Division meeting for Tectonics and Structural Geology (TS)
Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45–13:45
Pangea and lower mantle: Are we entering into a new paradigm? From Plate Tectonics to Global Tectonics by Xavier Le Pichon
During the sixties, the new Plate Tectonics paradigm was established. At a recent international meeting (Collège de France, Paris, 2018), discussions arose on whether for the first time it would be possible to relate without ambiguity plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.
In this presentation, the author shares this point of view and explains why he does so.
Carlo Laj |
Chris King (deceased)
Tue, 09 Apr, 19:00–20:00
TS1 – General Topics in Tectonics and Structural Geology
Open session on tectonics and structural geology
In this session we solicit contributions that are of general interest to the tectonics and structural geology community. The range of topics is entirely open, creating a space for abstract whose content does not correspond to one of the specific themes of other proposed sessions. Contributions thought to bridge disciplines or emphasize a specialist field are very welcome. We will define sub-themes on the basis of abstracts that come in. This is the session to place your unusual, interesting, not-in-the-box research!
Teaching Structural Geology and Tectonics in the 21st Century
Structural geology and tectonics are two of the most visual subjects in geosciences, and lectures on the subjects form the core of curricula at geology departments at universities around the world. New teaching styles and technologies have found their way into class room and field courses focusing on Structural geology and tectonic, such as Blackboard LEARN, flipped class rooms, classroom response systems, digital mapping on tablets, the use of drones, and virtual outcrops. We invite researchers and lecturers to present their original and innovative ideas, strategies and tools regarding teaching Structural Geology and Tectonics.
Achievements and perspectives in scientific ocean and continental drilling
Scientific drilling through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) continues to provide unique opportunities to investigate the workings of the interior of our planet, Earth’s cycles, natural hazards and the distribution of subsurface microbial life. The past and current scientific drilling programs have brought major advances in many multidisciplinary fields of socio-economic relevance, such as climate and ecosystem evolution, palaeoceanography, the deep biosphere, deep crustal and tectonic processes, geodynamics and geohazards. This session invites contributions that present and/or review recent scientific results from deep Earth sampling and monitoring through ocean and continental drilling projects. Furthermore, we encourage contributions that outline perspectives and visions for future drilling projects, in particular projects using a multi-platform approach.
Early Earth: Dynamics, Geology, Chemistry and Life in the Archean Earth
Processes responsible for formation and development of the early Earth (> 2500Ma) are not
well understood and strongly debated, reflecting in part the poorly preserved, altered, and
incomplete nature of the geological record from this time.
In this session we encourage the presentation of new approaches and models for the development of Earth's early crust and mantle and their methods of interaction. We encourage contributions from the study of the preserved rock archive as well as geodynamic models of crustal and mantle dynamics so as to better understand the genesis and evolution of continental crust and the stabilization of cratons.
We invite abstracts from a large range of disciplines including geodynamics, geology, geochemistry, and petrology but also studies of early atmosphere, biosphere and early life relevant to this period of Earth history.
InSight - Initial results after four months on Mars
The InSight mission to Mars landed in Elysium Planitia on November 26. InSight's scientific objective is the study of the Martian interior using two seismometers, a heat flow probe and geodetical measurements. Auxiliary instruments will collect meteorological and magnetic data for at least one Martian year.
This session provides initial results from Mars, status reports of instrument deployment and relevant pre-landing science.
TS2 – Brittle Deformation and Fault-related Processes
Fault evolution, dynamics and kinematics
In regions of active tectonics, the knowledge of fault evolution, dynamics and kinematics plays a key role in understanding the nature of the tectonic setting. This is of utmost importance, for example, for exploration of geothermal energy, safe CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste depositories. Nevertheless, we see tantalising very little of the faults that are so important for these topics. In geophysics, faults are only visible above the resolution of the method, in outcrop it is often the case that they have been exhumed and are now inactive. We need more information about all stages of faulting; why and when they occur, how they move, and how and why they keep on moving. We solicit novel and illuminating abstracts from analogue experiments, numerical models, and geophysical and or geological observations dealing with fault evolution, dynamics of faulting or kinematic behaviour.
Earthquakes: from slow to fast, from the field to the laboratory and models.
The advent of novel technologies have boosted our capability of acquiring new evidences that faults behavior is various and extremely sensitive to a large number of parameters. These evidences are supported in natural earthquakes by the occurence of a large pletora of events spanning from slow to fast earthquakes, precursory slips, non volcanic tremors and low frequency earthquakes. The aim of this session is to convey interdisciplinary studies on fault behaviour and processes controlling the propagation of slip instabilities in rocks, granular materials and/or laboratory analogs; we invite contributions at the frontiers between Rock Mechanics, Models, Seismology, Tectonics and Mineralogy dealing with either slow, fast or transient evolution of earthquakes and earthquake sequences in shallow and deep environments; we welcome studies performed at the laboratory and field scale, providing insights on earthquake evolution and/or constraining observed seismological statistical laws like Omori’s and Gutenberg-Richter’s; we welcome innovative techniques that help the observations and take advantage of high-speed imaging and continuous acoustic emission streaming data.
In the last few decades, there has been an increasing need to understand the interaction between Fluid Flow (F2), and Pore Pressure Prediction (P3) in Sedimentary Basins. Other than the environmental reasons (underground water quality, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration…) behind this growing interest, there are many economic applications, which bring significant contributions from both academia and industry to better constrain this F2 P3 relationship. Indeed, the petroleum (overpressure constraint, hydrocarbon migration…), mining (dissolution and precipitation of minerals and transport of solids in solution…) and geothermal (heat transport…) industries are all eager to determine to what extent fluid flow and/or pore pressure prediction are important to constrain fluid migration and fluid rock interaction.
The development of advanced models, especially related to diagenetic reactions, has led to an increasing understanding of the interactions between the fluid and the rock. Yet our understanding of the interaction between F2, P3 and brittle deformation is still limited and very few studies have attempted to decipher the relationship between dynamic permeability (related to brittle deformation), pore pressure and the fluid flow in Sedimentary Basins.
Therefore, we encourage submissions of studies from a range of fields that can help to improve our understanding of interactions between Fluid Flow, Pore Pressure and Brittle Deformation in Sedimentary Basins. These can include, but are not limited to, analogue models, numerical modelling, geophysical data, and field data.
The participants to this session will be invited to submit their work to the special issue “Fluid Flow, Pore Pressure and Brittle Deformation” on the Geofluids Journal.
The presence of fractures, whether natural or induced, has become increasingly important in recent years in the exploitation of Earth’s natural resources. Especially in rocks that have a low matrix permeability, the presence of fractures is critical for reaching flow rates sufficient for economic hydrocarbon production and heat extraction for geothermal reservoirs. Better prediction of subsurface fracture arrangements and their mechanical and flow response have become an increasingly relevant field of research.
We propose here a multi-disciplinary session on the arrangement and mechanical evolution of natural and induced fracture networks and their response to fluid flow in low-permeability rocks on a multitude of scales (from pore-scale to basin-scale). We encourage submissions from experimental, numerical and field studies on fracture network formation and control on fluid flow of naturally and hydraulically fractured systems. Also studies that address the role of fractures on both shale gas and tight geothermal reservoir application cases are welcomed. We especially encourage early-career scientists to present their work in this session.
New views of "old" materials - modern approaches in microstructural and textural analysis and interpretation
Microstructures and crystallographic textures can be used to analyze the multi-dimensional, geometrical, physical and chemical properties of geo-materials, allowing the investigation of deformation, magmatic, metamorphic or sedimentaty processes evolved in their evolution.
These methods include, but are not limited to the quantitative assessment of particle shape properties, of grain and pore size distributions, spatial correlations, statistical pattern analysis, as well as the analysis of crystallographic orientation and misorientation data. Advances in analytical technology steadily increases the quality of data and thus allows a refinement of interpretations and new observations at unprocessed scales, dimensions and resolution. Advances in analytical procedures and algorithms provide the basics for faster, more precise and statistically sound analyses.
To celebrate the recent advancements in microstructural and texture analysis methods, resulting interpretations and refreshing new insights, we invite contributions related to new analytical methods or recent technical developments in well-established methods, such as EBSD, X-ray diffraction and topography, (S)TEM, SIMS, Atom probe, X-ray or Neutron tomographic techniques, AMS and light optical techniques. Novel attempts to data processing, analysis and interpretation are extremely welcomed.
We welcome discussions as well as demonstrations of methods of microstructure and texture analysis applied to geo-materials (including such difficult materials as ice and clay) from natural samples, deformation experiments and material sciences applications as well as stimulating results based on theoretical analyses or numerical simulations.
Shear zones in the ductile realm - rheological evolution, seismicity and coupled processes
Shear zones as expressions of strain localization shape rocks from the micron- to the plate tectonic scale, influencing both viscous and brittle deformation systems. Strain localization across multiple scales is a complex process in any tectonic environment, and often still poorly understood. In many cases, strain localization involves feedback between mechanical, chemical and hydraulic processes that control the rheological evolution of deforming rocks. During strain localization, mylonites in shear zones evolve their fabrics, grain sizes and compositions, leading to changes in deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties. At one extreme, brittle fracturing and faulting may be coupled to shear zone processes, as evidenced by high-temperature fracturing, lower crustal earthquake nucleation, and deep fracture-controlled fluid pathways. Cyclical interplay between brittle and viscous deformation regimes may also occur. Whatever the deformation mechanism, shear zones constitute either barriers to or conduits for fluid flow, which emphasizes the significance of their dynamic transport properties.
This session seeks to illuminate deformation, metamorphic and transport processes in shear zones via a wide range of methodological approaches, including field- and microscale studies, numerical and analogue modelling approaches as well as rock deformation experiments and aims to present the latest advances in our understanding of shear zones and associated faulting. We particularly encourage early career researchers to present their findings.
Impacts of partial melting on the evolution of the continental crust: different views, one topic
In the continental crust, partial melting is now recognized as the main geological process responsible for the production of granites, crustal differentiation of major rheological changes. Many studies (geochemical, petrological, experimental, geodynamical modelling) have shown that partial melting occurring at the grain-scale has consequences at the crustal scale. During its long history heterogeneous continental crust has been through many tectonics cycles with synchronous partial melting and regional deformation. This pairing is critical: melt weakens the rocks allowing faster deformation within mountain building or rifting processes. Dilatant structural sites developed during orogenic deformation accumulate anatectic melt, which begins to crystallize there, before a subsequent shear-enhanced compaction event segregates highly fractionated melt with incredibly evolved compositions to higher crustal levels. These are mainly emplaced as pegmatites, which may be of considerable economic interest. Many interesting questions arise. How does the growth and progressive development of structures affect how melt migrate through the crust, on the grain and macroscales? Does it pump melt though the crust? What is the quantitative effect of partial melting on the effective viscosity of a migmatite? How fast can melt differentiate?
Studying such processes requires a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore we invite contributions to this session from structural analyses, geochemistry, petrology, experimental/rheological studies, field based observations, numerical modeling or geochronology that investigate partial melting at different scales in a heterogeneous and deforming continental crust.
‘Date to rate’ and ‘age to stage’: rates and timescales of geologic processes
Radioactive decay systems have been used to date rocks and minerals for over 100 years, but advances in the last 15-20 years have provided unprecedented improvements in our ability to constrain the rates and timescales of processes such as deformation, metamorphism and magmatism. The ultimate aim is to be able to answer questions such as "for how long was this shear zone active?", "what was the rate of deformation?", "how quickly did this metamorphic terrane heat up or cool down?", "was heating/cooling continuous or pulsed?", or "how long did it take this pluton to form?". This session aims to showcase the latest developments in chemical and textural techniques that allow ‘date’ to be linked to ‘process’ across all aspects of the evolution of the Earth’s lithosphere.
Long-term rheology , heat budget and dynamic permeability of deforming and reacting rocks: from laboratory to geological scales
The goal of this session is to reconcile short-time/small-scale and long-time/large-scale observations, including geodynamic processes such as subduction, collision, rifting or mantle lithosphere interactions. Despite the remarkable advances in experimental rock mechanics, the implications of rock-mechanics data for large temporal and spatial scale tectonic processes are still not straightforward, since the latter are strongly controlled by local lithological stratification of the lithosphere, its thermal structure, fluid content, tectonic heritage, metamorphic reactions and deformation rates.
Mineral reactions have mechanical effects that may result in the development of pressure variations and thus are critical for interpreting microstructural and mineral composition observations. Such effects may fundamentally influence element transport properties and rheological behavior.
Here, we encourage presentations focused on the interplay between metamorphic processes and deformation on all scales, on the rheological behavior of crustal and mantle rocks and time scales of metamorphic reactions in order to discuss
(1) how and when up to GPa-level differential stress and pressure variations can be built and maintained at geological timescales and modelling of such systems,
(2) deviations from lithostatic pressure during metamorphism: fact or fiction?,
(3) the impact of deviations from lithostatic pressure on geodynamic reconstructions.
(4) the effect of porous fluid and partial melting on the long-term strength.
We therefore invite the researchers from different domains (rock mechanics, petrographic observations, geodynamic and thermo-mechanical modelling) to share their views on the way forward for improving our knowledge of the long-term rheology and chemo-thermo-mechanical behavior of the lithosphere and mantle.
Fluid-rock interaction: Kickstarter of metamorphic, deformation and geo-engineering processes
Reactions between fluids and rocks have a fundamental impact on many of the natural and geo-engineering processes in crustal settings. Examples of such natural processes are localization of deformation, earthquake nucleation caused by high pressure fluid pulses, as well as metamorphic reactions and rheological weakening triggered by fluid flow, metasomatism and fluid-mediated mass transport. Moreover, the efficiency of many geo-engineering processes is partly dependent on fluid-rock interactions, such as hydraulic fracturing, geothermal energy recovery, CO2 storage and wastewater injection. All our observations in the rock record are the end-product of all metamorphic, metasomatic and deformation changes that occurred during the interaction with fluid. Therefore, to investigate and understand these complex and interconnected processes, it is required to merge knowledge and techniques deriving from several disciplines of the geosciences.
We invite multidisciplinary contributions that investigate fluid-rock interactions throughout the entire breadth of the topic, using fieldwork, microstructural and petrographic analyses, geochemistry, experimental rock mechanics, thermodynamic modeling and numerical modeling.
Metamorphic minerals: time capsules from a dynamic lithosphere
Metamorphic minerals document the dynamic evolution of our planet, from the Archean to Present and from the grain- to plate-scale. Deciphering these records requires an approach that integrates petrology, geochemistry, chronology, structural analysis and modelling. Our ability to study our dynamic lithosphere through metamorphic geology continues to improve. At the same time, new analyses and approaches reveal issues and pitfalls that inspire future development.
This session aims to highlight integrated metamorphic geology and its use in elucidating the processes that shaped cratons and mountain belts through time. We welcome contributions in petrology, geo- and thermo-chronology, trace-element and isotope geochemistry, thermodynamic modelling, and structural geology—all with a specific focus on studying metamorphosed-metasomatised rocks. Part of the session will be devoted to novel developments and applications in geochronology and micro- to nano-analytical methods.
Robert Holder (Johns Hopkins University): "Monazite Eu anomalies revisited: beyond feldspar"
Pierre Lanari (Universität Bern): "An integrated modelling framework for tracing equilibrium relationships in metamorphic rocks"
TS4 – Interplay between Tectonics and Surface Processes
Tectonics, erosion, and climate in orogenic settings: evolution and interactions determined from sediment records
The interlinked influences of tectonics, erosion and climate govern the topographic and debatably also structural evolution of mountain belts. In turn, the evolution of any given mountain belt can influence the development of the regions’ climate, erosion and sedimentation patterns. Sedimentary records can preserve a rich archive of a region’s tectonics, erosion and/or climate history that can be interrogated through application of a number of approaches utilising, for example, sediment provenance, detrital thermochronology, determination of sedimentation rates and facies, and stable isotope studies. Suitable continental records may exist in foreland basins and retro-arc settings located proximal to the mountain sources, and scientific drilling has been important in recovering records from the modern oceans. Located potentially far from the mountains, many submarine fans may preserve more complete and readily dated sedimentary sections. Analysis and comparison of strata across different parts of a mountain belt can potentially allow a more detailed spatial and temporal understanding of climatic and tectonic evolution of a region as an orogen uplifts and subsequently collapses. Although the Asian Monsoon-Himalayan system is the classic example of tectonic-erosion-climate interactions, similar relationships have been invoked in South America, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan and the Pyrenees during the Cenozoic alone. We invite contributions that utilise sediment records to unravel the links and relationships between tectonics, erosion or climate change, in recent or ancient orogenic settings, using traditional and novel application of field, laboratory and/or modelling techniques.
From earthquake rupture to landscape building - Deformation of the Earth’s surface over multiple timescales
Understanding how successive earthquakes accrue on individual faults to produce kilometer-scale displacements, build landscapes and activate cascades of geomorphological processes is still poorly understood. While large-scale geodynamic processes like subduction and orogenesis can be considered continuous over geological timescales (100 ka to Ma), they mostly operate discretely over shorter timescales (< 100 ka). Apparent quiescence is transiently interrupted by pulses of localised tectonic and geomorphic activity, which repeatedly interact and shape the landscape. Long-term permanent crustal deformation forms landscapes, yet geodesy primarily records short-term elastic strain. In this context, the surface expression on individual faults or active margins contains valuable information on both the endogenous and the exogenous processes at work, the complexity of which may be studied in long-term features (e.g. landscape evolution, mountain building, basin formation) as well as short-term data (e.g. geodetic monitoring, paleoseismology).
The scope of this session is to bring together state-of-the-art research efforts to better understand how the short-term rate variability that is often recorded on the Earth’s surface integrates to produce uniform large-scale active tectonic processes (i.e. subduction, collision, rifting, transform faulting). We welcome contributions combining observations and analogue & numerical modelling. We would also particularly value studies that bridge deformational processes operating over different spatial and temporal scales.
Interaction of tectonics, climate, topography and surface processes from mountain belts to basins
Landscape evolution is driven by surface processes that are forced by the interaction of climate, tectonics and topography. In this session we will explore records of these interactions from mountain belts to basins. Presentations cover both well established and novel techniques that utilize geomorphic, erosional, and sedimentary records to quantify rates and styles of deformation, climatic changes, and topographic impacts on surface processes. Presentations are arranged around three themes: (1) Topographic stress control on surface processes: Tectonic and topographically generated stress fields affect the rate of local surface processes. Surface processes in turn modulate these stress fields and shape landscapes. Theoretical and numerical models as well as laboratory and field studies explore these controls and potential feedbacks. (2) Tectonic and climatic influence on eroding landscapes: The coupling between tectonic deformation and climate governs the rate of surface processes. Morphometric analyses, low-temperature thermochronology, and cosmogenic nuclides all provide useful insights into the rates at which surface processes occur and the feedbacks among tectonics and climate. (3) Morphometric and basin records of landscape evolution: Erosional products of surface processes modulated by climate, tectonics and topography are routed through rivers to depositional sinks, which themselves may be subsequently affected by tectonic deformation. This topic explores how sedimentary records and morphometric analyses can be used to reconstruct climatic and tectonic forcing of landscapes.
A wide variety of erosional processes and sediment transport processes act to shape landscapes and generate the sedimentary record. Often, the most sensitive records of sediment production, transport, and deposition are found within detrital archives, which include (but are not limited to) physical sedimentology and textural analyses, detrital thermochronometry, cosmogenic nuclides and other geochemical tools, and stratigraphic analyses.
This session examines how detrital records can be used to study erosion, sedimentation, and sediment provenance. We seek studies that use detrital tools to address open questions in geomorphology and sedimentology, such as: (i) signal propagation through landscapes; (ii) the climatic and tectonic controls on sediment production and transport; (iii) variability in the processes and rates of erosion; (iv) decoding basin deposits for information about past environments; and (v) thresholds governing surface processes. Contributions are welcome from field, experimental, and modelling studies across all temporal and spatial scales.
The ocean floor hosts a tremendous variety of forms that reflect the action of a range of tectonic, sedimentary, oceanographic and biological processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Many such processes are hazards to coastal populations and offshore installations, and their understanding constitutes a key objective of national and international research programmes and IODP expeditions. High quality bathymetry, especially when combined with sub-seafloor and/or seabed measurements, provides an exciting opportunity to integrate the approaches of geomorphology and geophysics, and to extend quantitative geomorphology offshore. 3D seismic reflection data has also given birth to the discipline of seismic geomorphology, which has provided a 4D perspective to continental margin evolution.
This interdisciplinary session aims to examine the causes and consequences of geomorphic processes shaping underwater landscapes, including submarine erosion and depositional processes, submarine landslides, sediment transfer and deformation, volcanic activity, fluid migration and escape, faulting and folding, and other processes acting at the seafloor. The general goal of the session is to bring together researchers who characterise the shape of past and present seafloor features, seek to understand the sub-surface and surface processes at work and their impacts, or use bathymetry and/or 3D seismic data as a model input. Contributions to this session can include work from any depth or physiographic region, e.g. oceanic plateaus, abyssal hills, mid-ocean ridges, accretionary wedges, and continental margins (from continental shelves to abyss plains). Datasets of any scale, from satellite-predicted depth to ultra high-resolution swath bathymetry, sub-surface imaging and sampling, are anticipated.
This session is organised by the IAG Submarine Geomorphology Working Group.
TS5 – Earthquake Tectonics and Crustal Deformation
Paleoseismicity, active faulting, surface deformation, and the implications on seismic hazard assessment (Fault2SHA)
The study of active faults and deformation of the Earth's surface has made, and continues to make, significant contributions to our understanding of earthquakes and the assessment of seismic related hazard.
Active faulting may form and deform the Earth's surface so that records are documented in young sediments and in the landscape. Field studies of recent earthquake ruptures help not only constraining earthquake source parameters but also the identification of previously unknown active structures. The insights gleaned from recent earthquakes can be applied to study past earthquakes. Paleoseismology and related disciplines such as paleogeodesy and paleotsunami investigations still are the primary tools to establish earthquake records that are long enough to determine recurrence intervals and long-term deformation rates for active faults. Multidisciplinary data sets accumulated over the years have brought unprecedented constraints on the size and timing of past earthquakes, and allow deciphering shorter-term variations in fault slip rates or seismic activity rates, as well as the interaction of single faults within fault systems. Based on the this rich, but very heterogeneous knowledge of seismogenic faults, a variety of approaches have been developed to tranfer earthquake-fault geology into fault models suitable for probabilistic SHA. This session thus aims at linking field geologists, crustal deformation modellers, fault modellers, and seismic hazard practitioners.
In this session, we welcome contributions describing and critically discussing different approaches to study active faults. We are particularly interested in studies applying new and innovative methodological or multidisciplinary approaches. We hope to assemble a broad program bringing together studies dealing with on-land, lake or offshore environments, and applying a variety of methods such as traditional paleoseismic trenching, high-resolution coring, geophysical imaging, tectonic geomorphology, and remote sensing, as well as the application of earthquake geology in seismic hazard assessments. In addition, we encourage contributors describing how to translate fault data or catalogue data into fault models for SHA , and how to account for faults or catalogue issues.
Understanding fault growth and structural inheritance across spatial and temporal scales
The geometry and evolution of faults can be influenced by a range of different factors, including the presence of pre-existing structures or structural inheritance, over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Pre-existing structural heterogeneities, which are imparted through prior phases of deformation, are present across all scales throughout the lithosphere; from discrete fabrics at the centimetre scale to hundreds of kilometre scale rift systems and changes in lithospheric thickness. Fault growth can be controlled by factors including mechanical layering or variation, strain localisation, regional and local stress changes and reactivation of earlier structures – each of these factors are likely to influence the interaction between faults in a tectonic system. Therefore, by integrating our understanding of fault growth and interaction with respect to structural inheritance and ultimately earthquake hazard, over a range of spatial and temporal scales, will lead to greater understanding of the fundamental processes that govern fault behaviour.
Integrated approaches to bridge Long-term Tectonics and Earthquake cycles: Observations, Experiments, and Models
Our first-order understanding of earthquake cycles is limited by our ability to detect and interpret natural phenomena or their relict signatures on faults. However, such observations allow us to define fundamental hypotheses that can be tested by way of experiments and models, ultimately yielding deeper insights into mechanics of faulting in nature. Inter-, co-, and post-seismic deformation can be documented geodetically, but the sparseness of the data and its large spatial and temporal variability do not sufficiently resolve their driving mechanisms. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions can narrow down the possibilities, while numerical modelling helps extrapolating these results back to natural conditions. Thus, integrated approaches to bridge long-term tectonics and the earthquake cycle that combine observation, interpretation, experimentation, and finally, physical or numerical modelling, are key for our understanding of the deformation behaviour of complex fault systems.
This session seeks contributions toward an integrated perspective on the earthquake cycle that span a wide range of observations, methodologies, and modelling over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Presentations can cover brittle and ductile deformation, from microstructures to mantle rheology and with applications to earthquake mechanics, geodynamics, geodesy, geohazards, and more. Specific questions include: How do long-term crustal and lithospheric deformation affect short-term seismicity and earthquake cycle behaviour? What is the long-term topographic signature of the earthquake? What are the relative contributions of rheology and geometry for seismic and aseismic slip? What are the roles of on- and off-fault deformation in shaping the landscape and partitioning seismic and aseismic energy dissipation? We welcome submissions by early-career scientists in particular.
— Invited speaker: Luc L Lavier, Jackson School of Geosciences | The University of Texas at Austin
Earthquakes, active tectonics, and seismic hazard in regions of slow lithospheric deformation
Earthquakes that occur within regions of slow lithospheric deformation (low-strain regions) are inherently difficult to study. The long interval between earthquakes, coupled with natural and anthropogenic modification, limit preservation of paleoearthquakes in the landscape. Low deformation rates push the limits of modern geodetic observation techniques. The short instrumental record challenges extrapolation of small earthquake recurrence based on modern seismological measurement to characterize the probability of larger, more damaging earthquakes. Characterizing the earthquake cycle in low-strain settings is further compounded by temporal clustering of earthquakes, punctuated by long periods of quiescence (e.g. non-steady recurrence intervals). However, earthquakes in slowly deforming regions can reach high magnitudes and pose significant risk to populations.
This session seeks to integrate paleoseismic, geomorphic, geodetic, geophysical, and seismologic datasets to provide a comprehensive understanding of the earthquake cycle in low-strain regions. This session will draw upon recent advances in high-resolution topography, geochronology, satellite geodesy techniques, subsurface imaging techniques, longer seismological records, high-density geophysical networks and unprecedented computational power to explore the driving mechanisms for earthquakes in low-strain settings. We welcome contributions that (1) present new observations that place constraints on earthquake occurrence in low-strain regions, (2) explore patterns of stable or temporally varying earthquake recurrence, and (3) provide insight into the mechanisms that control earthquakes in regions of slow deformation via observation and/or modeling.
Anatolia is characterized by well-defined boundaries such as the North and East Anatolian faults and relatively less known intra ‘plate’ structures. The relationship and relative importance of these two deformation regions, along the boundaries and within the interior of Anatolia, remains a matter of debate. This small piece of continental lithosphere is part of the Eastern Mediterranean, where broad scale tectonics are dominated by the interaction of the Nubian and Arabian plates with Eurasia. Anatolia is bounded by different tectonics regimes on all sides: continental convergence to the east, continental extension to the west, oceanic subduction further south and west in the Aeagan, and continental transform in the north. The evolution and present deformation of Anatolia are constrained by diverse geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations and have been explained by different hypotheses, such as (a) tectonic escape system caused by the post-collisional convergence of Eurasian and Arabian plates creating forces at its boundaries with gravitational potential differences of the Anatolian high plateau (b) asthenospheric flow dragging the circular flow of lithosphere from the Levant to Anatolia in the east and the Aegean in the west, (c) slab pull of the Hellenic subduction, (d) mantle upwelling underneath Afar and with the large-scale flow associated with a whole mantle, Tethyan convection cell, (e) or combinations of these mechanisms. Naturally, this setting generates frequent earthquakes with large magnitudes (M > 7), forming a natural laboratory on understanding the crustal deformation for various disciplines of active tectonics.
Multi-disciplinary studies, especially within the last three decades, have made great contributions to our understanding of the processes on the crustal deformation of Anatolia and the adjacent regions. With this session, we aim to bring together the recent findings of these studies, thus we welcome/invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines such as, but not limited to, neotectonics, seismology, tectonic geodesy (e.g. GNSS, InSAR), paleoseismology, tectonic geomorphology, remote sensing, structural geology and geodynamic modelling.
- A. M. Celâl Şengör (İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, firstname.lastname@example.org) - The Neotectonics of Turkey and its Aetiology
- Robert Reilinger (MIT, email@example.com) - Anatolia-Aegea at the junction of ocean subduction and continental collision
Understanding large subduction earthquakes and tsunamigenesis by integrating geological and geophysical observations, laboratory results, and numerical modeling
Since 2004, there have been a number of large subduction earthquakes whose unexpected rupture features contributed to the generation of devastating tsunamis. The impact that these events had on human society highlights the need to improve our knowledge of the key mechanisms behind their origin. Advances in these areas have led to progess in our understanding of the most important parameters affecting tsunamigenesis. For example, unexpectedly large slip was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, leading to re-investigations of the geology of other subduction zones and the conditions that can lead to large slip at the trench.
In general, the large amount of geophysical data recorded at present has led to new descriptions of faulting and rupture complexity (e.g., spatial and temporal seismic rupture heterogeneity, fault roughness, geometry and sediment type, interseismic coupling, etc.). Rock physicists have proposed new constitutive laws and parameters based on a new generation of laboratory experiments, which simulate close to natural seismic deformation conditions on natural fault samples. Analog modellers now have apparati that simulate multiple seismic cycles with unprecedented realism. These represent a valuable tool for investigating how various boundary conditions (e.g., frictional segmentation, interplate roughness) influence the seismic behavior of subduction megathrusts. In addition, advances in numerical modelling now allow scientists to test how new geophysical observations, e.g. from ocean drilling projects and laboratory analyses, influence subduction zone processes over a range of temporal and spatial scales (i.e., geodynamic, seismic cycling, earthquake rupture, wave propagation modelling).
In light of these advances, this session has a twofold mission: i) to integrate recent results from different fields to foster a comprehensive understanding of the key parameters controlling the physics of large subduction earthquakes over a range of spatial and temporal scales; ii) to individuate how the tsunami hazard analysis can benefit from using a multi-disciplinary approach.
We invite abstracts that enhance interdisciplinary collaboration and integrate observations, rock physics experiments, analog- and numerical modeling, and tsunami hazard.
The Mechanics of Faulting from shallow to deep earthquakes: Interplay between multiple length scales.
The mechanics of earthquakes is controlled by a spectrum of processes covering a wide range of length scales, from tens of kilometres down to few nanometres. For instance, while the geometry of the fault/fracture network and its physical properties control the global stress distribution and the propagation/arrest of the seismic rupture, earthquake nucleation and fault weakening is governed by frictional processes occurring within extremely localized sub-planar slipping zones. The co-seismic rheology of the slipping zones themselves depends on deformation mechanisms and dissipative processes active at the scale of the grain or asperity. If this is the case of shallow earthquakes, the nucleation of intermediate and deep earthquakes remains enigmatic since it occurs at elevated ambient pressure-temperature conditions which should favour plastic deformation and suppress frictional processes. Though, recent studies on fault rocks of Earth’s lower crust and upper mantle reveal microstructures comparable to those associated with co-seismic slip and off-fault damage in brittle rocks. The study of such complex multiscale systems requires an interdisciplinary approach spanning from structural geology to seismology, geophysics, petrology, rupture modelling and experimental rock deformation. In this session we aim to convene contributions dealing with different aspects of earthquake mechanics at various depths and scales such as:
· the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes associated to co-seismic fault weakening based on rock deformation experiments, numerical simulations and microstructural studies of fault rocks;
· the study of natural and experimental fault rocks to investigate the nucleation mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes in comparison to their shallow counterparts;
· the elastic, frictional and transport properties of fault rocks from the field (geophysical and hydrogeological data) to the laboratory scale (petrophysical and rock deformation studies);
· the internal architecture of seismogenic fault zones from field structural survey and geophysical investigations (e.g. seismic, electric and electromagnetic methods);
· the modeling of earthquake ruptures, off-fault dynamic stress fields and long-term mechanical evolution of realistic fault networks;
· the earthquake source energy budget and partitioning between fracture, friction and elastic wave radiation from seismological, theoretical and field observations.
· the interplay between fault geometry and earthquake rupture characteristics (e.g. coseismic slip and rupture velocity distribution) from seismological, geodetic, remote sensed or field observations;
We particularly welcome novel observations or innovative approaches to the study of earthquake faulting. Contributions from early career scientists are solicited.
Solicited oral presentation: Matthew Tarling (University of Otago)
Earthquake foreshocks: identification, observation, modeling, and lessons to be learned
Over the past several years, interest in earthquake foreshocks has experienced considerable growth. This can, on one side, be explained by a largely improved observational database that spans all seismic scales. A development that is driven by a growing number of permanent seismic stations and large-scale campaign networks, the development of advanced detection and analysis techniques, and by the improvement of laboratory equipment and techniques. In addition, the ongoing endeavor to better understand induced seismicity has been contributing to this upgrowth with densely-monitored underground lab-scale experiments and enhanced microseismic monitoring. On the other side, earthquake foreshocks are widely perceived as one of the few and, as of now, most direct observations of earthquake nucleation processes.
Foreshocks are generally thought to arise by one of two mechanisms: cascading failure or preslip. The cascading model proposes that a mainshock following a foreshock has an identical origin to that of aftershocks. In this case, earthquake frequency-magnitude statistics predict that occasionally an aftershock will be larger than the prior event, which makes the prior event a foreshock only after the fact. The mechanism proposed by the preslip model is that premonitory processes - perhaps fault creep related to mainshock nucleation - result in stress changes that drive the foreshock process. Seismologists have found no agreement so far; this is made more difficult by two facts: that no agreed-upon, universal strategy to identify foreshocks in a seismic catalog exists and that data quality and quantity vary considerably over spatial and temporal scales.
In this session, we want to bring together scientists from all disciplines working on, or interested in, earthquake foreshock occurrence. We invite reports on observational and theoretical studies on all scales. This includes laboratory and deep underground experimental earthquakes, as well as microseismic to megathrust earthquakes. We also encourage submissions from colleagues working on advanced detection and analysis techniques for improved foreshock identification.
Earthquake Source Processes: Recent Advances in Observation, Imaging, and Modeling
This session covers the broad field of earthquake source processes, and includes the topics of observing the surface deformation caused by earthquakes, imaging the rupture kinematics and simulating earthquake dynamics using numerical methods, to develop a deeper understanding of earthquake source physics. We also invite presentation that link novel field observations and laboratory experiments to earthquake dynamics, and studies on earthquake scaling properties. Of particular interest are innovative studies on quantifying the uncertainties in earthquake source-parameter estimation.
Within this framework our session also provides a forum to discuss case studies of field observation, kinematic and dynamic source modeling of recent significant earthquakes.
Continental rifting is a multi-facetted process spanning from the inception of extension to continental rupture or the formation of a failed rift. This session aims at combining new data sets, concepts and techniques elucidating the structure and dynamics of rifts and rifted margins. We invite submissions highlighting the time-dependent evolution of processes such as initiation of faults and ductile shear zones, tectono-magmatic and sedimentary history, lithospheric necking and rift strength loss, influence of the pre-rift lithospheric structure, mantle dynamics and associated effects on rifting processes, as well as continental break-up and the transition to sea-floor spreading. We encourage contributions using multi-disciplinary and innovative methods from field geology, geochronology, seismology, geodesy, marine geophysics, plate reconstruction, or modeling. Focus regions may include but are not limited to the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (e.g. IODP 367/368 area) rifted margins, or the East African, Eger, Baikal and Gulf of California rift systems. Special emphasis will be given to presentations that provide an integrated picture by combining results from active rifts, passive margins, failed rift arms or by bridging the temporal and spatial scales associated with rifting.
Cross-disciplinary investigations of extensional systems
What controls lithosphere evolution during extension? The aim of this session is to investigate diverging systems over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and at all stages in the life cycle of divergent plate boundaries including continental rifting, mantle exhumation and seafloor spreading.
A special emphasis will be given to
(1) studies that couple lithospheric deformation models to plate kinematics, and that integrate possibly the role of serpentinisation and/or magmatism in the models.
(2) works that analyse subsidence and thermal effect of rifting and break-up.
(3) paleogeographic reconstructions revealing the influence of sedimentation and lithosphere structure evolution on biogeochemical cycles and oceanographic circulation.
(4) contributions that elucidate extensional modes through the interplay between tectonic structures, magmatism and the stratigraphic record using field, petrological and seismic data.
Volcanic versus non-volcanic rifts and passive margins, from rift to ridge
New observations and modeling allow us to investigate the underlying processes responsible for volcanic and non-volcanic rift and passive margin formation. Key questions to be resolved include 1) what controls the amount and distribution of magmatism during volcanic to non-volcanic rift and passive margin formation. 2) How does magmatism impact the tectonic evolution of these systems and what are the structural and rheological controls of magmatism and feedbacks on tectonic deformation. 3) How are structural style of passive margin formation and magmatism linked? 4) What are the consequences of magmatic versus a-magmatic systems for the associated sedimentary basins? 5) What is the depositional environment for formation of seaward dipping reflector sequences and which processes control anomalous vertical motions during basin evolution? We encourage abstracts that offer new insights into processes underlying volcanic and non volcanic rift-passive margin formation from rift to ridge, using constraints from observations and modeling.
Rifted margins: Geological and geophysical observations, interpretations and their uncertainty with respect to the understanding of their evolutions and architectures
The integrated study of field (young, and ancient analogues preserved in orogenic systems), seismic reflection/refraction, gravity/magnetics, well data (exploration and IODP), analogue and thermo-mechanical modelling approaches have greatly improved our understanding of the processes that influence and modify the architecture (crustal, magmatic, sedimentary, structural and thermal) of the distal domain of rifted margins. As more data becomes available our appreciation of the 3D and ultimately 4D geodynamic processes that influence the formation and present day structure of distal margins is evolving. Although all rifted margins are somewhat unique, similar genetic processes are often proposed despite the underlying interpretational uncertainties. These uncertainties can impact the resulting interpretations relating to the tectono-magmatic and crustal models. Therefore, despite many models the process often remains controversial and/or far for being well constrained.
This session would like to explore and discuss the observations and interpretations derived from geological and geophysical datasets across rifted margins and distal margins. Importantly, uncertainties should be addressed with respect to our current understanding of the genetic rift-domain evolution. Observations should focus on the evidences for processes that impact the final architecture, rock content and thermal imprint of conjugate margins. This relates to the observed style of extension and thinning (high vs low angle faulting and static vs dynamic interpretations and their evidence), vertical motions (e.g. uplift and subsidence), the isostatic impacts of the tectonic, magmatic and stratigraphic history relating to the genetic-rift domains.
The idea that sedimentary basins can be compressed and uplifted – inverted – was born as early as the 1920s. However, the interest in inversion tectonics peaked in the late 1980s as documented, for instance, by a 1987 Tectonophysics special issue and a 1989 Geol. Soc. London book that soon became classics. Today few people will consider inversion tectonics a topic at the forefront of geoscience. This is not to say that nothing new can be learned about this phenomenon. Even the enormous variety of associated structures has probably not been exhaustively described and understood. The kinematics of inversion structures is particularly complex, and their mechanics a matter of debate. For instance, modelling studies have been used to suggest that reverse reactivation of normal faults can only occur in transpression, whereas studies from geologically recent cases with well-constrained stress fields do not necessarily support this observation. Inversion tectonics can coexist with or be superimposed on long-wavelength uplift that may or may not reflect a different set of processes altogether. We invite contributions dealing with all aspects of inversion tectonics from architecture over kinematics to dynamics and from field- or seismics-based case studies to analogue and numerical simulations, including also response of depositional systems to active inversion tectonics. New hypotheses challenging common wisdom are especially welcome.
Style of deformation and tectono-sedimentary evolution of fold-and-thrust belts and foreland basins : from nature to models
Orogenic systems, including their external fold-and-thrust belts and foreland basin systems are influenced by pre-existing structures due to inherited extension, variations in thermal regime, presence or absence of evaporitic sequences, syn-tectonic sedimentation, imbrication of sub-thrust units, or climatic changes. These factors have a fundamental impact on structural styles as well as the distribution of deformation in space and time. Defining the correct structural style of fold-and-thrust belts including its uncertainty, and understanding the controlling factors are necessary steps towards predicting their long- and short-term evolution, with implications for crustal/lithospheric rheology, mountain building processes and seismic hazard, and for the correct assessment of their potential for hydrocarbon exploration. For these reasons, fold-and-thrust belts and adjacent foreland basin systems represent outstanding places to investigate (active) deformation and surface processes and the way these processes interact to shape mountain belts. On a short-time scale, the pattern of deformation of fold-and-thrust belts provides information on crustal mechanics, the sequence of active faulting and its relation to earthquakes; on a long-time scale, the structure and dynamics of the fold-and-thrust belt - foreland basin systems offers unique insights into the influence of structural, thermal and rheological inheritance, together with coupling between surface and deep processes. Thermochronology has brought new constraints on paleo-burial, exhumation and vertical movements, as well as sediment routing in fold-and-thrust belt-foreland basin systems. In addition, 2D-3D dynamic modeling by means of analog experiments and numerical simulation has been increasingly used as a tool to validate kinematic restorations and to test the influence of varying boundary conditions and material rheology on mountain building at the lithospheric scale.
This session brings together geoscientists to present and discuss multidisciplinary approaches in which a wide range of tools are integrated. We welcome contributions reporting regional case studies and their links to hinterland portions of mountain belts, as well as more topical works on structural uncertainty analysis, seismology, mechanics, temperature evolution, structural geology, geomorphology, exhumation and paleo-elevation, sediment transport and mass balance, surface processes and basin dynamics during pre- and syn-collision stages, together with analogue or numerical modeling approaches. We aim at providing a forum for all disciplines concerned with building and shaping of orogenic wedges by tectonics and climate to meet and discuss their views.
The Pyrenean mountain belt: role of inheritance through the Wilson cycle
Orogenesis represents the final phase of the Wilson Cycle. As such, structural, compositional and thermal properties of the lithosphere and mantle, inherited from preceding phases can influence the evolution of the orogen. The properties and characteristics of the orogen itself can, in turn, influence post-orogenic geodynamic processes (e.g. collapse, lithospheric re-equilibration, a new extensional cycle, etc...). The Pyrenean mountain belt documents more than 300 Myrs of geodynamic history from the Variscan orogeny, followed by Mesozoic rifting, to the Alpine orogenic event. Moreover, the foreland basins around the Pyrenees provide unique records of syn-orogenic processes. Investigating these characteristics has been the motivation of several research projects over the last two decades. These projects are providing an extensive database that make the Pyrenees an ideal natural laboratory to understand the role of inheritance (thermal, structural, compositional) in rifting and orogenic processes. This session aims to bring together researchers involved in integrated studies of structural and metamorphic behaviour on all scales, basin and sedimentological analyses, numerical and analogue modelling and dating of deep to surface processes (thermochronology, geochronology, etc) as applied to the Pyrenean domain. We are particularly interested in studies that evaluate the impact of inheritance on orogenic processes at different spatio-temporal scales in the Pyrenean/Iberian realm.
Geodynamics of continent collisions: subduction, collision and exhumation processes (including TS Division Outstanding ECS Lecture by Daniel Pastor-Galán)
This session focuses on continental collision, with an aim to understand the geodynamic processes of the subduction of rocks, continent collision and exhumation of the metamorphic core of the orogen including the subduction channel. Numerous studies of colliding continental plates show the complex interaction and feedback of processes related to the thermo-mechanical history recorded in pressure-temperature-deformation-time paths of the subducted and exhumed rocks. With modern analytical techniques, important parameters such as differential stress, strain rates, exhumation rates, kinematics, rheology, temperature and pressure can be revealed from selected rock samples from ancient and modern collision orogens such as the Alpine-Zagros-Himalayan chain, Caledonides, Variscides, or Grenville. In this session, we anticipate contributions from a broad spectrum of geoscientists, which focus on geodynamics of continent collision of ancient and recent collisional orogens.
Accretion, collision and oroclinal bending in the Late Paleozoic: linking with the supercontinental evolution
The supercontinental cycle has profound influences on the evolution of the solid Earth, climate, and life at least since the Paleoproterozoic. Our understanding on the geodynamics of the supercontinental assembly and its link with global accretional and collisional events as well as large-scale orogenic curvatures (oroclines) remains incomplete. Here we focus on the Late Paleozoic evolution of the Pangea supercontinent, which was accompanied by a series of accretionary, collisional and orocline bending events within its core (Appalachian-Variscan-Alleghanian) and along its external boundaries (Terra Australis, Central Asian Orogenic Belt and Western Americas belts). We hope to bring new data and fresh ideas together to further understand the geodynamic link of the global orogenic evolution with the supercontinent assembly. We welcome all contributions on Late Paleozoic geology, paleomagnetism, tectonics and geodynamics.
Invited Speaker: Professor William (Bill) Collins (Curtin University)
Presentation Title: Billion year cyclicity through Earth history: causes and consequences
The session is organized in cooperation with IGCP Project 662: “Orogenic architecture and crustal growth from accretion to collision: examples from the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and Tethyan orogen”, which is supported by UNESCO-IUGS. For more information, please refer to the weblink of IGCP 662: http://igcp662.org.cn/
Dynamics and Structures of the Tethyan realm: Collisions and back-arcs from the Mediterranean to the Himalayas
The Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt is one of the largest and most prominent suture zones on Earth. The belt ranges from the Mediterranean in the west to Indonesia in the east. It results from the subduction and closing of different branches of the Tethyan Oceanic Realm and the subsequent collision of the African, Arabian and Indian continental plates with Eurasia. Its long-lasting geological record of complex interactions among major and smaller plates, featuring the presence of subduction zones at different evolutionary stages, has progressively grown as a comprehensive test site to investigate fundamental plate tectonics and geodynamic processes with multi-disciplinary studies. Advances in a variety of geophysical and geological fields provide a rich and growing set of constraints on the crust-lithosphere and mantle structure, as well as tectonics and geodynamic evolution of the entire mountain belt
We welcome contributions presenting new insights and observations derived from different perspectives like geology (stratigraphy, petrology, geochronology, geochemistry, tectonics and geomorphology), geophysics (seismicity, seismic imaging, seismic anisotropy, gravity), geodesy (GPS, InSAR), modelling (numerical and analogue), risk assessment (earthquake, volcanism), as well as from multi-disciplinary studies.
-Insights into the transitions in the Banda Arc-Australian continental collision from seismic imaging of deep slab structures by Meghan Miller (Australian National University)
-Active tectonics of Iran and the South Caspian: from earthquakes to
mountain-building by Richard Walker(Oxford University)
The Alps and neighbouring mountain belts (Apennines, Dinarides, Carpathians): a multidisciplinary vision (AlpArray)
The Alps have been intensively studied by geologists for more than a century, providing a unique natural laboratory to deepen our understanding of orogenic processes and their relationship to mantle dynamics. Although most concepts that underlie current studies of mountain belts and convergence dynamics were born in the Alps, the belt is now being examined with renewed vigour in the AlpArray project. This project involves a large number of European institutions, with efforts focused on the AlpArray Seismic Network to provide homogeneous seismological coverage of the greater Alpine area at unprecedented aperture and station density, both on land and sea. New data is being recorded in a multidisciplinary research effort, and other projects are being planned in the immediate and mid-term future.
Within this context, we invite contributions from the Earth Science community that highlight new results in AlpArray and that identify and solve key open questions of the present and past structure and dynamics of the Alps and neighbouring orogens. Both disciplinary and multi-disciplinary contributions are welcome from geophysical imaging, seismotectonics, geodesy, geodynamics, gravimetry, tectonics, structural geology, petrology, geochronology, thermomechanical modelling and other allied fields. Scales of interest range from crustal to upper mantle, in the Alps and neighbouring mountain belts such as the Apennines, the Carpathians and the Dinarides.
The Arctic connection - plate tectonics, mantle dynamics and paleogeography serving paleo-climate models and modern jurisdiction
The Arctic realm hosts vast extended continental shelves bordering old land masses, one of the largest submarine Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) -the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge - of Mesozoic age, and the slowest mid-ocean spreading ridge (the Gakkel Ridge) on the globe. Extreme variations in the evolution of landscapes and geology reflect the tug-of-war between the formation of new oceans, like the North Atlantic, and the destruction of older oceans: the South Anyui, Angayucham and North Pacific, which were accompanied by rifting, collision, uplift and subsidence. The causal relationships between the deep-mantle and surface processes in the Circum-Arcic region remain unclear. Geoscientific information on the relationship between the onshore geology and offshore ridges and basins in combination with variations in the mantle is the key for any deeper understanding of the entire Arctic Ocean.
This session provides a forum for discussions of a variety of problems linked to the Circum-Arctic geodynamics and aims to bring together a diversity of sub-disciplines including plate tectonics, mantle tomography, seismology, geodynamic modelling, igneous and structural geology, geophysical imaging, sedimentology, geochemistry. Particularly encouraged are papers that address lithospheric-mantle interactions in the North Atlantic, the Arctic and North Pacific regions, mantle dynamics and vertical and horizontal motion of crustal blocks and consequences for paleogeography. As geologic and tectonic models are inherently tied with changes in the oceanographic and climatic development of the Arctic, we also invite studies that focus on the interplay between these processes and across timescales. Lastly, we would like to invite contributions from studies concerning the implications of how the Arctic’s geography and geology are portrayed by modern data and issues related to jurisdiction and sovereign rights with particular focus on the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
This session provides a forum for discussions of a variety of problems linked to the Circum-Arctic geodynamics and aims to bring together a diversity of sub-disciplines including plate tectonics, mantle tomography, seismology, geodynamic modelling, igneous and structural geology, geophysical imaging, sedimentology, geochemistry. As geologic and tectonic models are inherently tied with changes in the oceanographic and climatic development of the Arctic, we also show results from studies that focus on the interplay between these processes. The implications of how the Arctic’s geography and geology are portrayed by modern data and issues related to jurisdiction and sovereign rights with particular focus on the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea are also discussed.
Oceanic and continental transform faults: towards a multi-disciplinary approach
Transform faults form major active plate boundaries and are intrinsic features of plate tectonics and plate accretion. Submarine transforms are likely to be fundamental pathways for fluid circulation in depth, thus significantly contributing to the exchange between the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. This implies serpentinization and weathering that affect the mechanical properties in the deformation zone. An open question is the influence of the elemental exchange between the crust and ocean water on these processes, as well as the interactions with the biosphere, both at the surface and at depth. Continental transforms and strike-slip faults are often a site of major earthquakes, representing major hazards for the population. Here too, the role of weathering in the deformation zone is still unconstrained. Both types of faults are still poorly known in terms of structure, rheology and deformation. These features are seismically active zones, with large earthquakes often being recorded on the largest faults. Yet, little is known about the rupture process, seismic cyclicity and active deformation of transform faults. Recent works have shown that fracture zones, supposedly inactive features, can be reactivated and be the site of large earthquakes and deformation. Additional open questions are the way transform faults deform under far-field stresses, such as plate kinematic changes, and under more local stresses, what are the time constants of the processes and what are the primary controls of the tectonic and magmatic styles of the response. The tectonic and magmatic response of large offset transforms, particularly, is still largely unknown.
This session aims to present recent results on studies of these large features, especially on the rheology, deformation patterns, rupture processes, fluid circulation and physical properties of transform faults. We welcome observational studies on strike-slip and transform faults, both continental and oceanic, on fracture zones and on transform continental margins (structural geology and tectonics, geophysical imaging of the crust and lithosphere, petrology and geochemistry, seismology, fluid circulation and rock alteration, geodesy) as well as modelling studies, both analogue and numerical. Cross-disciplinary approaches are encouraged. The submission of abstracts divulging on-going international projects (drilling sites, seismic reflection imaging along strike-slip faults) are also welcome. This session is promoted by the Oceanic Transform Faults working group of InterRidge.
A Wilson cycle (first coined by Dewey and Burke in 1977) describes the sequence of continental rifting, the opening of an ocean basin, the subsequent destruction of an oceanic basin by subduction, and finally ocean closure and continent-continent collision. The Caledonian orogenic cycle is the “original” Wilson cycle as described by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1966. It commenced in the late Proterozoic with the protracted disassembly of the Rodinia supercontinent and the formation of the Iapetus ocean. The closure of the Iapetus began in the early Palaeozoic and the final continent-continent collision between Laurentia and Baltica took place in the Silurian-Devonian, shortly followed by orogenic extension in the Devonian-Carboniferous.
The Caledonian mountain belt represents a world-class example of a deeply denudated Himalayan-style orogen. The exposed crustal sections allow the study of all stages of the Wilson cycle and may contribute to our understanding of many of the fundamental questions in plate tectonics, including (1) the role of inheritances during rifting and collision, (2) continental-rifting, break-up and ocean formation, (3) subduction, (4) marginal basin formation, (5) arc-continent and continental collisions, (6) (U)HP metamorphism, (7) orogenic wedge formation and dynamics, (8) the formation of crustal-scale shear zones, (9) ductile and brittle deformation mechanisms, and (10) the dynamics of late- to post-orogenic extension and deep crustal exhumation.
This session aims to bring together scientists studying rocks and geological processes from all stages of the Caledonian Wilson cycle, i.e. from rifting to collision and post-orogenic extension, and welcomes sedimentological, petrological, geochemical, geochronological, geophysical, structural, and modelling contributions that help to improve our understanding of the Caledonides and mountain belts in general.
The impact of mantle serpentinization on the evolution of rifted margins, oceanic ridges & subduction zones: new insights from geophysical & petrological observations, & numerical/analogue modelling (incl. Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture by Serge Lallemand)
Serpentinization is a mantle hydration reaction of major interest because of its implication in the evolution of rifted margins, mid-ocean ridges, and subduction zones. Serpentinization leads to weak hydrous minerals crystallization that yields to a reduction in the friction coefficient and an increase in the volume of mantle rock.
In rifted margins and mid-ocean ridges, weak serpentinized peridotite and serpentinization-driven fluid overpressure are known to have a critical role in the kinematics of low-angle detachment faulting that exposes mantle lithology to the seafloor. At mid-ocean ridges, these low-angle structures control the formation of oceanic core complexes, while at rifted margins control the exhumation of large portions of sub-continental mantle. Serpentinization is also an exothermic reaction that can produce significant heat and derive serpentinite hosted hydrothermal systems, and thus impact the submarine ecosystems.
In subduction zones, crustal-scale normal faulting associated with the bending of the incoming oceanic plate at the outer rise enables water percolation to the oceanic mantle, triggering serpentinization. Multi-stage fluid release from the subducting slab caused by the breakdown of hydrated mantle minerals triggers the production of flush melting and consequently the arc volcanism. The heterogeneous water release controls also the depth of earthquake generation and therefore the size of the seismogenic zone.
Overall, understanding mantle serpentinization is critical to understand the dynamics of plate tectonics. To this end, this session aims at bringing together researchers of divergent and convergent settings to enhance our understanding of the kinematics of mantle serpentinization and its geodynamic implications. We encourage all related contributions, from geophysical and/or petrological studies to numerical/analogue modelling that provide temporal and spatial constraints of the process of serpentinization, as well as insights into its role during the evolution of rifted margins, oceanic ridges, and subduction zones. We strongly encourage the contribution of young researchers.
Hotspots, LIPs, LLSVPs, ...: an inter-disciplinary perspective on the causes and consequences of mantle upwellings
Mantle upwellings are an important component of the Earth’s convective system that can cause volcanism and anomalies in surface topography. Upwellings can rise from thermal boundary layers as hot “mantle plumes”. Alternatively, they can be the response to upper-mantle convective flow, subduction, or rifting. Clearly, different mechanisms sustain mantle upwellings of various temperature, vigour and composition, causing characteristic signals that can potentially be imaged using geophysical data, as well as expressed in the geochemistry and petrology of related magmatism.
This session invites contributions that focus on mantle upwellings from geophysics, geochemistry, and modelling perspectives. Our aim is to bring together constraints from multiple disciplines to understand the origin and dynamics of mantle upwellings, as well as their potential to trigger mantle melting, create volcanism, generate ore deposits, and build dynamic topography.
Models and observations of vertical plate motions, and the links between surface and deep mantle processes, in particular the plume mode of mantle convection: A tribute to Kevin Burke
Since the 1960’s plate tectonics has been accepted as a surface expression of the earth's convecting mantle, and yet numerous geological features of plate interiors remain unexplained within the plate tectonic paradigm, including intraplate earthquakes and large-scale vertical motions of continents as epitomized by the uplift history of Africa. Kevin Burke (1929-2018), one of the greatest geologists of our time who published original and thought-provoking contributions for six decades, was one of the most vocal scientists to assert that plate tectonics is an incomplete theory without a clear understanding of its links with deep Earth processes, including the role of mantle plumes. In this session we commemorate the pioneering work of Kevin and explore contributions from across the diverse fields that interested him, including global tectonics, the Wilson Cycle, the origin of Precambrian greenstone belts, the evolution of the Caribbean, and the uplift history of Africa and other continents. We discuss the state-of-the art of the plume mode of mantle convection, its influence on the dynamics of the asthenosphere and the lithosphere, and its expression at the earth’s surface. We seek contributions from natural case studies (tectonic evolution, sedimentology, thermochronology, geophysics, palaeoclimate) and from geodynamics or geomaterials oriented (analog and numerical) modeling, which address the interplay of deep mantle – asthenosphere – lithosphere – basin – surface processes in all plate environments. In particular, we appreciate studies that contribute to the understanding of feedback processes causing the evolution of dynamic topography and welcome contributions that examine surface and deep Earth links based on observations and numerical models (although notably the latter never seduced Kevin).
Crust-Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Interplay, Deformation and Dynamics
Knowledge of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system and its dynamics is one of the key questions for understanding geological processes. Constraints on the style, mechanism, and pattern of deformation in the crust and upper mantle come from direct and indirect observations using a variety of methods. Seismological studies focusing on anisotropy have successfully improved our knowledge of deformation patterns, and when combined with tomographic models, anisotropy can shed light on the geometry of deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Sophisticated geodynamic modeling (numerical and physical analogue) and laboratory (rock physics) experiments enhance our understanding of flow patterns in the Earth’s upper mantle and their bearing on vertical motions of crust and lithosphere. Combined with seismic anisotropy data these methods have the potential to reveal the mechanisms that create deformation-induced features such as shape preferred orientation (SPO) and lattice-preferred orientation (LPO). Structural and kinematic characterization of deformation events by geometric and kinematic analyses infer the direction and magnitude of the tectonic forces involved in driving deformation within crust and upper mantle. Additionally, physical analogue and numerical modeling studies have fostered our understanding of complex 3D-plate interaction on various time-scales, regulated through the degree of plate coupling and the rheology of the lithosphere.
However, more work is required to better integrate the various experimental and modelling techniques and to link them to multi-scale observations. This session will bring together different disciplines that focus on the deformation of the lithosphere and upper mantle as well as on the dynamics and nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The main goal is to demonstrate the potential of different methods, and to share ideas of how we can collaboratively study lithospheric deformation, and how it relates to the ongoing dynamics within the asthenospheric mantle. Contributions are sought from studies employing seismic observation, geodynamical modeling (analogue and numerical), structural geology, and mineral and rock physics.
Greg Houseman (Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics, University of Leeds)
Agnes Kiraly (Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo)
Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Heterogeneities Shaping Surface Deformation and Subduction Dynamics.
The lithosphere, the outermost shell of the Earth, constitutes the upper thermal boundary layer of mantle convection. It is well established that its properties play a central role in the development of solid Earth dynamics. Through its properties the lithosphere also provides a primary source of thermal and chemical anomalies for mantle convection when it is injected in the mantle as subducting slabs. Here, the subduction of cold and dense oceanic lithosphere into the underlying mantle acts as the major driving force of plate motion, and as a key component of the water and carbon cycles throughout the Earth. At the global scale, some of these lithosphere heterogeneities include rheological stratifications, sutures, fracture zones, and lateral and vertical variations in temperature and composition. These exist at various scales and play a major role in determining subduction dynamics and the degree of lithosphere-mantle decoupling. Deciphering the interaction of the lithosphere with the underlying asthenosphere and deeper mantle is critical to understanding the secular evolution of the Earth system and to reconcile models with natural observations. This session aims to highlight recent advances in constraining the scales and amplitudes of heterogeneities in the lithosphere as well as their dynamic role. We welcome multidisciplinary contributions. Some key areas of interest are lithospheric structure and morphology, subduction kinematics and dynamics, slab-mantle interaction and slab deformation, active margin tectonics and subduction-induced seismicity.
The formation and modification of oceanic crust and the upper mantle: Insights from the Oman Drilling Project and related investigations in the oceanic lithosphere.
The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP; 2016-2018) has recovered 3200 m of diamond drillcore that sample three intervals within the gabbroic lower crust, the crust-mantle transition, partially serpentinised peridotite undergoing active alteration, and the transition from the mantle into the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail ophiolite in Oman, arguably the best-preserved ophiolite. Most of the boreholes have been geophysically logged and the cores have undergone extensive IODP standard core description onboard the DV Chikyu, supplemented with X-ray CT and high resolution infrared scanning of the entire core. These cores and boreholes can be used to investigate the full spectrum of processes operating during the formation and modification of oceanic crust and shallow mantle. These processes involve mass and energy transfer between all the major components of the Earth system (the mantle, the crust, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere) and occur over a broad range of temperatures, depths and tectonic settings. In this session, we invite abstracts relating to the Oman Drilling Project including core analysis, geophysical logging and microbial studies as well as studies related to the Samail ophiolite and the oceanic lithosphere in general.
Subduction zones are arguably the most important geological features of our planet, where plates plunge into the deep, metamorphic reactions take place, large earthquakes happen and melting induces volcanism and creation of continental crust. None of these processes would be possible without the cycling of volatiles, and this session aims to explore their role in convergent margins. Questions to address include the following. Do Atlantic and Pacific subduction zones cycle volatiles in different ways? What dynamic or chemical roles are played by subducted fracture zones and plate bending faults? How do fluids and melts interact with the mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere? Why do some of the Earth’s largest mineral resources form in subduction settings? We aim to bring together geodynamicists, geochemists, petrologists, seismologists, mineral and rock physicists, and structural geologists to understand how plate hydration/slab dynamics/dehydration, and subsequent mantle wedge melting/fluid percolation, and ultimately melt segregation/accumulation lead to the diverse range of phenomena observed at convergence zones around the globe.
Lena Melekhova (Bristol University)
Ingo Grevemeyer (GEOMAR)
Subduction drives plate tectonics, generates the major proportion of subaerial volcanism, forms continents, and entrains surface material back to the deep Earth. Therefore, it is arguably the most important geodynamical phenomenon on Earth and the major driver of global geochemical cycles. Seismological data show a fascinating range in shapes of subducting slabs. Arc volcanism illustrates the complexity of geochemical and petrological phenomena associated with subduction. Surface topography provides insight in the orogenic processes related to subduction and continental collision.
Numerical and laboratory modelling studies have successfully built our understanding of many aspects of the geodynamics of subduction zones. Detailed geochemical studies, investigating compositional variation within and between volcanic arcs, provide further insights into systematic chemical processes at the slab surface and within the mantle wedge, providing constraints on thermal structures and material transport within subduction zones. However, with different technical and methodological approaches, model set-ups, inputs and material properties, and in some cases conflicting conclusions between chemical and physical models, a consistent picture of the controlling parameters of subduction-zone processes has so far not emerged.
This session aims to follow subducting lithosphere on its journey from the surface down into the Earth's mantle, and to understand the driving processes for deformation and magmatism in the over-riding plate. We aim to address topics such as: subduction initiation and dynamics; changes in mineral breakdown processes at the slab surface; the formation and migration of fluids and melts at the slab surface; primary melt generation in the wedge; subduction-related magmatism; controls on the position and width of the volcanic arc; subduction-induced seismicity; mantle wedge processes; the fate of subducted crust, sediments and volatiles; the importance of subducting seamounts, LIPs, and ridges; links between near-surface processes and slab dynamics and with regional tectonic evolution; slab delamination and break-off; the effect of subduction on mantle flow; and imaging subduction zone processes.
With this session, we aim to form an integrated picture of the subduction process, and invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines, such as geodynamics, modelling, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology and seismology, to discuss subduction zone dynamics at all scales from the surface to the lower mantle, or in applications to natural laboratories.
A multidisciplinary approach to understand the Geology of the Azores
The Azores archipelago is located in the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and Nubian tectonic plates. The origin of the magmatism in the archipelago remains controversial even though it has generally been associated with a mantle plume interacting with the local structural regime. Due to this peculiar geodynamic setting, earthquakes, subaerial and submarine volcanic eruptions may occur in the archipelago. The identification of possible signs of unrest of the volcanoes is challenging and much of the recent volcanic activity is characterized by the occurrence of seismic swarms, ground deformation episodes and the presence of secondary manifestations of volcanism. The archipelago is located in the vicinity of the central Northern Atlantic Ocean, what makes the islands vulnerable to storms, floods and landslides. The islands are thus ideally suited to apply different multidisciplinary methodologies for the study of geological hazards.
This session aims to focus on the Azores submarine plateau and islands as a natural laboratory for the study of different geological processes. Here, we aim at contributions from the different fields of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry dealing with the geodynamic context of the Azores, studying the evolution and geological diversity of the Azores and evaluate hazards that can affect the islands.
TS10 – Deformation possibly unrelated to horizontal plate motion: salt tectonics, magma ascent and impacts
Recent Advances in Salt and Shale Tectonics
This is a session open to all new works on salt and shale tectonics, regardless of the tectonic setting (extensional, contractional, or simply gravitational), the area of study, and the type of approach (subsurface or outcrop interpretation, numerical or analogue modelling, and rock-mechanics analysis). Likewise, we welcome contributions at various scales from the relationships between crustal-scale tectonics, evaporite deposition and salt tectonics, to the interaction between salt bodies and their surrounding sediment, to intra-salt deformation. Contributions on shale tectonics are also welcome.
The session deals with the documentation and modelling of the tectonic, deformation and geodetic features of any type of volcanic area, on Earth and in the Solar System. The focus is on advancing our understanding on any type of deformation of active and non-active volcanoes, on the associated behaviours, and the implications for hazards. We welcome contributions based on results from fieldwork, remote-sensing studies, geodetic and geophysical measurements, analytical, analogue and numerical simulations, and laboratory studies of volcanic rocks.
Studies may be focused at the regional scale, investigating the tectonic setting responsible for and controlling volcanic activity, both along divergent and convergent plate boundaries, as well in intraplate settings. At a more local scale, all types of surface deformation in volcanic areas are of interest, such as elastic inflation and deflation, or anelastic processes, including caldera and flank collapses. Deeper, sub-volcanic deformation studies, concerning the emplacement of intrusions, as sills, dikes and laccoliths, are most welcome.
We also particularly welcome geophysical data aimed at understanding magmatic processes during volcano unrest. These include geodetic studies obtained mainly through GPS and InSAR, as well as at their modelling to imagine sources.
The session includes, but is not restricted to, the following topics:
• volcanism and regional tectonics;
• formation of magma chambers, laccoliths, and other intrusions;
• dyke and sill propagation, emplacement, and arrest;
• earthquakes and eruptions;
• caldera collapse, resurgence, and unrest;
• flank collapse;
• volcano deformation monitoring;
• volcano deformation and hazard mitigation;
• volcano unrest;
• mechanical properties of rocks in volcanic areas.
TS11 – Methods and Techniques in Tectonics and Structural Geology
Quantitative structural geology: : 3D characterisation, analysis and modelling
Quantitative analysis tools have become increasingly common in structural geology. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography are used to build highly accurate, three-dimensional models of geological structures. Structural measurements are facilitated and often accelerated owing to photogrammetric methods of reconstructing the studied outcrops. Geological structures can then be classified using statistical methods. These new methods allow for the integration of observations and quantification on scales which were inaccessible before. Experimental, analytical, and numerical techniques are used to develop quantitative mechanical models of rock deformation processes, and with the advent of modern computing power, high-resolution models and systematic simulations are nowadays feasible. Remote sensing techniques, including airborne or terrestrial photogrammetry and lidar, make it possible to realize exquisitely detailed three-dimensional (3D) topographic datasets from outcrop to regional scales. These technologies allow detailed, quantitative geological analysis in inaccessible, even extra-terrestrial, terrain. The data-reduction process that transforms these rich datasets into geologically meaningful descriptions of the structure and composition of outcropping rocks is, however, a significant challenge. Recent developments in this area are paving the way for novel geological analysis, incorporating data analysis techniques such as 3D interpolation, machine-learning, (semi-)automatic techniques, and immersive visualization.
We invite contributions discussing advances and challenges in quantifying geological structures at all scales.
Modelling and monitoring tectonic processes (with special attention to transpression)
Analogue experiments and numerical simulation have become an integral part of the Earth explorer's toolbox to select, formulate, and test hypotheses on the origin and evolution of geological phenomena. In addition, a growing body of structural ground truth and geophysical observations as well as profound advances in remote sensing techniques offers to compare the modeled predictions with nature
To foster synergy between modelers and geologists focusing on field and geophysical or remote sensing data, we provide a multi-disciplinary platform to discuss research on tectonics, structural geology, rock mechanics, geodynamics, volcanology, geomorphology, and sedimentology.
We therefore invite contributions demonstrating the state-of-the-art in analogue and numerical / analytical modelling on a variety of spatial and temporal scales, varying from earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to plate tectonics and landscape evolution, as well as contributions focusing on remote sensing, geophysical and geodetic studies, with a specific focus on transpression. Local to crustal scale transpression is the most common deformation regime recognized at active and ancient plate boundaries formed by oblique plate convergence, and although the concept of strain partitioning is well established, the heterogeneity of transpressive deformation continues to be an important topic.
We especially welcome those presentations that discuss model strengths and weaknesses, challenge the existing limits, or compare/combine the different modelling techniques with observations from the natural world to realistically simulate and better understand the Earth's behavior.
Contribution of geophysical methods in tectonics & structural geology: applications to petroleum exploration
Understanding the structure, architecture and tectonic evolution of a given region is of great importance to assess hydrocarbon prospectivity, since it provides significant informations on: heat-flow, the geometry and timing of accommodation space, the trap type and its activity.
The session aims at showing how different geophysical prospecting methods can be applied in structural geology and tectonics in order to obtain the best possible models that
- better define and assess the exploration potential of specific regions, based on their tectonic history.
- understand and construct tectonic and structural models for a given area.
Advances in Numerical Modelling of Geological Processes
Geological and geophysical data provide quantitative information which permit the advancement of our understanding of the present, and past, interior of the Earth. Examples of such processes span from the internal structure of the Earth, plate kinematics, composition of geomaterials, estimation of physical conditions and dating of key geological events, thermal state of the Earth to more shallow processes such as reservoir geomechanics, or nuclear waste storage.
A quantitative understanding of the dynamics and the feedbacks between geological processes requires the integration of geological data with process oriented numerical models. Innovative inverse methods, linking forward dynamic models with observables, are topics of growing interest within the community. Improving our knowledge of the governing physical parameters can thus be addressed while reconciling models and observables.
Resolving the interactions between various processes occurring at scales differing from each other over several orders of magnitude in space and time represents a computational challenge. Hence, simulating such coupled, nonlinear physics-based forward models requires both the development of new approaches and the enhancement of established numerical schemes.
The majority of geological processes combine several physical mechanisms such as hydrological, thermal, chemical and mechanical processes (e.g. thermo-mechanical convection). Understanding the tight couplings among those processes represents a challenging and essential research direction. The development of novel numerical modelling approaches, which resolve multi-physics feedbacks, is vital in order to provide accurate predictions and gain deeper understanding of geological processes.
We invite contributions from the following two complementary themes:
#1 Computational advances associated with
- alternative spatial and/or temporal discretisations for existing forward/inverse models
- scalable HPC implementations of new and existing methodologies (GPUs / multi-core)
- solver and preconditioner developments
- code and methodology comparisons (“benchmarks”)
- open source implementations for the community
#2 Physics advances associated with
- development of partial differential equations to describe geological processes
- inverse and adjoint-based methods
- numerical model validation through comparison with natural observations and geophysical data
- scientific insights enabled by 2D and 3D modelling
- utilisation of coupled models to address nonlinear interactions
High Resolution Topography in the Geosciences: Methods and Applications (including Arne Richter Award for Outstanding ECS Lecture by Giulia Sofia) (co-sponsored by JpGU)
Topographic data are fundamental to landscape characterization across the geosciences, for monitoring change and supporting process modelling. Over the last decade, the dominance of laser-based instruments for high resolution data collection has been challenged by advances in digital photogrammetry and computer vision, particularly in ‘structure from motion’ (SfM) algorithms, which offer a new paradigm to geoscientists.
High resolution topographic (HiRT) data are now obtained over spatial scales from millimetres to kilometres, and over durations of single events to lasting time series (e.g. from sub-second to decadal-duration time-lapse), allowing evaluation of dependencies between event magnitudes and frequencies. Such 4D-reconstruction capabilities enable new insight in diverse fields such as soil erosion, micro-topography reconstruction, volcanology, glaciology, landslide monitoring, and coastal and fluvial geomorphology. Furthermore, broad data integration from multiple sensors offers increasingly exciting opportunities.
This session will evaluate the advances in techniques to model topography and to study patterns of topographic change at multiple temporal and spatial scales. We invite contributions covering all aspects of HiRT reconstruction in the geosciences, and particularly those which transfer traditional expertise or demonstrate a significant advance enabled by novel datasets. We encourage contributions describing workflows that optimize data acquisition and post-processing to guarantee acceptable accuracies and to automate data application (e.g. geomorphic feature detection and tracking), and field-based experimental studies using novel multi-instrument and multi-scale methodologies. A major goal is to provide a cross-disciplinary exchange of experiences with modern technologies and data processing tools, to highlight their potentials, limitations and challenges in different environments.
Solicited speaker: Kuo-Jen Chang (National Taipei University of Technology) - UAS LiDAR data processing, quality assessment and geosciences prospects
Anisotropy from crust to core: Observations, models and implications
Many regions of the Earth, from crust to core, exhibit anisotropic fabrics which can reveal much about geodynamic processes in the subsurface. These fabrics can exist at a variety of scales, from crystallographic orientations to regional structure alignments. In the past few decades, a tremendous body of multidisciplinary research has been dedicated to characterizing anisotropy in the solid Earth and understanding its geodynamical implications. This has included work in fields such as: (1) geophysics, to make in situ observations and construct models of anisotropic properties at a range of depths; (2) mineral physics, to explain the cause of some of these observations; and (3) numerical modelling, to relate the inferred fabrics to regional stress and flow regimes and, thus, geodynamic processes in the Earth. The study of anisotropy in the Solid Earth encompasses topics so diverse that it often appears fragmented according to regions of interest, e.g., the upper or lower crust, oceanic lithosphere, continental lithosphere, cratons, subduction zones, D'', or the inner core. The aim of this session is to bring together scientists working on different aspects of anisotropy to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. We encourage contributions from all disciplines of the earth sciences (including mineral physics, seismology, magnetotellurics, geodynamic modelling) focused on anisotropy at all scales and depths within the Earth.
Ground Penetrating Radar: Technology, Methodology, Applications and Case Studies
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a safe, advanced, non-destructive and non-invasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for inspecting the subsurface as well as natural and man-made structures. During GPR surveys, a source is used to send high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground or structure under test; at the boundaries where the electromagnetic properties of media change, the electromagnetic waves may undergo transmission, reflection, refraction and diffraction; the radar sensors measure the amplitudes and travel times of signals returning to the surface.
This session aims at bringing together scientists, engineers, industrial delegates and end-users working in all GPR areas, ranging from fundamental electromagnetics to the numerous fields of applications. With this session, we wish to provide a supportive framework for (1) the delivery of critical updates on the ongoing research activities, (2) fruitful discussions and development of new ideas, (3) community-building through the identification of skill sets and collaboration opportunities, (4) vital exposure of early-career scientists to the GPR research community.
We have identified a series of topics of interest for this session, listed below.
1. Ground Penetrating Radar instrumentation
- Innovative GPR equipment
- Design, realization and optimization of GPR antennas
- Equipment testing and calibration procedures
2. Ground Penetrating Radar methodology
- Survey planning and data acquisition strategies
- Methods and tools for data analysis and interpretation
- Data processing algorithms, electromagnetic modelling, imaging and inversion techniques
- Studying the relationship between GPR sensed quantities and physical properties of inspected subsurface/structures useful for application needs
- Advanced data visualization methods to clearly and efficiently communicate the significance of GPR data
3. Ground Penetrating Radar applications and case studies
- Earth sciences
- Civil engineering
- Environmental engineering
- Archaeology and cultural heritage
- Management of water resources
- Humanitarian mine clearance
- Vital signs detection of trapped people in natural and man-made disasters
- Planetary exploration
4. Contributions on the combined use of Ground Penetrating Radar and other geoscience instrumentation, in all applications fields
5. Communication and education initiatives and methods
This session is organized by Members of TU1208 GPR Association (www.gpradar.eu/tu1208); the association is a follow-up initiative of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 “Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar”.
TS12 – Evolution of concepts and ideas in geology and tectonics
Conceptual Tectonics: Proof and Refutation in Tectonic Knowledge
With the impressive theoretical progress of last decades, the global tectonics is about to reach a state that is quite unique not only for geology but for any descriptive domain of knowledge. This is the state of so high elaboration and maturity that a theory may be subject, like some theories of physics, chemistry, algebra and geometry, to the most rigorous inspection ever suggested in the science – the inspection for being formal sensu mathematical logic. Still, to bring the global tectonics to this state, quite a work remains to be done. This is an exciting cross-disciplinary work of knowledge engineers and geologists that would result in a quite new level of understanding the Earth and new quality of scientific collaboration on it.
However, being so different from all the fields that underwent such “high formalization” so far, the tectonics needs special formal treatment, which, in turn, requires special logico-mathematical formalism complementary to the traditional predicate logic. Thus the scope of this session appears highly cross-disciplinary, claiming for a joint intellectual journey of field geologists, experimentalists and modelers, IT specialists and computer scientists, logicians and mathematicians.
Peak Geoscience? Uncertainty, unknowns and the future of geoscience
Geoscience witnessed a flurry of major breakthroughs in the 19th and 20th century, leading to major shifts in our understanding of the Earth system. Such breakthroughs included new concepts, such as plate tectonics and sequence stratigraphy, and new techniques, like radiometric dating and remote sensing. However, the pace of these discoveries has declined, raising the question of whether we have now made all of the key geoscience breakthroughs. Put another way, have we reached “Peak Geoscience” and are we now in a time of synthesis, incremental development and consolidation? Or are there new breakthroughs on the horizon? If so what will these developments be?
One key remaining challenge is the management of the inherent uncertainties in geoscience. Despite the importance of understanding uncertainty, it is often neglected by interpreters, geomodellers and experimentalists. With ever-more powerful computers and the advent of big data analytics and machine learning, our ability to quantify uncertainty in geological interpretation, models and experiments will be crucial.
This session aims to bring together those with an interest in the future of geoscience. We welcome contributions from any field of geoscience which either demonstrate a new, disruptive geoscience breakthrough or provide insights into where the next breakthrough will come. We encourage contributions associated with uncertainty in geoscience models and data, machine learning or big data analytics.
Grain size or grain size distributions (GSDs) play a major role in many fields of geoscience research. Paleopiezometry is based on the relation between grains size and flow stress. Environments of depositions have typical GSDs. Time temperature and grain size have characteristic relations during static grain growth. Fracture processes are associated with the fractal dimension of the GSD they produce, etc.. In all these cases, meaningful interpretations rest on the correct acquisition and quantification of grain size data.
The aim of this short course is to discuss with participants the following questions
1) when do we need grain size analysis ? what is it good for ? what are the limitations ?
2) how do we identify grains? what are the criteria for segmentation?
3) how do we define reliable measures for grain size ?
4) what do we mean by 'mean grain size' ?
5) how much data do we need ?
6) and what about errors ?
Handouts will be available in electronic form.
Please send email if you want to participate (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The main goal of this short course is to provide an overview of the large scale dynamic processes on Earth, recent advances in the study of these processes and future directions. The course focusses on numerical methods to explain and advance our knowledge of geodynamic large scale processes, but additional constraints and insights obtained from the geological record and seismology (e.g., tomography) are also touched upon. The basic dynamics, state of the art understanding and outstanding questions of the following geodynamic processes are discussed through key papers in the field:
(1) Mantle convection
(2) The start of plate tectonics
(3) Break-up of supercontinents
(4) Subduction dynamics
(5) Crustal deformation & mountain building
Using their newfound knowledge of geodynamical processes, participants will be better able to understand and use geodynamical papers to answer their own research question.
The 90-minute short course is run by early career geodynamicists and is part of the Solid Earth 101 short course series together with Geodynamics 101A, Seismology 101, and Geology 101. It is dedicated to everyone who is interested in, but not necessarily experienced with, the large scale dynamics of the Earth; in particular early career scientists (BSc, MSc, PhD students and postdocs) and people who are new to the field of geodynamic modelling. The course "Geodynamics 101A: Numerical methods" discusses the numerical methods that are often used to solve for and study the processes outlined in this course. Discussion and questions will be greatly encouraged.
Adina E. Pusok |
Iris van Zelst,Fabio Crameri,Jessica Munch
Fri, 12 Apr, 14:00–15:45
How do seismologists detect earthquakes? How do we locate them? Is seismology only about earthquakes? Seismology has been integrated into a wide variety of geo-disciplines to be complementary to many fields such as tectonics, geology, geodynamics, volcanology, hydrology, glaciology and planetology. This 90-minute course is part of the Solid Earth 101 short course series together with ‘Geodynamics 101 (A & B)’ and ‘Geology 101’ to better illustrate the link between these fields.
In ‘Seismology 101’, we will present an introduction to the basic concepts and methods in seismology. In previous years, this course was given as "Seismology for non-seismologists" and it is still aimed at those not familiar with seismology -- in particular early career scientists. An overview will be given on various methods and processing techniques, which are applicable to investigate surface processes, near-surface geological structures and the Earth’s interior. The course will highlight the role that advanced seismological techniques can play in the co-interpretation of results from other fields. The topics will include:
- the basics of seismology, including the detection and location of earthquakes
- understanding and interpreting those enigmatic "beachballs"
- an introduction to free seismo-live.org tutorials and other useful tools
- how seismic methods are used to learn about the Earth, such as for imaging the Earth’s interior (on all scales), deciphering tectonics, monitoring volcanoes, landslides and glaciers, etc...
We likely won’t turn you in the next Charles Richter in 90 minutes but would rather like to make you aware how seismology can help you in geoscience. The intention is to discuss each topic in a non-technical manner, emphasizing their strengths and potential shortcomings. This course will help non-seismologists to better understand seismic results and can facilitate more enriched discussion between different scientific disciplines. The short course is organised by early career scientist seismologists and geoscientists who will present examples from their own research experience and from high-impact reference studies for illustration. Questions from the audience on the topics covered will be highly encouraged.
Maria Tsekhmistrenko |
Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–15:45
Predicting anisotropic physical properties using single crystal and texture data
This course is aimed at anyone who wants to better understand the origin of physical anisotropy in rocks. The principles and methods learned in the course can be applied to any anisotropy that is described by tensors and depends on the bulk properties of a sample rather than being dominated by grain boundary properties. As such, this course is relevant for researchers working in a range of fields, including those investigating seismic anisotropy, magnetic fabrics, or anisotropy of thermal conductivity.
We will discuss the intrinsic anisotropy of single crystals, the interplay of crystallographic preferred orientation and single crystal anisotropy to control the anisotropy in rocks, and give an introduction to how anisotropic physical properties can be predicted in rocks, including an introduction to the freely available Matlab toolbox MTex.
Participants will leave the course with a thorough and detailed understanding of factors controlling anisotropy in rocks, and have the necessary background to quantitatively predict anisotropy based on their own texture datasets or demonstration data sets.
Andrea Regina Biedermann |
Bjarne Almqvist,Sarah Brownlee,Mainprice David
Tue, 09 Apr, 16:15–18:00
Image analysis intro
Image analysis has become a standard tool for shape and fabric analysis of a wide range of rock types (sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic) and for microstructure analysis of natural and experimental samples at all scales. From quantified shape fabrics, rock properties may be inferred and related to the processes that created them.
In the first half of the short course, some basic techniques are outlined, in the second half, there will be demonstrations of selected applications.
The following topics will be covered:
1) image acquisition and pre-processing
2) segmentation: from picture to bitmap
3) shape analysis of individual grains or particles
4) fabric and strain analysis: looking at volumes and surfaces
5) analysis of spatial distribution: from clustered to random to ordered
Demonstrations will be made using ImageJ and Image SXM. Note, however, that familiarity with either of these programs is not required. - This is a short course, not a workshop.
Please send email if you want to participate (email@example.com)
This short course is an introduction to structural and petrological geological principles, used by geologist to understand system earth. The data available to geologists is often minimal, incomplete and representative for only part of the geological history. Besides learning field techniques to acquire and measure data, geologists need to develop a logical way of thinking to close gaps in the data to understand the system. There is a difference in the reality observed from field observation and the final geological model that tells the story.
In this course we briefly introduce the following subjects:
1) Acquisition of field-data
2) From structural field data to paleostresses
3) Using petrological field data to identify tectonic phases (e.g. burial and exhumation)
4) Rock deformation - What happens in the lab?
5) Data publications and EPOS - What to do with your research data?
6) Creating geological models: how to make the story complete
Our aim is not to make you the next specialist in geology, but we would rather try and make you aware of the challenges a geologist faces when he/she goes out into the field. Also the quality of data and the methods used nowadays are addressed to give seismologists and geodynamicists a feel for the capabilities and limits of geological research. This course is given by Early Career Scientist geologists and geoscientists and forms a trilogy with the short course on ‘Geodynamics 101’ and ‘Seismology 101’. For this reason, will also explain what kind of information we expect from the fields of seismology and geodynamics and we hope to receive some feedback in what kind of information you could use from our side.
Mountain Building, Volcanism, Climate and Biodiversity in the Andes: 250 years after Alexander von Humboldt
This year marks the 250th anniversary of the birth of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), the intrepid explorer of the Andes and other regions in the world, and the most famous scientist of his time. Alexander von Humboldt is perhaps best known for his radical new vision of nature as a complex and interconnected global force, thereby becoming the founder of the field of biogeography and laying the ground for modern Earth-System Science approaches. It seems fitting to pay tribute to Alexander von Humboldt’s legacy by reviewing the state of the art in studies of the coupled lithosphere – atmosphere – hydrosphere – biosphere system with a focus on the Andean mountain belt. The Andes have become one of the main natural laboratories in the world to explore these questions and many recent studies have addressed its tectonic and geodynamic evolution, but also the two-way couplings between surface uplift, climatic evolution and biodiversity in the Andes and its foreland. This Union Session will bring together world-leading specialists on these questions with the aim to shed light on both suspected and unexpected couplings in the system.
Past and future tipping points and large climate transitions in Earth history
Over the whole Earth history, the climate has encountered tipping points, shifting from one regulated system to the other. This tilting motion affects both climate and the carbon cycle and has played a major role in the evolution of the Earth climate, at all timescales. Earth History has been ponctuated by large climate changes and carbon cycle reorganizations, from large climate variations occurring in deep times (snowball events, terrestrialisation, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic warm episodes, quaternary glacial cycles…) to past and on-going abrupt events. Many potential triggers of those climate and carbon cycle shifts have been proposed and tested through modeling studies, and against field data, such as those directly or indirectly linked with tectonics (plate motion, orogenesis, opening/closing of seaways, weathering…) and orbital forcing. Given that the Earth climate is currently experiencing an unprecedented transition under anthropogenic pressure, understanding the mechanisms behind the scene is crucial.
Our aim is to point out the most recent results concerning how a complex system as the climate of the Earth has undergone many tipping points and what is the specificity of the future climate changes. Therefore, within this session, we would like to encourage talks discussing advances in our record and modeling of the forces triggering and amplifying the changes of Earth climate and carbon cycle across spatial and temporal scales.
Promoting and supporting equality of opportunities in geosciences
In today’s changing world we need to tap the potential of every talented mind to develop solutions for a sustainable future. The existence of under-representation of different groups (cultural, national and gender) remains a reality across the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields) around the world, including the geosciences. This Union Symposium will focus on remaining obstacles that contribute to these imbalances, with the goal of identifying best practices and innovative ideas to overcome obstacles.
EGU is welcoming six high-level speakers from the funding agencies and research centres on both sides of the Atlantic related to geosciences to present efforts and discuss initiatives to tackle both implicit and explicit biases. Speakers are:
Jill Karsten, AGU Diversity and Inclusion Task Force (confirmed)
Erika Marín-Spiotta, University of Wisconsin - Madison (confirmed)
Daniel Conley, Lund University (confirmed)
Giulio di Toro, University of Padua (confirmed)
Liviu Matenco, Utrecht University (confirmed)
Barbara Romanowicz, European Research Council (confirmed)
From fundamental Atmospheric Composition Research to Societal Services/30 years of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Programme
Atmospheric composition matters to climate, weather forecasting, human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, agricultural productivity, aeronautical operations, renewable energy production, and more. Hence research in atmospheric composition is becoming increasingly cross-cutting and linked to many disciplines including climate, biogeosciences, hydrology, natural hazards, computer and data sciences, socio-economic studies and many others. There is a growing need for atmospheric composition information and an improved understanding of the processes that drive changes in the composition and resulting impacts. While atmospheric composition research is advancing rapidly, there is a need to pay more attention to the translation of this research to support societal needs. Although translational research is a major focus of the health sciences and meteorology, it is in a relatively early stage in atmospheric composition. In this Union Symposium, we plan to highlight the need for, and to illustrate exciting advances in the translation of atmospheric composition research to support services. We will build upon work within the World Meteorological Organization and other communities related to the closer linkages of weather, atmospheric composition, and climate research and related services. We will also articulate the needs for advances in observing systems, models and a better understanding of fundamental processes. This session will also serve as a celebration of the 30 year anniversary of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch programme and an opportunity for the broader community to envision partnerships needed to facilitate the effective translation of atmospheric composition research.
The safe operating space for the planet and how to ensure it is not passed
In October 2018, the IPCC published its special report on impacts of global warming of 1.5 deg C. Another recent, highly publicised study suggests that the planet could pass an irreversible threshold into a so called “Hothouse Earth” state for a temperature increase of as low as 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, while other studies and commentaries have emphasised the urgency on climate action, arguing that 2020 must be a turning point for global fossil fuel emissions, to increase the chance of maintaining a safe operating space for the humans on the planet. In 2018, the IPCC celebrated its 30th anniversary. The importance of taking action on human-induced climate change has been emphasised with governments around the world since the 1990s yet CO2 concentrations continue to rise and international initiatives have, to date, had limited and insufficient impact to avert some of the most serious consequences of climate change.
How close are we to one or more critical thresholds (cliff edge)? Is there time to avert passing one or more of these thresholds? What can the geoscience community do to reduce the risks? How important is bottom up versus top down action to ensuring the least worst outcome? These are some of the questions we will debate with world experts in their field and authors of the thought papers on these topics.
In October 2018, the IPCC published its special report on impacts of global warming of 1.5 deg C. Another recent, highly publicised study suggests that the planet could pass an irreversible threshold into a so called “Hothouse Earth” state for a temperature increase of as low as 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures.
In 2018, the IPCC celebrated its 30th anniversary. The importance of taking action on human-induced climate change has been emphasised with governments around the world since the 1990s yet CO2 concentrations continue to rise and international initiatives have, to date, had limited and insufficient impact to avert some of the most serious consequences of climate change that may pose an existential threat to modern civilisation.
How close are we to one or more critical thresholds? Is there time to avert passing one or more of them? What can the geoscience community do to reduce the risks? How important is bottom up versus top down action to ensuring the least worst outcome? These are some of the questions we will debate with world experts in their field and authors of the thought papers on these topics.
The Great Debate panellists are:
Prof. Myles Allen is Professor of Geosystem Science in the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford. His research focuses on how human and natural influences on climate contribute to observed climate change and risks of extreme weather and in quantifying their implications for long-range climate forecasts. He was a Coordinating Lead Author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on 1.5 degrees, having served on the IPCC’s 3rd, 4th and 5th Assessments, including the Synthesis Report Core Writing Team in 2014.
Prof. Sabine Fuss, Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin. Sabine is an economist, currently leading a working group at the MCC. She holds a professorship on Sustainable Resource Management and Global Change at Humboldt University of Berlin. Her research interests are in sustainable development, land use change and climate change mitigation. She has been an IPCC Lead Author for the Special Report on 1.5°C global warming, serves on the steering committee of the Global Carbon Project and is a guest scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
Erica Hope leads the cross-sectoral ‘2050 Task Force’ and governance programme of the European Climate Foundation (ECF) in Brussels, which seeks to build knowledge, political strategies and coalitions to drive the transition to a zero emissions society by mid-century. Erica has previously worked for the energy efficiency and UK programmes of the ECF, and before that led the policy and advocacy activities of NGO network Climate Action Network Europe on energy efficiency. From 2005-2009 she was researcher to Green MEP Caroline Lucas, and has also worked at the Institute for Public Policy Research in London.
Prof. Linda Steg is professor of environmental psychology at the University of Groningen. She studies factors influencing sustainable behaviour, the effects and acceptability of strategies aimed at promoting sustainable behaviour, and public perceptions of technology and system changes. She is member of Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences (KNAW), and lead author of the IPCC special report on 1.5°C and AR6. She works on various interdisciplinary and international research programmes, and collaborates with practitioners working in industry, governments and NGOs.
Jonathan Bamber |
Alberto Montanari,Didier Roche
Thu, 11 Apr, 10:45–12:30
Science in policymaking: Who is responsible?
The geosciences are currently used by policymakers in a wide variety of areas to help guide the decision-making process and ensure that the best possible outcome is achieved. While the importance of scientific advice and the use of evidence in the policymaking process is generally acknowledged by both policymakers and scientists, how scientific advice is integrated and who is responsible is still unclear.
EU Policymakers frequently highlight institutionalised processes for integrating scientific advice into policy such as European Commission's Group of Chief Scientific Advisors (SAM) and the EU Commission’s Register of Expert Groups. But how efficient and accessible are these mechanisms really?
Some emphasise the need for scientists to have their own policy networks in place so that they can share their research outcomes with policymakers who can then use it directly or pass it on to those responsible for relevant legislation. But from funding applications to teaching and even outreach activities – scientists are often already overloaded with additional tasks on top of their own research. Can they really be held responsible for keeping up with the latest policy news and maintaining a constantly changing network of policymakers as well?
This debate will feature a mixed panel of policymakers and geoscientists who have previously given scientific advice. Some key questions that the panel will debate include:
• How can the accessibility of current EU science-advisory mechanisms be improved?
• Are scientists doing enough to share their research?
• And who is responsible for ensuring that quality scientific evidence is used in policymaking?
Speakers will be encouraged to explain any science advisory mechanism that they highlight (e.g. SAM) to ensure that the debate is understood by all those in attendance.
While the panel and subsequent debate will have an EU focus, it is likely that many of the issues discussed will be applicable to countries around the world.
David Mair: Head of Unit, Knowledge for Policy: Concepts & Methods, Joint Research Centre
Paul Watkinson: Chair of SBSTA (Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice)
Kasey White: Director for Geoscience Policy, Geological Society of America
Günter Blöschl: Head of Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Engineering Hydrology, Vienna University of Technology
Detlef van Vuuren: Professor in Integrated Assessment of Global Environmental Change at the Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University
Chloe Hill |
Sarah Connors,Hazel Gibson
Mon, 08 Apr, 10:45–12:30
How can Early Career Scientists prioritise their mental wellbeing?
The ever more challenging work environments and increasing pressures on Early Career Scientists e.g. publish or perish, securing grant proposals, developing transferable skills and many more – and all while having a lack of job security. This puts a big strain on Early Career Scientists and this can lead to neglected mental well-being which in turn increases the risk of developing anxiety, depression or other mental health issues. The graduate survey from 2017 (https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v550/n7677/full/nj7677-549a.html) shows that 12% of respondents had sought help or advice for anxiety or depression during their PhD.
In this debate we want to discuss: Is there a problem? How ECS can take control of their mental wellbeing and prioritise this in the current research environment? And what support would ECS like to see from organisations like EGU or their employers?
Rewards and recognition in science: what value should we place on contributions that cannot be easily measured
"What counts may not be countable and what is countable may not count". Assessments of scientists and their institutions tend to focus on easy-to-measure metrics related to research outputs such as publications, citations, and grants. However, society is increasingly dependent on Earth science research and data for immediate decisions and long-term planning. There is a growing need for scientists to communicate, engage, and work directly with the public and policy makers, and practice open scholarship, especially regarding data and software. Improving the reward and recognition structure to encourage broader participation of scientists in these activities must involve societies, institutions, and funders. EGU, AGU, and JPGU have all taken steps to improve this recognition, from developing new awards to starting journals around the topic of engaging the public to implementing FAIR data practices in the Earth, environmental, and space sciences, but far more is needed for a broad cultural change. How can we fairly value and credit harder-to-measure, these less tangible contributions, compared to the favoured metrics? And how can we shift the emphasis away from the "audit culture" towards measuring performance and excellence? This session will present a distinguished panel of stakeholders discussing how to implement and institutionalize these changes.
Robin Bell - AGU President
Helen M. Glaves - President of the EGU ESSI Division
Liz Allen – Director of Strategic Initiatives at F1000
Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Policy Institute, King's College London
Stephen Curry – Professor and Assistant Provost, Imperial College London
Chair, Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
Demetris Koutsoyiannis – Professor and former Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of
Athens, Past Editor in Chief of the Hydrological Sciences Journal of IAHS
Alberto Montanari |
Jonathan Bamber,Robin Bell,Hiroshi Kitazato,Lily Pereg (deceased)
Wed, 10 Apr, 10:45–12:30
Plan-S: Should scientific publishers be forced to go Open Access?
Plan S, devised by a coalition of research funders with support from the European Commission and European Research Council, demands that by January 1, 2020 research supported by participating funders must be published in Open Access journals. Representatives from subscription-based and Open Access publishers, architects of Plan S, and researchers affected by it will debate questions surrounding the implementation of the plan and its consequences.
The panelists are David Sweeney, Heike Langenberg, Marc Schiltz and Brooks Hanson. They will present the case for and against mandatory OA followed by an open debate with questions and comments from the audience.
David Sweeney is Executive Chair of Research England, the biggest research funder in the UK. He has been invited to visit many countries to advise on research assessment and funding, particularly with respect to research impact. He is also co-chair of the Implementation Task Force for Plan S, the international initiative on full and immediate open access to research publications.
Heike Langenberg is the Chief Editor of Nature Geoscience. She started her editorial career in 1999 as an Associate, then Senior Editor at Nature handling manuscripts in the broad area of climate sciences. In 2007 she moved to Nature Geoscience to launch the journal in January 2008. A graduate in mathematics of the Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany, she ventured into oceanography for her PhD at the University of Hamburg. Her postdoctoral research at various research institutes in Hamburg was focused on numerical simulations of the ocean and atmosphere at a regional scale.
Marc Schiltz is president of Science Europe, the European association of all major national public research funding and research performing organisations. In this role, he has contributed to setting the European agenda to foster Open Science and is one of the architects of Plan S. He is also leading the Luxembourg National Research Fund. He is a relentless advocate of science and research, serving on a number of external boards and committees, both at the national and international level. Having received a PhD in Crystallography from the University of Paris-Sud and an executive MBA from INSEAD, Marc has been active in research and higher education for more than 25 years and held research and faculty positions in several European countries.
Brooks Hanson is the Executive Vice President for Science for the American Geophysical Union (AGU), responsible for AGU’s publications, meetings, ethics and data programs, and Thriving Earth Exchange. He previously acted as Sr. Vice President for Publications at AGU, where he was responsible for AGU's portfolio of books and 21 journals and served as Deputy Editor for Physical Sciences at Science. Brooks received a Ph.D. in Geology from UCLA and held a post-doctoral appointment at the Department of Mineral Sciences at the Smithsonian Institution.
Katja Fennel |
Tue, 09 Apr, 16:15–18:00
Science, Politics and European (dis)integration: A conversation of Geoscientists with Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti
Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45-14:00 / Room E1
The dialogue between scientists, institutions, policymakers and the general public is widely recognised as an essential step towards a fair and sustainable society. Nowadays, more than ever in human history, international cooperation is an essential requirement for protecting the planet, advancing science and ensuring an equitable development of the global economy.
Despite its importance, the above dialogue can be a challenge for scientists, who often cannot find a productive connection with governments and politicians. Scientific associations are a key link between researchers and policy makers, as they have the potential to establish a durable and profitable connection with institutions.
The EGU elected the dialogue with society as one of its priority missions. At its General Assembly, the EGU is launching an innovative symposium format, Science and Society (SCS), to host scientific forums specifically dedicated to connecting with high-level institutions and engaging the public and policymakers.
The conversation with Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will focus on science and politics with a global perspective, and the impact of populism on European integrity and therefore scientific research. The discussion will elaborate on optimal strategies to deliver topical and clear scientific messages to key institutions.
Ilaria Capua is a virologist best known for her research on influenza viruses and her efforts promoting open access to genetic information on emerging viruses. In 2006, Science reported on Capua’s effort towards open access science, stating that she had “renewed the debate about how to balance global health against scientists’ needs to publish and countries’ demands for secrecy". She has been a member of the Italian parliament from 2013 to 2016 and a fake news victim. She is currently a full professor at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, US, and director of the UF One Health Center of Excellence.
Mario Monti served as a European Commissioner from 1995 to 2004, with responsibility for the internal market, services, customs, taxation and competition. He was Prime Minister of Italy from 2011 to 2013, leading a government of national unity to cope with the Italian debt crisis. Monti has also been Rector and is currently President of Bocconi University in Milan. His publications deal mainly with monetary and financial economics, public finance, European integration, competition policy. He is currently lifetime member of the Italian Senate.
During the conversation, Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will present their vision with two 15-minute talks that will be followed by 20 minutes dedicated to questions from the audience and answers.
Plastics in the Hydrosphere: An urgent problem requiring global action
Plastic pollution is recognized as one of the most serious and urgent problems facing our planet. Rates of manufacture, use and ultimately disposal of plastics continue to soar, posing an enormous threat to the planet’s oceans and rivers and the flora and fauna they support. There is an urgent need for global action, backed by sound scientific understanding, to tackle this problem.
This Union Symposium will address the problems posed to our planet by plastic pollution, and examine options for dealing with the threat.
The Games Night is a space to gather, socialise, and play some games. The catch is that all the games are based on Geoscience! Bring along your own games or try one of the others in the session and meet the people who created them. This will also be your chance to try games featured in the Games for Geoscience session.
Confirmed games include -
Breath of the Wild, HEAT, Flash Flood! Vol. 2, Resilience, Druids & Defences, Wanted: Head of the Centre for Flood Forecasts (IMPREX serious game), Rivers Top Trumps.
Join us to help put some of the world's most vulnerable places on the map. A mapathon is a mapping marathon, where we get together to contribute to OpenStreetMap - the world's free map.
No experience is necessary - just bring your laptop and we will provide the training. Learn more about crowdsourcing, open data and humanitarian response - we will also provide some tips for how to host a mapathon at your home institution.
Faith Taylor |
Hessel Winsemius,Joanne Wood,chen zhong
Thu, 11 Apr, 19:00–20:30
A Plastic Ocean (film)
Plastic Oceans UK have been experts on plastic pollution for nearly a decade - solving the plastic crisis through their science, sustainability and education programmes. This all began with the award-winning documentary A Plastic Ocean, now available for streaming on Netflix.
Through changing attitudes, behaviours and practices on the use and value of plastics, we can stop plastic pollution reaching the ocean within a generation.
Come along to the screening of A Plastic Ocean to understand the impacts of plastic pollution around the world, what action we can take to stop plastics entering our natural world and pose your questions to the film's producer, Jo Ruxton, at the end of film.
Plastic Oceans UK have been experts on plastic pollution for nearly a decade - solving the plastic crisis through their science, sustainability and education programmes. This all began with the award-winning documentary A Plastic Ocean, now available for streaming on Netflix.
Through changing attitudes, behaviours and practices on the use and value of plastics, we can stop plastic pollution reaching the ocean within a generation.
Come along to the screening of A Plastic Ocean to understand the impacts of plastic pollution around the world, what action we can take to stop plastics entering our natural world and pose your questions to the film's producer, Jo Ruxton, at the end of film.