It goes without saying that we also welcome papers focusing on the assimilation of remote sensing and in situ measurements in bio-geophysical and atmospheric models, as well as the RS extraction techniques themselves.
This session aims to bring together scientists developing remote sensing techniques, products and models leading to strategies with a higher (bio-geophysical) impact on the stability and sustainability of the Earth’s ecosystems.

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Co-organized by AS5/ESSI1/HS6/NH6/OS3
Convener: Frank Veroustraete | Co-convener: Willem Verstraeten
AS2.14

Over the past decades, emission reductions for air pollution abatement resulted in changes in precipitation, cloud and aerosol chemical composition, and in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived nutrients to the ocean, affecting atmospheric acidity and atmospheric deposition to ecosystems.
Atmospheric acidity is central to many processes in the atmosphere and the Earth system: atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric deposition, ecosystems, human health, and climate. Atmospheric deposition impacts on marine productivity, oceanic carbon dioxide uptake and emissions to the atmosphere of climate active species. These oceanic emissions of reactive species and greenhouse gases influence atmospheric chemistry and global climate, and induce potentially important chemistry-climate feedbacks. Thus, air-sea fluxes of biogeochemically active constituents have significant impacts on global biogeochemistry and climate.
Despite the wide range of important effects of atmospheric acidity and air-sea exchanges, scientific knowledge gaps remain. Understanding atmospheric acidity’s levels, its spatial and temporal variability and controlling factors in the precipitation and the suspended atmospheric media, aerosols and clouds, and its multiple impacts, is an open scientific topic for research. We also still lack understanding of many of the physical and biogeochemical processes linking atmospheric deposition, atmospheric acidity, nutrient availability, marine biological productivity, and the biogeochemical cycles governing air-sea fluxes of these climate active species. Atmospheric inputs of other toxic substances, e.g., lead, cadmium, copper, and persistent organic pollutants, into the ocean are also of concern.
To address these current knowledge gaps, in this session we welcome new findings from laboratory, in-situ and remote sensing observations and atmospheric and oceanic numerical models, on the status of atmospheric acidity, the factors that affect its levels, its wide range of impacts, on atmospheric deposition of nutrients and toxic substances to the ocean, their impacts on ocean biogeochemistry, on the air-sea fluxes of climate active species and potential feedbacks to climate.
This session is jointly sponsored by GESAMP Working Group 38 on ‘The Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean’, the Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS), and the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP).

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Co-organized by BG4/OS3, co-sponsored by GESAMP WG38 and SOLAS
Convener: Parvadha Suntharalingam | Co-conveners: Maria Kanakidou, Nicole Riemer, Arvind SinghECSECS, Andreas Zuend
AS3.10

This symposium seeks to bring together environmental and atmospheric photochemists to help bridge the topics of aquatic photochemistry and aerosol photochemistry. The field of aquatic photochemistry seeks to understand the photochemical properties of dissolved organic matter which lead to the degradation of pollutants, particularly in the context of water treatment. On the other hand, the field of aerosol photochemistry seeks to understand the properties of the organic fraction in atmospheric aerosol capable of impacting climate through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Both fields have similar goals of characterizing the response of organic matter whether it be in lakes, rivers and oceans or in the atmosphere to sunlight exposure. This symposium will facilitate these two fields coming together to share techniques, sampling protocols and chemical insights. The symposium will gather field and laboratory researchers, environmental engineers, aerosol scientists, and atmospheric chemistry modelers with the goal of discussing emerging research in photochemistry of organic matter both in the aquatic and aerosol phases.

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Co-organized by OS3
Convener: Nadine Borduas-DedekindECSECS | Co-conveners: Nir BluvshteinECSECS, Ulrich Krieger

OS4 – Global ocean processes and oceanographic techniques

OS4.1 | PICO

This open session welcomes presentations in all aspects of ocean processes and oceanographic techniques that are not covered in specialised sessions, as well as advances due to new instruments and techniques such as gliders and AUVs. This includes all marine disciplines as well as interaction with the atmosphere and the cryosphere. Global studies and topics that have global relevance are welcome (i.e. both open ocean and shelf seas). Studies focusing on ocean processes might include turbulent mixing, phytoplankton bloom initiation, or air-sea interactions, for example. Studies about the development of new oceanographic techniques might include robotics, design of numerical models or parameterisations, applications of novel instrumentation, or novel applications of traditional technology.

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Convener: Callum RolloECSECS | Co-conveners: Isabelle GiddyECSECS, Matjaz Licer, Charles Troupin
OS4.2

We invite presentations on ocean surface waves, and wind-generated waves in particular, their dynamics, modelling and applications. This is a large topic of the physical oceanography in its own right, but it is also becoming clear that many large-scale geophysical processes are essentially coupled with the surface waves, and those include climate, weather, tropical cyclones, Marginal Ice Zone and other phenomena in the atmosphere and many issues of the upper-ocean mixing below the interface. This is a rapidly developing area of research and geophysical applications, and contributions on wave-coupled effects in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean are strongly encouraged

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Co-organized by AS2
Convener: Alexander Babanin | Co-conveners: Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres, Miguel Onorato, Fangli Qiao
OS4.3

In many respects internal gravity waves (IGWs) still pose major questions both to the atmospheric and ocean sciences, and to stellar physics. Important issues are IGW radiation from their various relevant sources, IGW reflection at boundaries, their propagation through and interaction with a larger-scale flow, wave-induced mean flow, wave-wave interactions in general, wave breaking and its implications for mixing, and the parameterization of these processes in models not explicitly resolving IGWs. Also the observational record, both on a global scale and with respect to local small-scale processes, is not yet sufficiently able to yield appropriate constraints. The session is intended to bring together experts from all fields of geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics working on related problems. Presentations on theoretical, modelling, experimental, and observational work with regard to all aspects of IGWs are most welcome. Besides, this year we welcome abstracts reporting results on the SouthTRAC campaign in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as any other major collaborative projects such as MS-GWaves.

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Co-organized by AS1/NP7
Convener: Alvaro de la CamaraECSECS | Co-conveners: Ulrich Achatz, Riwal Plougonven, Chantal Staquet, Claudia StephanECSECS
OS4.4

This session is open to science on the tides of the ocean, atmosphere and solid earth; on spatial scales from global to coastal, estuarine and river; and on all timescales. Tides can cause flooding, particularly in combination with storm surge, and tidal currents and water levels can be both a help and a hindrance to shipping and energy generation. There is a critical role for tides in ocean mixing and the cryosphere, and accurate tide models are required for the processing of remote sensing and satellite geodesy data.
We welcome presentations on progress in modelling of past, present, and future tides, assessment of the accuracy of tide models, novel methods for tide predictions, advances in instrumentation and data processing, new findings from the analysis of historical tide gauge data, and understanding of secular changes in tides due to sea-level change and other environmental forcing factors. We also invite submissions on tides of lakes and of other planets.
Déborah Idier of BGRM, the French Geological Survey, will give the invited presentation for this session, on the mechanisms of changes to tides on the European Shelf under sea-level rise.

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Co-organized by G3/NH5
Convener: Joanne Williams | Co-conveners: Mattias Green, Michael Schindelegger, Sophie-Berenice WilmesECSECS
OS4.5

Advanced remote sensing capabilities have provided unprecedented opportunities for monitoring and studying the ocean environment as well as improving ocean and climate predictions. Synthesis of remote sensing data with in situ measurements and ocean models have further enhanced the values of oceanic remote sensing measurements. This session provides a forum for interdisciplinary discussions of the latest advances in oceanographic remote sensing and the related applications and to promote collaborations.

We welcome contributions on all aspects of the oceanic remote sensing and the related applications. Topics for this session include but are not limited to: physical oceanography, marine biology and biogeochemistry, biophysical interaction, marine gravity and space geodesy, linkages of the ocean with the atmosphere, cryosphere, and hydrology, new instruments and techniques in ocean remote sensing, new mission concepts, development and evaluation of remote sensing products of the ocean, and improvements of models and forecasts using remote sensing data. Applications of multi-sensor observations to study ocean and climate processes and applications using international (virtual) constellations of satellites are particularly welcome.

Solicited talk by Rosemary Morrow (LEGOS - OMP, France) & co-authors: Innovation in ocean satellite sensors in the next decade: an OceanObs19 perspective

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Convener: Aida Alvera-Azcárate | Co-conveners: Craig Donlon, Christine Gommenginger, Guoqi Han, Tong Lee
OS4.7

The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides regular and systematic reference information on the physical and biogeochemical states (including sea-ice and sea state) of the global ocean and the European regional seas. This capacity encompasses the description of the current situation (analysis and near-real time observations), the prediction of the situation a few days ahead (forecast), and the provision of consistent retrospective data records for recent decades (re-analysis and reprocessed datasets). CMEMS provides a sustainable response to private and public user needs, for academic, operational, policy and blue growth activities related to all sectors of the blue economy: polar environment monitoring, marine conservation & policies, science & climate, natural resources & energy, water quality, coastal monitoring, society & education, marine food, marine navigation and safety & disaster.

The session will cover research activities that are required to maintain CMEMS systems at the state of the art and prepare their long-term evolution (e.g. physical and biogeochemical modeling; coupling with coastal systems and hydrology; coupling with sea-ice, atmosphere & waves; data assimilation both for physics and biogeochemistry, probabilistic forecasting; big data, cloud computing and processing, artificial intelligence etc.). Presentations on the use, impact and design of in-situ and satellite (e.g. Sentinel missions) observing systems relevant to CMEMS are also much welcome.

Presentations are not limited to research teams directly involved in CMEMS and participation from external teams is strongly encouraged (e.g. from H2020 projects relevant to CMEMS and downstream applications, from projects on seasonal to multidecadal regional projections for the coastal ocean and marine ecosystems, from projects dealing with the monitoring and forecasting of river discharge of freshwater and nutrients).

We also welcome scientific presentations (i) on the verification, validation and uncertainty estimates of CMEMS products, (ii) on the use of CMEMS products for downstream applications (including support to maritime regulations and directives) and (iii) on the monitoring and long-term assessment of the ocean physical and biogeochemical states.

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Convener: Angelique Melet | Co-conveners: Stefano Ciavatta, Emanuela Clementi, Pierre De Mey
OS4.8

NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) is a state-of-the-art modelling framework of the ocean that includes components for the ocean dynamics, the sea-ice and the biogeochemistry, so as a nesting package allowing to set up zooms and a versatile data assimilation interface (see https://www.nemo-ocean.eu/).
NEMO is used by a large community in Europe and world-wide (~200 projects, ~100 publications each year) covering a wide range of applications : oceanographic research, operational oceanography, seasonal forecast and climate projections.
NEMO is in particular used in 6 Earth System Models within CMIP6 and in Copernicus Marine Services (CMEMS) model-based products.

This session will provide a forum to properly address the new scientific advances in numerical modelling of the ocean and their implication for NEMO developments associated with:
• Ocean dynamics at large to coastal scales, up to 1km resolution ;
• Ocean biogeochemistry
• Sea-ice
• New numerical schemes associated to energy conservation constraints
• High performance computing challenges and techniques

The session will cover both research and operationnal activities contributing to new analysis, ideas and developments of ocean numerical models.
Presentations of results based on new NEMO functionalities and new NEMO model configurations are welcome.

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Co-organized by CL5/ESSI1, co-sponsored by IMMERSE and NEMO
Convener: Claire Levy | Co-conveners: Mike Bell, Jerome Chanut, Dorotea IovinoECSECS, Julien Le Sommer
OS4.9

Oceanographic monitoring and modeling are both widely used to study the pathways and fate of marine pollutants such as hydrocarbons, marine litter, POPs, HNS, radionuclides, etc. In this session, advanced sampling methods, models, operational applications and techniques related to tracing pollutants on local, regional and global scales, as well as the coupling with met-oceanographic transport fields from operational oceanography products such as Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service will be discussed. State-of-the-art observational techniques and protocols, ensemble and multi-model methods, risk assessment algorithms and decision support systems are solicited topics. Integration of modelling and observing systems for both data assimilation and model validation are also very welcome.
Key questions of the session are identified as follows: Which factors affect the dispersion of the pollutants in the marine environment? What happens to the contaminants on the ocean’s surface, in the water column and sediments? How do marine pollutants interact with marine habitats? How do they influence marine and maritime resources? How should Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) protocols be optimized to minimize negative impact on the coastal zone?
Impacts of pollutants, including light and noise pollution, on the marine ecosystems and resilience to pollution events are also important subjects for discussion: What is the behavior of oil, marine litter, heavy metals, and other pollutants in the water column, on various beach sediments, rocks and seabed? e.g., what is the biodegradation rate of oil droplets in the water column and what are the controlling factors? What is the rate of fragmentation, biofouling, and sedimentation of plastics? What are the mechanisms of beaching, seabed deposition, and resuspension of marine pollutants and what are the ways of entering the marine food chains (including human consumption)? What is the impact of light and noise pollution on the marine environment and habitats?

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Co-organized by NH5
Convener: Giovanni Coppini | Co-conveners: Sebastien Legrand, Oleg Makarynskyy, Katerina Spanoudaki, George Zodiatis
ITS2.8/OS4.10

Plastic contamination has been reported in all realms of the environment from the tropics to the polar oceans. Our poor knowledge of plastics sources, pathways and hot spots of accumulation prevents an assessment of risks to ecosystems and human health and the development of appropriate mitigation strategies. In order to understand current distributions of plastics and the way they evolve in space and time, much better observations and common consistent measuring methods are required but simultaneously, observations must be systematically combined with computational models
The session aims to set up a forum for multi-disciplinary discussions to create a global picture of plastic contamination in the environment and to suggest approaches for future research, monitoring and mitigation of plastic pollutions impacts. The session will provide a platform for discussions to advise policy and industry on the best ways to assess potential harm to the environment and human health from this contaminant.
This session will draw together research on plastic contamination across all sizes of plastics from shelf seas to the deep ocean including ice covered seas. The forum will facilitate combining observations with state-of-the-art computational modelling to promote the fast advance of research and improve our understanding of how plastic pollution affects environments worldwide. We invite contributions on field and remote observations, laboratory experiments, novel modelling approaches, related scientific initiatives and projects. New ideas for citizen-science involvement and for mitigation strategies to reduce plastic contamination of the environment are especially welcome.

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Co-organized by BG4
Convener: Stefanie RyndersECSECS | Co-conveners: Yevgeny Aksenov, H.G. Orr, Ilka Peeken, Anna Rubio
ITS1.7/SM3.5 | PICO

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) senses the solid Earth, the oceans and the atmosphere with a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors as well as detectors for atmospheric radioactivity. The primary purpose of the IMS data is for nuclear explosion monitoring regarding all aspects of detecting, locating and characterizing nuclear explosions and their radioactivity releases. On-site verification technologies apply similar methods on smaller scales as well as geophysical methods such as ground penetrating radar and geomagnetic surveying with the goal of identifying evidence for a nuclear explosion close to ground zero. Papers in this session address advances in the sensor technologies, new and historic data, data collection, data processing and analysis methods and algorithms, uncertainty analysis, machine learning and data mining, experiments and simulations including atmospheric transport modelling. This session also welcomes papers on applications of the IMS and OSI instrumentation data. This covers the use of IMS data for disaster risk reduction such as tsunami early warning, earthquake hazard assessment, volcano ash plume warning, radiological emergencies and climate change related monitoring. The scientific applications of IMS data establish another large range of topics, including acoustic wave propagation in the Earth crust, stratospheric wind fields and gravity waves, global atmospheric circulation patterns, deep ocean temperature profiles and whale migration. The use of IMS data for such purposes returns a benefit with regard to calibration, data analysis methods and performance of the primary mission of monitoring for nuclear explosions.

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Co-organized by AS4/NH10/OS4
Convener: Martin Kalinowski | Co-conveners: Lars Ceranna, Yan Jia, Peter Nielsen, Ole Ross
G3.3

Satellite altimetry provides the possibility to observe key parts of the hydrosphere, namely the ocean, ice, and continental surface water from space. Since the launch of Topex/Poseidon in 1992 the applications of altimetry have expanded from the open oceans to coastal zones, inland water, land and sea ice. Today, seven missions are in orbit, providing dense and near-global observations of surface elevation and several other parameters. Satellite altimetry has become an integral part of the global observation of the Earth‘s system and changes therein.

In recent years, new satellite altimetry missions have been launched carrying new instruments and operating in new orbits; the CryoSat-2/Sentinel-3 missions equipped with a Delay/Doppler altimeter, the Saral AltiKa mission carrying the first Ka band altimeter, and the recently launched photon counting laser altimeter on-board NASAs ICESat-2.

Fully exploiting this unprecedented availability of observables will enable new applications and results but also require novel and adapted methods of data analysis.
Across the different applications for satellite altimetry, the data analysis and underlying methods are similar and a knowledge exchange between the disciplines will be fruitful.
In this multidisciplinary altimetry session, we therefore invite contributions which discuss new methodology and applications for satellite altimetry in the fields of geodesy, hydrology, cryosphere, oceanography, and climatology.
Topics of such studies could for example be (but not limited to): creation of robust and consistent time series across sensors, validation experiments, combination of radar and laser altimetry e. g. for remote sensing of snow, classification of waveforms, application of data in a geodetic orbit, retracking, or combination with other remote sensing data sets.

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Co-organized by CR2/HS6/OS4
Convener: Eva BoergensECSECS | Co-conveners: Stefan Hendricks, Karina Nielsen, Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Bernd UebbingECSECS
ESSI1.1

The session presents the state of art information systems in oceanography (metadata, vocabularies, ISO and OGC applications, data models), interoperability (Virtual Research Infrastructures, Interoperability forms, Web services, Quality of Services, Open standards), data circulation and services (quality assurance / quality control, preservation, network services) and Education in ocean science (Education and Research, Internet tools for education).
The 2020 session should provide new ideas on the interoperability issues deriving from different sources of data.
ISO standards introduce the necessary elements in the abstract process aiming to assess ‘how’ and ‘how much’ data meets applicable regulatory requirements and aims to enhance user needs. Data management infrastructures should include an evaluation of data by assuring relevance, reliability and fitness-for-purposes / fitness-for-use, adequacy, comparability and compatibility. Presenters are strongly encouraged to demonstrate how their efforts will benefit their user communities, facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general, intended as a range of strategies and practices to identify, create, represent and distribute data, products and information.

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Co-organized by OS4
Convener: Antonio Novellino | Co-conveners: Luca BonofiglioECSECS, Cristian MunozECSECS, Simona Simoncelli
ITS4.5/GI1.4

Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented in collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform and inter-disciplinary surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales. In particular, a special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring high natural risk areas, such as: volcanic, seismic, energy exploitation, slope instability, floods, coastal instability, climate changes and other environmental context.
We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, geology, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote and proximal sensing, volcanology, geotechnical, soil science, marine geology, oceanography, climatology and meteorology. In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geological and environmental processes are also expected.
Finally, we stress that the inter-disciplinary studies that highlight the multiscale properties of natural processes analyzed and monitored by using several methodologies are welcome.

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Co-organized by AS4/CL2/GM2/GMPV9/NH8/NP3/OS4/SM5/SSS10
Convener: Pietro Tizzani | Co-conveners: Antonello Bonfante, Francesca Bianco, Raffaele Castaldo, Nemesio M. Pérez, Annalisa Cappello
G3.2

This session invites innovative Earth system and climate studies based on geodetic measuring techniques. Modern geodetic observing systems document a wide range of changes in the Earth’s solid and fluid layers at very diverging spatial and temporal scales related to processes as, e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, the terrestrial water cycle, ocean dynamics and ice-mass balance. Different time spans of observations need to be cross-compared and combined to resolve a wide spectrum of climate-related signals. Geodetic observables are also often compared with geophysical models, which helps to explain observations, evaluate simulations, and finally merge measurements and numerical models via data assimilation.
We appreciate contributions utilizing geodetic data from diverse geodetic satellites including altimetry, gravimetry (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and GRACE-FO), navigation satellite systems (GNSS and DORIS) or remote sensing techniques that are based on both passive (i.e., optical and hyperspectral) and active (i.e., SAR) instruments. We welcome studies that cover a wide variety of applications of geodetic measurements and their combination to observe and model Earth system signals in hydrological, ocean, atmospheric, climate and cryospheric sciences. Any new approaches helping to separate and interpret the variety of geophysical signals are equally appreciated. Contributions working towards the newly established Inter-Commission Committee on "Geodesy for Climate Research" (ICCC) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) would be particularly interesting for this session.
With author consent, highlights from this session will be tweeted with a dedicated hashtag during the conference in order to increase the impact of the session.

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Co-organized by AS5/CL2/ESSI1/OS4
Convener: Anna KlosECSECS | Co-conveners: Carmen Boening, Henryk Dobslaw, Roelof RietbroekECSECS, Bert Wouters
AS2.12

This session aims at fostering discussions on the physical processes at work at the air-sea interface, including their observation and their representation in coupled numerical models. Examples of such processes are solar radiation-induced diurnal warming and rain-induced cool and fresh lenses, as well as gustiness associated with atmospheric boundary layer thermals or moist convection and cold pools induced by rain evaporation. Air-sea interaction related to surface temperature and salinity fronts, as well as oceanic meso- and sub-mesoscale dynamics, are also of great interest.

This session is thus intended for (i) contributions presenting observational or theoretical aspects of the processes described above and their impact on energy, water, momentum, gas and aerosols exchanges at the interface; and (ii) contributions focusing on the mathematical and algorithmic methods used to represent these processes in coupled ocean-atmosphere models.

This session seeks observational studies based on recent field campaigns or satellite remote sensing. This session also aims to gather studies using numerical models of any level of complexity (from highly idealized to realistic) and any resolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to global circulation models. Studies describing the impact of the air-sea interaction physical processes on the mean global or regional climates and variability representation are also welcome.

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Co-organized by OS4
Convener: Hugo Bellenger | Co-conveners: Kyla Drushka, Audrey Hasson, Brian Ward
AS1.2

Data assimilation systems and numerical weather and climate models are essential to understand the current and past state of the Earth System, and to predict it's future. This session will summarize the latest progress in the development of such models including the assimilation of space-borne and conventional observations, developments for the numerical formulation of the models regarding both the fluid dynamic solver and physical parametrisation schemes, and developments towards weather and climate simulations at higher resolution on modern supercomputers.

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Co-organized by CL2/OS4
Convener: Peter Düben | Co-conveners: Werner Bauer, Daniel Klocke, Isaac Moradi, Jemma Shipton
CL3.1

One of the big challenges in Earth system science consists in providing reliable climate predictions on sub-seasonal, seasonal, decadal and longer timescales. The resulting data have the potential to be translated into climate information leading to a better assessment of multi-scale global and regional climate-related risks.
The latest developments and progress in climate forecasting on subseasonal-to-decadal timescales will be discussed and evaluated in this session. This will include presentations and discussions of predictions for a time horizon of up to ten years from dynamical ensemble and statistical/empirical forecast systems, as well as the aspects required for their application: forecast quality assessment, multi-model combination, bias adjustment, downscaling, etc.
Following the new WCPR strategic plan for 2019-2029, prediction enhancements are solicited from contributions embracing climate forecasting from an Earth system science perspective. This includes the study of coupled processes, impacts of coupling and feedbacks, and analysis/verification of the coupled atmosphere-ocean, atmosphere-land, atmosphere-hydrology, atmosphere-chemistry & aerosols, atmosphere-ice, ocean-hydrology, ocean-ice, ocean-chemistry and climate-biosphere (including human component). Contributions are also sought on initialization methods that optimally use observations from different Earth system components, on assessing and mitigating the impacts of model errors on skill, and on ensemble methods.
We also encourage contributions on the use of climate predictions for climate impact assessment, demonstrations of end-user value for climate risk applications and climate-change adaptation and the development of early warning systems.

A special focus will be put on the use of operational climate predictions (C3S, NMME, S2S), results from the CMIP5-CMIP6 decadal prediction experiments, and climate-prediction research and application projects (e.g. EUCP, APPLICATE, PREFACE, MIKLIP, MEDSCOPE, SECLI-FIRM, S2S4E).
An increasingly important aspect for climate forecast's applications is the use of most appropriate downscaling methods, based on dynamical or statistical approaches or their combination, that are needed to generate time series and fields with an appropriate spatial or temporal resolution. This is extensively considered in the session, which therefore brings together scientists from all geoscientific disciplines working on the prediction and application problems.

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Co-organized by NP5/OS4
Convener: Andrea Alessandri | Co-conveners: Louis-Philippe Caron, Marlis HoferECSECS, June-Yi Lee, Xiaosong Yang
NP6.1

Lagrangian trajectories are currently used for vast range of purposes in ocean and atmosphere science. Examples include studying the connectivity of ocean basins, forecasting the spreading of ash clouds, mapping global ocean diffusivities, observing the deep ocean, or tracing plastics and other forms of pollutants in the ocean, etc. There is thus a need for numerical models capable of simulating Lagrangian particles in the ocean and atmosphere as well as accurate methods for analysing the data from surface drifters, floats, and simulated particles.

This session aims at bringing together scientists working on all sorts of Lagrangian methods, e.g. observed or simulated particles in the atmosphere and ocean, and a variety of use cases e.g. studying oceanic mixing/diffusivity, tracing pollution in the atmosphere or ocean, iceberg tracking etc. We welcome presentations on e.g.:

- Connectivity and pathways of air- or water-masses in the atmosphere and ocean
- Development of Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithms and algorithms to model particles with active behaviours, e.g. icebergs, fish, ash clouds, plastics etc.
- Methods and new tools to analyse observed or simulated Lagrangian particles, e.g. diffusivity, spreading rates, etc.
- New instrumentations and developments of balloons, surface drifters and floats.

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Co-organized by AS5/OS4
Convener: Joakim KjellssonECSECS | Co-conveners: Kristofer Döös, Bror Jonsson
NP6.3

The multitude of processes of various scales occurring simultaneously under strong winds in the air and sea boundary layers presents a true challenge for nonlinear science. We want to understand the physics of these processes, their specific role, their interactions and how they can be probed remotely, how these processes differ from their counterparts under moderate/weak winds. We welcome theoretical, experimental and numerical works on all aspects of processes in turbulent boundary layers above and below the ocean surface. Although we are particularly interested in the processes and phenomena occurring under strong wind conditions, the works concerned with similar processes under weaker winds which might provide an insight for rough seas are also welcomed. We are also very interested in works on remote sensing of these processes.
The areas of interest include the processes at and in the vicinity of the interface (nonlinear dynamics of surface water, wave-turbulence interactions, wave breaking, generation and dynamics of spray and air bubbles, thermodynamics of the processes in the boundary layers, heat and gas exchange), all the processes above and below the aIr/water interface, as long as they are relevant for strong wind conditions (such as, e.g. inertial waves generated by changing winds). Relevant nonlinear biological phenomena are also welcomed.
The main aims of the session is to initiate discussion of the multitude of processes active under strong winds across the narrow specializations as a step towards creating an integrated picture. Theoretical, numerical, experimental and observational works are welcomed.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) is a truly interdisciplinary field, including different topics dealing with rotating stratified fluids. It emerges in the late 50s, when scientists from meteorology, oceanography, astrophysics, geological fluid dynamics, and applied mathematics began to mathematically model complex flows and thereby unify these fields. Since then many new aspects were added and deeper insight into many problems has been achieved. New mathematical and statistical tools were developed, standard techniques were refined, classical problems were varied. In this session we primarily focus on contributions from dynamic meteorology and physical oceanography that model flows by mathematical analysis. However, it is also a forum for experimental GFD and for astrophysical and geological aspects of GFD as well.

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Co-organized by AS2/NH1/OS4
Convener: Yuliya Troitskaya | Co-conveners: Uwe Harlander, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, Victor Shrira, Wu-ting Tsai, Claudia Cherubini, Michael Kurgansky, Andreas Will
NP2.1

Recent years have seen a substantial progress in the understanding of the nonlinear and stochastic processes responsible for important dynamical aspects of the complex Earth system. The Earth system is a complex system with a multitude of spatial and temporal scales which interact nonlinearly with each other. For understanding this complex system new methods from dynamical systems, complex systems theory, complex network theory, statistics and climate and Earth sciences are needed.

In this context the session is open to contributions on all aspects of the nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of the Earth system, including the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate system. Communications based on theoretical and modeling studies, as well as on experimental investigations are welcome. Studies that span the range of model hierarchy from idealized models to complex Earth System Models (ESM), data driven models, use observational data and also theoretical studies are particularly encouraged.

Invited Speaker: Anna von der Heydt (Utrecht University)

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Co-organized by AS4/CL4/NH1/OS4
Convener: Christian Franzke | Co-conveners: Hannah Christensen, Balasubramanya Nadiga, Paul Williams, Naiming Yuan, Francois Schmitt, Guillaume Charria, Véronique Garçon
GM6.7

The ocean floor hosts a tremendous variety of forms that reflect the action of a range of tectonic, sedimentary, oceanographic and biological processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Being able to map the form and shape of the seabed and to understand the processes that shape it is a major prerequisite to ocean and coastal management, nature conservation and hazard assessment as well as a key objective of national and international research programmes and IODP expeditions.

High quality seafloor maps are integral to submarine geomorphic investigations. Acoustic remote-sensing technologies (singlebeam, multibeam, sidescan, interferometric and synthetic-aperture sonars), deployed on various platforms, are fundamental to seafloor mapping. In relatively shallow and transparent waters, optical methods such as aircraft and satellite-based remote sensing and LIDAR are being employed with increasing success. Seafloor maps, especially when combined with sub-seafloor and/or seabed measurements, provide an exciting opportunity to integrate the approaches of geomorphology and geophysics, and to extend quantitative geomorphology offshore. 3D seismic reflection data has also given birth to the discipline of seismic geomorphology, which has provided a 4D perspective to continental margin evolution. Innovative processing and classification software, image analysis, machine and deep-learning applications are advancing developments in seabed-recognition techniques.

The aim of this interdisciplinary session is two-fold: (i) to highlight recent advances in seabed mapping and classification, and (ii) to improve the understanding of the causes and consequences of geomorphic processes shaping underwater landscapes, including submarine erosion and depositional processes, submarine landslides, sediment transfer and deformation, volcanic activity, fluid migration and escape, faulting and folding, among others. Contributions to this session can include work from any physiographic region, ranging from shallow coastal settings to abyssal plains and deep-sea trenches. Datasets of any scale, from satellite-predicted depth to ultra-high resolution swath bathymetry, sub-surface imaging and sampling, are anticipated.

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Co-organized by OS4/SSP3, co-sponsored by IAG
Convener: Aaron Micallef | Co-conveners: Markus Diesing, H. Christian Hass, Sebastian Krastel, Alessandra Savini, Maria Judge, Kim Picard, Anne-Cathrin WölflECSECS
NH5.4

This session welcomes contributions presenting advances in, and approaches to, studying, modelling, monitoring, and forecasting of internal waves in stratified estuaries, lakes and the coastal oсean.

Internal solitary waves (ISWs) and large-amplitude internal soliton packets are a commonly observed event in oceans and lakes. In the oceans ISWs are mainly generated by the interaction of the barotropic tides with the bottom topography. Large amplitude solitary waves are energetic events that generate strong currents. They can also trap fluid with larvae and sediments in the cores of waves and transport it a considerable distance. ISWs can cause hazards to marine engineering and submarine navigation, and significantly impact on marine ecosystems and particle transport in the bottom layer of the ocean and stratified lakes. Contributions studying flows due to internal waves, their origin, propagation and influence on the surrounding environment are of great importance.
The scope of the session involves all aspects of ISWs generation, propagation, transformation and the interaction of internal waves with bottom topography and shelf zones, as well as an evaluation of the role of internal waves in sediment resuspension and transport. Breaking of internal-waves also drives turbulent mixing in the ocean interior that is important for climate ocean models. Discussion of parameterizations for internal-wave driven turbulent mixing in global ocean models is also invited.

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Co-organized by NP7/OS4
Convener: Kateryna Terletska | Co-conveners: Marek Stastna, Tatiana Talipova, Zhenhua Xu
HS2.2.2

Earth Systems Models aim at describing the full water- and energy cycles, i.e. from the deep ocean or groundwater across the sea or land surface to the top of the atmosphere. The objective of the session is to create a valuable opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and experiences among members of the Earth System modeling community and especially atmospheric-hydrological modelers.
Contributions are invited dealing with approaches how to capture the complex fluxes and interactions between surface water, groundwater, land surface processes, oceans and regional climate. This includes the development and application of one-way or fully-coupled hydrometeorological prediction systems for e.g. floods, droughts and water resources at various scales. We are interested in model systems that make use of innovative upscaling and downscaling schemes for predictions across various spatial- and temporal scales. Contributions on novel one-way and fully-coupled modeling systems and combined dynamical-statistical approaches are encouraged. A particular focus of the session is on weakly and strongly coupled data assimilation across the different compartments of the Earth system for the improved prediction of states and fluxes of water and energy. Merging of different observation types and observations at different length scales is addressed as well as different data assimilation approaches for the atmosphere-land system, the land surface-subsurface system and the atmosphere-ocean system. The value of different measurement types for the predictions of states and fluxes, and the additional value of measurements to update states across compartments is of high interest to the session. We also encourage contributions on use of field experiments and testbeds equipped with complex sensors and measurement systems allowing compartment-crossing and multi-variable validation of Earth System Models.

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Co-organized by AS2/BG2/NH1/NP5/OS4
Convener: Harald Kunstmann | Co-conveners: Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Alfonso Senatore, Gabriëlle De Lannoy, Martin Drews, Lars Nerger, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler

OS5 – Short courses

SC1.22

Satellite data provides information on the marine environment that can be used for many applications – from water quality and early warning systems, to climate change studies and marine spatial planning. The most modern generation of satellites offer improvements in spatial and temporal resolution as well as a constantly evolving suite of products.

Data from the European Union Copernicus programme is open and free for everyone to use however they wish - whether from academic, governance, or commercial backgrounds. The programme has an operational focus, with satellite constellations offering continuity of service for the foreseeable future. There is also a growing availability of open source tools that can be used to work with this data.

This short course is an opportunity to learn about the data available from the Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite and downstream services, and then, with support from marine Earth Observation experts, to develop your own workflows. The sessions will be interactive, using the WeKEO DIAS hosted processing, Sentinel Applications Platform (SNAP) software, and Python programming. No experience is necessary as various exercises will be provided for a wide range of skill levels and applications, however participants should bring their own laptops and be prepared to install open source software in advance.

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Co-organized by ESSI1/OS5
Convener: Hayley Evers-King | Co-conveners: Lauren Biermann, Oliver Clements, Christine Traeger-Chatterjee
SC2.13

The climate system as a whole can be viewed as a highly complex thermal/heat engine, in which numerous processes continuously interact to transform heat into work and vice-versa. As any physical system, the climate system obeys the basic laws of thermodynamics, and we may therefore expect the tools of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to be particularly useful in describing and synthesising its properties. The main aim of this short course will be twofold. Part 1 will provide an advanced introduction to the fundamentals of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, irreversible processes and energetics of multicomponent stratified fluids. Part 2 will illustrate the usefulness of this viewpoint to summarize the main features of the climate system in terms of thermodynamic cycles, as well as a diagnostic tool to constrain the behaviour of climate models. Although the aim is for this to be a self-contained module, some basic knowledge of the subject would be beneficial to the participants. Registration is not needed, but indication of interest would be helpful for planning purposes.

Part 1 (1 hour) will have the following learning objectives:
• Equilibrium thermodynamics, master thermodynamic potentials, partial thermodynamic properties
• Interdependence of energy conservation and irreversible entropy production
• Mutually consistent definitions of heat and work in the atmosphere and oceans
• Local versus global theories of Available Potential Energy.
• Standard and non-standard theories of irreversible processes.
• Non-equilibrium theory of sensible and latent heat fluxes at the air-sea interface, reversible and irreversible phase changes.
• Theories for the thermodynamic efficiency of the atmospheric and oceanic heat engines: APE versus entropy-based Carnot approaches.
• Exact partitions of potential energy into sign-definite components. Applications to exact mean/eddy partitions. Concepts of local baroclinic life cycle.

Part 2 (45 mn) will illustrate practical applications rooted in recent research and will cover topics such as:
• Means of energy exchange throughout the atmosphere and in the oceans
• Link to observations, consistency of current climate models with theory. Using theory to improve climate models in the future.
• Importance of extratropical eddies in shaping the meridional energy transport, and how this links to the general circulation of the atmosphere

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Co-organized by AS6/CL6/NP9/OS5
Convener: Valerio LemboECSECS | Co-conveners: Valerio Lucarini, Gabriele MessoriECSECS, Remi Tailleux
SC1.10

This short course is designed to give a concrete introduction to multifractal methodologies and tools as applied to a wide variety of nonlinear, geophysical systems, including their interactions with urban systems. These applications range from urban geosciences (e.g. land use patterns, water management and ecosystems) to atmospheric and oceanic turbulence (e.g. wind energy, meso-scale scaling anisotropy) and climate (e.g. across scale evolution of the extremes). Data will include in-situ and remotely sensed data, as well as outputs from physically-based modelling.
The training will be performed with the help of an open access python library.

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Co-organized by AS6/NH11/NP9/OS5, co-sponsored by AGU
Convener: Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia | Co-conveners: Auguste Gires, Igor PazECSECS, Yangzi QiuECSECS, Arun RamanathanECSECS