Peering into the past: the power of microstructures to unravel metamorphic and igneous processes
The microstructure of igneous and metamorphic rocks are archives preserving abundant information about rock history, such as heating and cooling rates, metasomatism and fluid infiltration, timing and location of nucleation and crystal growth, crystallisation regime, and the extent, mechanisms and timing of deformation. Microstructural features achieve even greater importance when combined with geochemical data, but their potential is commonly under-recognised.
We welcome contributions covering the entire range of igneous and metamorphic petrology, which either showcase development of new microstructural analysis techniques or new applications of well-established techniques, or illustrate how microstructural interpretation adds to our understanding of rock history. We anticipate that this broadly-conceived session will trigger exciting new synergies across a wide range of microstructural studies.
Experimental Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry
The scientific program of this broad session is dedicated to Experimental Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry. EGU offers an opportunity for the community of experimental geoscientists to discuss questions raised by the experimental approaches developed the wide range of geosciences. All aspects of experimental studies are welcome, including a wide spectrum of fields ranging from cosmochemistry to deep Earth studies; environmental geochemistry to applied mineralogy; chemical and physical properties of fluids, melts, glasses and minerals, low- and high-temperature processes, as well as new experimental developments. Results from in house laboratory studies as well as from large scale facilities like synchrotron experiments are welcome.
Max Wilker (firstname.lastname@example.org) who is organizing the EMPG meeting in 2020 will also be co-convener of the session.
It’s about time: Determinations, applications and complications of diffusion in minerals and melts
The quantification and understanding of diffusion rates and mechanisms in minerals and melts offers the unique capability to answer many geological questions that are otherwise inaccessible. In volcanology, diffusion chronometry can be used to determine magmatic ascent rates and timescales between magma recharge and eruption; in metamorphic petrology, diffusivities can be used to quantify cooling rates of orogens, or timescales of collision and exhumation. In geothermobarometry, it is important to understand diffusivities of the relevant elements to assess the potential for re-equilibration. Likewise, the ages obtained by radiometric dating methods may also be affected by diffusion of the parent or daughter isotopes. New developments in in-situ microanalytical techniques are expanding our ability to rapidly collect large amounts of high-quality data, continuously leading to new and exciting research directions.
This session will provide a forum for geoscientists from a wide range of disciplines to discuss and debate the most ‘timely’ topic of the earth sciences. We encourage contributions from petrologists, volcanologists, geochronologists and (geo)chemists working in any area related to diffusion, or where the potential of diffusion studies can be demonstrated. Contributions resulting from experiments, studies of natural samples, theoretical work or analytical developments are encouraged.
At the limits of geoscience: the nanoscale control of the solid Earth
Atomic to nanoscale structures of rocks, minerals and fluids control the physical and chemical properties of the Earth. Examples of this include: (1) the link between atomistic motion of crystallographic defects through mineral grains and rheological behaviour of the Earth’s mantle, (2) the influence of nanogranular deformation on the stability of seismically active fault zones and (3) the observations that fluids confined in tiny spaces exhibit vastly different physicochemical properties than their bulk counterparts. We are at the dawn of a technological revolution that allows us to study Earth’s materials at scales down to the sub-nanometre level. Macroscopic descriptions fail to explain the behavior of Earth materials. It is only by investigating these materials at the tiniest length scales that we can begin to unravel increasingly complex processes (e.g. dissolution-precipitation, exsolution, coherency stress, fluid-rock interaction, defect motion etc.) with geological scale implications. In this session we welcome contributions that adopt a broad variety of experimental and numerical techniques as well as methods focused on resolving submicrometric to nanometric scale processes that could not be unraveled at the macroscopic scale of observation.
Early Earth: Dynamics, Geology, Chemistry and Life in the Archean Earth
Processes responsible for formation and development of the early Earth (> 2500Ma) are not
well understood and strongly debated, reflecting in part the poorly preserved, altered, and
incomplete nature of the geological record from this time.
In this session we encourage the presentation of new approaches and models for the development of Earth's early crust and mantle and their methods of interaction. We encourage contributions from the study of the preserved rock archive as well as geodynamic models of crustal and mantle dynamics so as to better understand the genesis and evolution of continental crust and the stabilization of cratons.
We invite abstracts from a large range of disciplines including geodynamics, geology, geochemistry, and petrology but also studies of early atmosphere, biosphere and early life relevant to this period of Earth history.
Achievements and perspectives in scientific ocean and continental drilling
Scientific drilling through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) continues to provide unique opportunities to investigate the workings of the interior of our planet, Earth’s cycles, natural hazards and the distribution of subsurface microbial life. The past and current scientific drilling programs have brought major advances in many multidisciplinary fields of socio-economic relevance, such as climate and ecosystem evolution, palaeoceanography, the deep biosphere, deep crustal and tectonic processes, geodynamics and geohazards. This session invites contributions that present and/or review recent scientific results from deep Earth sampling and monitoring through ocean and continental drilling projects. Furthermore, we encourage contributions that outline perspectives and visions for future drilling projects, in particular projects using a multi-platform approach.
Peak Geoscience? Uncertainty, unknowns and the future of geoscience
Geoscience witnessed a flurry of major breakthroughs in the 19th and 20th century, leading to major shifts in our understanding of the Earth system. Such breakthroughs included new concepts, such as plate tectonics and sequence stratigraphy, and new techniques, like radiometric dating and remote sensing. However, the pace of these discoveries has declined, raising the question of whether we have now made all of the key geoscience breakthroughs. Put another way, have we reached “Peak Geoscience” and are we now in a time of synthesis, incremental development and consolidation? Or are there new breakthroughs on the horizon? If so what will these developments be?
One key remaining challenge is the management of the inherent uncertainties in geoscience. Despite the importance of understanding uncertainty, it is often neglected by interpreters, geomodellers and experimentalists. With ever-more powerful computers and the advent of big data analytics and machine learning, our ability to quantify uncertainty in geological interpretation, models and experiments will be crucial.
This session aims to bring together those with an interest in the future of geoscience. We welcome contributions from any field of geoscience which either demonstrate a new, disruptive geoscience breakthrough or provide insights into where the next breakthrough will come. We encourage contributions associated with uncertainty in geoscience models and data, machine learning or big data analytics.
Evolution of the Earth's upper mantle: a petrological, geochemical and geodynamic perspective on lithospheric mantle xenoliths, orogenic and ophiolitic peridotites
The nature of Earth’s lithospheric mantle is largely constrained from the petrological and geochemical studies of xenoliths. They are complemented by studies of orogenic peridotites and ophiolites, which show the space relationships among various mantle rock kinds, missing in xenoliths. Mantle xenoliths from cratonic regions are distinctly different from those occurring in younger non-cratonic areas. Percolation of melts and fluids through the lithospheric mantle significantly modifies its petrological and geochemical features, which is recorded in mantle xenoliths brought to the surface by oceanic and continental volcanism. Basalts and other mantle-derived magmas provide us another opportunity to study the chemical and physical properties the mantle. These various kinds of information, when assembled together and coupled with experiments and geophysical data, enable the understanding of upper mantle dynamics.
This session’s research focus lies on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies of mantle xenoliths, orogenic and ophiolitic peridotites and other mantle derived rocks. We strongly encourage the contributions on petrology and geochemistry of mantle xenoliths and other mantle rocks, experimental studies, the examples and models of mantle processes and its evolution in space and time.
The melt and fluid inclusion message in Earth and Planetary Sciences
This session addresses the fundamental role that inclusions play to constrain geological processes in Planetary Science.
Inclusions hosted in crystals are parcels of melt(s) and/or fluid(s) that have the potential to unravel the P-T-X conditions under which igneous, metamorphic and volcanic processes take place. Moreover, inclusions provide critical constraints to the timescales of geological processes, (from millions of years to a few of seconds) occurred on Earth and other planetary bodies. Therefore, the study of melt and fluid inclusions contributes to develop chemically- and physically-based models of deep and surface processes acting under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
We welcome contributions based on analytical and experimental approaches, as well as thermodynamic modelling, to study melt and fluid inclusions and the extent and significance of their post-entrapment modification. We strongly encourage the submission of multidisciplinary studies focused on linking inclusion datasets to field and geophysical observations (e.g., ground deformation, seismicity, gas emission) purposes.
Areas found at plate boundaries are characterized by the presence of seismic, volcanic and geothermal activity. These processes are enhanced by the circulation of hydrothermal fluids in the crust, which transport volatiles from the deep crust or mantle to the surface. Certainly not limited to plate boundaries, as magma rises from depth, decreasing pressure allows volatile species to partition to the gas phase. Bubbles form, grow, coalesce and gases start to flow through vesiculated magma. Eventually, fluids escape towards the surface using tectonic structures and are released in the atmosphere, in some cases diffused through a soil or bubbling through a water pool, in other cases forming large plumes or explosive eruption columns. Fluids play an important role in earthquake generation.
Geochemical and isotope composition of gases deriving from different settings can trace sources and chemical and physical processes, providing information about deep earth. Moreover, volatiles play a key role in magma transport and have significant impact on the style and timing of volcanic eruptions. In addition, noble gases deriving from the deep earth can provide important information about their crust or mantle origin because these gases hardly react with other materials during migration. While carbon dioxide is one of the major constituents in volcanic/geothermal areas, methane, dominating sedimentary low heat flow areas, is often linked to subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs that due to tectonic discontinuities are released in the atmosphere. Furthermore, sulfur dioxide emissions that take place in volcanic environments can cause acid rain, influence aerosol formation and, if an eruption column reaches the stratosphere, cause global dimming and a decrease in Earth’s surface temperatures for years. Similarly, halogens can dramatically impact proximal ecosystems, influence the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and alter the stratospheric ozone layer. Gas composition and flux may change with time, reflecting variations in the system. Measuring gases therefore constitutes a powerful tool for monitoring and understanding Earth.
This session aims to merge different geo-disciplines and bring together researchers interested in the comprehension of the degassing processes that take place in various geodynamic regimes. Furthermore, identify the impact that the emissions can have on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate and human health at various temporal and spatial scales. We invite contributions discussing novel measurement techniques, field measurements, direct and remote ground- and space-based observations and modeling studies of degassing can provide new insights into volcanic, tectonic and atmospheric processes on local and global scales.
Subduction drives plate tectonics, generates the major proportion of subaerial volcanism, forms continents, and entrains surface material back to the deep Earth. Therefore, it is arguably the most important geodynamical phenomenon on Earth and the major driver of global geochemical cycles. Seismological data show a fascinating range in shapes of subducting slabs. Arc volcanism illustrates the complexity of geochemical and petrological phenomena associated with subduction. Surface topography provides insight in the orogenic processes related to subduction and continental collision.
Numerical and laboratory modelling studies have successfully built our understanding of many aspects of the geodynamics of subduction zones. Detailed geochemical studies, investigating compositional variation within and between volcanic arcs, provide further insights into systematic chemical processes at the slab surface and within the mantle wedge, providing constraints on thermal structures and material transport within subduction zones. However, with different technical and methodological approaches, model set-ups, inputs and material properties, and in some cases conflicting conclusions between chemical and physical models, a consistent picture of the controlling parameters of subduction-zone processes has so far not emerged.
This session aims to follow subducting lithosphere on its journey from the surface down into the Earth's mantle, and to understand the driving processes for deformation and magmatism in the over-riding plate. We aim to address topics such as: subduction initiation and dynamics; changes in mineral breakdown processes at the slab surface; the formation and migration of fluids and melts at the slab surface; primary melt generation in the wedge; subduction-related magmatism; controls on the position and width of the volcanic arc; subduction-induced seismicity; mantle wedge processes; the fate of subducted crust, sediments and volatiles; the importance of subducting seamounts, LIPs, and ridges; links between near-surface processes and slab dynamics and with regional tectonic evolution; slab delamination and break-off; the effect of subduction on mantle flow; and imaging subduction zone processes.
With this session, we aim to form an integrated picture of the subduction process, and invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines, such as geodynamics, modelling, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology and seismology, to discuss subduction zone dynamics at all scales from the surface to the lower mantle, or in applications to natural laboratories.
Subduction zones are arguably the most important geological features of our planet, where plates plunge into the deep, metamorphic reactions take place, large earthquakes happen and melting induces volcanism and creation of continental crust. None of these processes would be possible without the cycling of volatiles, and this session aims to explore their role in convergent margins. Questions to address include the following. Do Atlantic and Pacific subduction zones cycle volatiles in different ways? What dynamic or chemical roles are played by subducted fracture zones and plate bending faults? How do fluids and melts interact with the mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere? Why do some of the Earth’s largest mineral resources form in subduction settings? We aim to bring together geodynamicists, geochemists, petrologists, seismologists, mineral and rock physicists, and structural geologists to understand how plate hydration/slab dynamics/dehydration, and subsequent mantle wedge melting/fluid percolation, and ultimately melt segregation/accumulation lead to the diverse range of phenomena observed at convergence zones around the globe.
Lena Melekhova (Bristol University)
Ingo Grevemeyer (GEOMAR)
Hotspots, LIPs, LLSVPs, ...: an inter-disciplinary perspective on the causes and consequences of mantle upwellings
Mantle upwellings are an important component of the Earth’s convective system that can cause volcanism and anomalies in surface topography. Upwellings can rise from thermal boundary layers as hot “mantle plumes”. Alternatively, they can be the response to upper-mantle convective flow, subduction, or rifting. Clearly, different mechanisms sustain mantle upwellings of various temperature, vigour and composition, causing characteristic signals that can potentially be imaged using geophysical data, as well as expressed in the geochemistry and petrology of related magmatism.
This session invites contributions that focus on mantle upwellings from geophysics, geochemistry, and modelling perspectives. Our aim is to bring together constraints from multiple disciplines to understand the origin and dynamics of mantle upwellings, as well as their potential to trigger mantle melting, create volcanism, generate ore deposits, and build dynamic topography.
Models and observations of vertical plate motions, and the links between surface and deep mantle processes, in particular the plume mode of mantle convection: A tribute to Kevin Burke
Since the 1960’s plate tectonics has been accepted as a surface expression of the earth's convecting mantle, and yet numerous geological features of plate interiors remain unexplained within the plate tectonic paradigm, including intraplate earthquakes and large-scale vertical motions of continents as epitomized by the uplift history of Africa. Kevin Burke (1929-2018), one of the greatest geologists of our time who published original and thought-provoking contributions for six decades, was one of the most vocal scientists to assert that plate tectonics is an incomplete theory without a clear understanding of its links with deep Earth processes, including the role of mantle plumes. In this session we commemorate the pioneering work of Kevin and explore contributions from across the diverse fields that interested him, including global tectonics, the Wilson Cycle, the origin of Precambrian greenstone belts, the evolution of the Caribbean, and the uplift history of Africa and other continents. We discuss the state-of-the art of the plume mode of mantle convection, its influence on the dynamics of the asthenosphere and the lithosphere, and its expression at the earth’s surface. We seek contributions from natural case studies (tectonic evolution, sedimentology, thermochronology, geophysics, palaeoclimate) and from geodynamics or geomaterials oriented (analog and numerical) modeling, which address the interplay of deep mantle – asthenosphere – lithosphere – basin – surface processes in all plate environments. In particular, we appreciate studies that contribute to the understanding of feedback processes causing the evolution of dynamic topography and welcome contributions that examine surface and deep Earth links based on observations and numerical models (although notably the latter never seduced Kevin).
Continental rifting is a multi-facetted process spanning from the inception of extension to continental rupture or the formation of a failed rift. This session aims at combining new data sets, concepts and techniques elucidating the structure and dynamics of rifts and rifted margins. We invite submissions highlighting the time-dependent evolution of processes such as initiation of faults and ductile shear zones, tectono-magmatic and sedimentary history, lithospheric necking and rift strength loss, influence of the pre-rift lithospheric structure, mantle dynamics and associated effects on rifting processes, as well as continental break-up and the transition to sea-floor spreading. We encourage contributions using multi-disciplinary and innovative methods from field geology, geochronology, seismology, geodesy, marine geophysics, plate reconstruction, or modeling. Focus regions may include but are not limited to the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (e.g. IODP 367/368 area) rifted margins, or the East African, Eger, Baikal and Gulf of California rift systems. Special emphasis will be given to presentations that provide an integrated picture by combining results from active rifts, passive margins, failed rift arms or by bridging the temporal and spatial scales associated with rifting.
GMPV3 – Metamorphism, low-temperature processes and fluid-rock interaction
Metamorphic minerals: time capsules from a dynamic lithosphere
Metamorphic minerals document the dynamic evolution of our planet, from the Archean to Present and from the grain- to plate-scale. Deciphering these records requires an approach that integrates petrology, geochemistry, chronology, structural analysis and modelling. Our ability to study our dynamic lithosphere through metamorphic geology continues to improve. At the same time, new analyses and approaches reveal issues and pitfalls that inspire future development.
This session aims to highlight integrated metamorphic geology and its use in elucidating the processes that shaped cratons and mountain belts through time. We welcome contributions in petrology, geo- and thermo-chronology, trace-element and isotope geochemistry, thermodynamic modelling, and structural geology—all with a specific focus on studying metamorphosed-metasomatised rocks. Part of the session will be devoted to novel developments and applications in geochronology and micro- to nano-analytical methods.
Robert Holder (Johns Hopkins University): "Monazite Eu anomalies revisited: beyond feldspar"
Pierre Lanari (Universität Bern): "An integrated modelling framework for tracing equilibrium relationships in metamorphic rocks"
Fluid-rock interaction: Kickstarter of metamorphic, deformation and geo-engineering processes
Reactions between fluids and rocks have a fundamental impact on many of the natural and geo-engineering processes in crustal settings. Examples of such natural processes are localization of deformation, earthquake nucleation caused by high pressure fluid pulses, as well as metamorphic reactions and rheological weakening triggered by fluid flow, metasomatism and fluid-mediated mass transport. Moreover, the efficiency of many geo-engineering processes is partly dependent on fluid-rock interactions, such as hydraulic fracturing, geothermal energy recovery, CO2 storage and wastewater injection. All our observations in the rock record are the end-product of all metamorphic, metasomatic and deformation changes that occurred during the interaction with fluid. Therefore, to investigate and understand these complex and interconnected processes, it is required to merge knowledge and techniques deriving from several disciplines of the geosciences.
We invite multidisciplinary contributions that investigate fluid-rock interactions throughout the entire breadth of the topic, using fieldwork, microstructural and petrographic analyses, geochemistry, experimental rock mechanics, thermodynamic modeling and numerical modeling.
Supergene ore deposits: mineralogy, geochemistry and critical elements deportment
Supergene ore deposits, like bauxites, Ni-laterites and Zn-Pb-V, Cu nonsulfides, are commonly exploited for Al, Ni, Zn, V and Cu. However, they also contain several “critical” elements (REE, Sc, Co, Ge, Ga, In), which are not recovered from these ores because their amounts and deportment are not completely known, or economically viable extraction flowsheets are not available. This session is open to contributions on mineralogy and geochemistry of supergene ores, with particular attention to studies on critical elements distribution in these deposits.
From hydrothermal systems to mud volcanoes: structure, evolution and monitoring of active and fossil piercements
Hydrothermal systems, mud volcanoes, hybrid environments such as sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems and piercement structures in general are among the most spectacular geological phenomena on Earth. Several studies demonstrated that these structures play a key role in the evolution of our planet and the cycles of life during several geological eras. Active piercements are usually characterized by deep-rooted plumbing systems and complex geochemical reactions where life can adapt to thrive in extremely harsh environments making them ideal targets for deep biosphere exploration. The geophysical signals associated to such environments are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret. The elevated pore pressures often encountered at depth and the high flow rates make these structures ideal natural laboratories to capture precursors of seismic events and dynamically triggered geological processes. Piercement structures have often been reported to respond to earthquakes and external forcing.
This session welcomes contributions from geophysical, geochemical, microbial, geological, numerical and laboratory studies to promote a better understanding of modern and palaeo piercement phenomena. In particular we call for studies related to 1) investigations controlling pre-existing geological structures; 2) the geochemical reactions occurring at depth and at the surface including microbiological studies; 3) the investigation of such systems with geophysical methods; 4) experimental and numerical studies; 5) the survey and the monitoring of these settings and environments to learn the dynamics of the extinct systems from the active ones; 6) the study of palaeo piercements as well as their effects on palaeo climate.
Geofluids as natural resources or sources of contamination: Research and Innovation (supported by RGFC-IAH and ENERAG)
Geofluids (i.e. fluids located in the subsurface) are increasingly becoming of interest due to their significant role as natural resources. These fluids span a vast range of geological environments including groundwater drinking resources, shale gas and oil, deep/shallow geothermal resources and hydrothermal mineral resources. Despite being valuable resources, geofluids are both vulnerable to contamination or may themselves represent a potential source of contamination through externally-driven mechanisms, as in the case of shale gas extraction, CO2 leaking or land use for agriculture purposes. Ont he other hand geofluids themselves can be a source of natural contamination as in the geogenic contamination of groundwater resources containing elevated levels of trace elements including arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and uranium (U), amongst others. Strategic management of geofluids and protection of geological resources related to them is indispensable for the future sustainable development of these societal and economically important resources. The characterization of geofluids and their behaviour in natural or artificial (human-driven) circumstances requires a deep understanding of complex physical, geochemical and microbiological processes. They are influenced directly by geological setting, structural evolution, and fluid flow systems.
The aim of this session is to foster scientific discussion between those with interest in a range of geofluid systems to better understand the role which these fluids have as socio-environmental and economic resources. The session emphasises the importance of lithological & mineralogical characterizationof various systems including in aquifers for a range of geogenic contaminants in groundwater, specifically addressing the source pathways and mobilisation mechanisms. The session also welcomes work including fluid flow, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental tracers, microbial investigations and both numerical and statistical modelling in support of fluid and resource management.
The session is supported by the RGFC-IAH (‘Regional Groundwater Flow Commission’ of International Association of Hydrogeologists) and the EU H2020 ENeRAG (‘Excellency Network Building for Comprehensive Research and Assessment of Geofluids’) project.
Nucleation and growth of sedimentary/diagenetic minerals
Mineral nucleation and growth processes are well studied for material science and industry applications under controlled laboratory conditions, but our understanding of these complex multistage pathways in natural environments is still rather incomplete. Monitoring precise and quantitative environmental parameters over long time periods is often difficult, imposing great uncertainties on growth processes and physicochemical properties of minerals used to reconstruct Earth’s history, such as microbialites, speleothems, or authigenic cements. Recent findings suggest that nano-clusters, colloidal particles, organic matter or microbes may be fundamental to nucleation and growth processes, especially if kinetics are sluggish at Earth surface temperatures. Thus, it is imperative to investigate mineral formation at the nano- and micro-scale within a broad, interdisciplinary perspective.
In this session we welcome oral and poster presentations from multiple fields including sedimentology, mineralogy, geochemistry, physical chemistry, biology and engineering that contribute to a better understanding of mineral nucleation and growth processes. Contributions may include process-oriented studies in modern systems, the ancient rock record, experiments, computer simulations, and high-resolution microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. We intend to reach a wide community of researchers sharing the common goal of improving our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying mineral formation, which is essential to read our Earth’s geological archive.
Oceanic and continental transform faults: towards a multi-disciplinary approach
Transform faults form major active plate boundaries and are intrinsic features of plate tectonics and plate accretion. Submarine transforms are likely to be fundamental pathways for fluid circulation in depth, thus significantly contributing to the exchange between the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. This implies serpentinization and weathering that affect the mechanical properties in the deformation zone. An open question is the influence of the elemental exchange between the crust and ocean water on these processes, as well as the interactions with the biosphere, both at the surface and at depth. Continental transforms and strike-slip faults are often a site of major earthquakes, representing major hazards for the population. Here too, the role of weathering in the deformation zone is still unconstrained. Both types of faults are still poorly known in terms of structure, rheology and deformation. These features are seismically active zones, with large earthquakes often being recorded on the largest faults. Yet, little is known about the rupture process, seismic cyclicity and active deformation of transform faults. Recent works have shown that fracture zones, supposedly inactive features, can be reactivated and be the site of large earthquakes and deformation. Additional open questions are the way transform faults deform under far-field stresses, such as plate kinematic changes, and under more local stresses, what are the time constants of the processes and what are the primary controls of the tectonic and magmatic styles of the response. The tectonic and magmatic response of large offset transforms, particularly, is still largely unknown.
This session aims to present recent results on studies of these large features, especially on the rheology, deformation patterns, rupture processes, fluid circulation and physical properties of transform faults. We welcome observational studies on strike-slip and transform faults, both continental and oceanic, on fracture zones and on transform continental margins (structural geology and tectonics, geophysical imaging of the crust and lithosphere, petrology and geochemistry, seismology, fluid circulation and rock alteration, geodesy) as well as modelling studies, both analogue and numerical. Cross-disciplinary approaches are encouraged. The submission of abstracts divulging on-going international projects (drilling sites, seismic reflection imaging along strike-slip faults) are also welcome. This session is promoted by the Oceanic Transform Faults working group of InterRidge.
Chronology and rates of magmatic, volcanic and ore-forming processes
With this session we offer a platform for contributions using geochronological methods for resolving processes in ancient and modern magmatic systems, from deep crust to the surface, from melt accumulation, fractional crystallisation and melting in deep-seated reservois, to melt and crystal transport into the middle and upper crust, processes at the origin of volcanic eruptions, as well as all temporal aspects of metal transport, precipitation and crystallization in ore deposits at lithosphere-scale.
Magma generation and differentiation: Field, geochemical, experimental and numerical investigation of magmatic and volcanic systems
Magma chemistry sampled in plutonic and volcanic rocks (including their crystal cargoes) reflects combinations of processes that operate in their sources (e.g. metasomatism and tapping of various mantle components) as well as during differentiation in the crust (e.g. fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, mixing/mingling, replenishment of magma reservoirs and chambers, and crustal melting). The fundamental questions addressed by this session concern how igneous systems operate in different tectonic settings and the principal controls on primary, parental and derivative magma compositions. This session thus invites contributions focussing on the generation and differentiation of magmas in the mantle and the crust. We particularly encourage reports on field studies, petrology, geochemistry, experimental petrology, and thermodynamic and geochemical modelling.
Please observe that the talks in session GMPV4.2 begin at 09:00 (and not at 08:30 as previously advertised).
Hope to see you there!
On behalf of the convener team.
The formation and modification of oceanic crust and the upper mantle: Insights from the Oman Drilling Project and related investigations in the oceanic lithosphere.
The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP; 2016-2018) has recovered 3200 m of diamond drillcore that sample three intervals within the gabbroic lower crust, the crust-mantle transition, partially serpentinised peridotite undergoing active alteration, and the transition from the mantle into the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail ophiolite in Oman, arguably the best-preserved ophiolite. Most of the boreholes have been geophysically logged and the cores have undergone extensive IODP standard core description onboard the DV Chikyu, supplemented with X-ray CT and high resolution infrared scanning of the entire core. These cores and boreholes can be used to investigate the full spectrum of processes operating during the formation and modification of oceanic crust and shallow mantle. These processes involve mass and energy transfer between all the major components of the Earth system (the mantle, the crust, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere) and occur over a broad range of temperatures, depths and tectonic settings. In this session, we invite abstracts relating to the Oman Drilling Project including core analysis, geophysical logging and microbial studies as well as studies related to the Samail ophiolite and the oceanic lithosphere in general.
The session deals with the documentation and modelling of the tectonic, deformation and geodetic features of any type of volcanic area, on Earth and in the Solar System. The focus is on advancing our understanding on any type of deformation of active and non-active volcanoes, on the associated behaviours, and the implications for hazards. We welcome contributions based on results from fieldwork, remote-sensing studies, geodetic and geophysical measurements, analytical, analogue and numerical simulations, and laboratory studies of volcanic rocks.
Studies may be focused at the regional scale, investigating the tectonic setting responsible for and controlling volcanic activity, both along divergent and convergent plate boundaries, as well in intraplate settings. At a more local scale, all types of surface deformation in volcanic areas are of interest, such as elastic inflation and deflation, or anelastic processes, including caldera and flank collapses. Deeper, sub-volcanic deformation studies, concerning the emplacement of intrusions, as sills, dikes and laccoliths, are most welcome.
We also particularly welcome geophysical data aimed at understanding magmatic processes during volcano unrest. These include geodetic studies obtained mainly through GPS and InSAR, as well as at their modelling to imagine sources.
The session includes, but is not restricted to, the following topics:
• volcanism and regional tectonics;
• formation of magma chambers, laccoliths, and other intrusions;
• dyke and sill propagation, emplacement, and arrest;
• earthquakes and eruptions;
• caldera collapse, resurgence, and unrest;
• flank collapse;
• volcano deformation monitoring;
• volcano deformation and hazard mitigation;
• volcano unrest;
• mechanical properties of rocks in volcanic areas.
Volcano monitoring with instrument networks: novel techniques, observations and interpretations
Over the past few years, major technological advances allowed to significantly increase both the spatial coverage and frequency bandwidth of geochemical and geophysical observations at active volcanoes. Establishment of high-rate GPS networks, continuous gravity meters, dense arrays of broad-band seismometers, and networks of instruments for the quantitative measurement of volcanic gas emissions now permits an unprecedented, multi-parameter vision of the surface manifestations of mass transport beneath volcanoes. Accompanying these progresses are new models and processing techniques leading to innovative paradigms for the interpretation and inversion of observational data. Within this context, this session aims at bringing together a multidisciplinary audience to discuss about the most recent innovations in monitoring approaches and to present observations, methods and models that increase our understanding of volcanic processes.
We welcome contribution related to (1) New instruments and techniques for the measurement of geophysical and geochemical parameters, from in-situ methods to ground-, air- and space-based remote sensing techniques; (2) Reports of significant case histories, documenting the relationships between the measured parameters and the evolving volcanic processes; (3) New modelling frameworks for the interpretation of the observed data, and their significance in terms of eruption forecasting.
The session will provide an opportunity to discuss volcanic activity from a monitoring perspective on a wide range of volcanoes. We therefore encourage submission of papers that are easily understandable to a broad, multi-disciplinary audience.
Remote sensing measurements, from passive optical to active radar sensors, have become classical techniques to study and monitor Earth’s active volcanoes. They are commonly used by many volcano observatories and scientists around the World as obvious monitoring tools and complements to other ground-based geophysical techniques, such as GNSS, seismic, infrasound and gravimetric monitoring networks.
Nowadays, the number of satellite images available at no charge for scientific purpose is still increasing. New low-cost approaches, such as micro-satellite constellations and Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), are in constant development. The spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions of sensors are continuously improved. All these types of evolution make volcano remote sensing more accurate and comprehensive than before, allowing the scientists to better decipher the volcanic activity and the associated underlying magmatic processes.
In the present session, we invite all contributions that deal with the study and monitoring of active volcanoes using recent imaging sensors on-board space-, air- or ground-based platforms. Targeted remote sensing techniques are essentially –but not restricted to– ground surface deformation, topographic changes, ash and gas emissions, thermal detection, measurements and mapping, and geological mapping. Research based on time-series datasets processing and modelling, complementary remote sensing approaches and/or the combination of remote sensing with ground-based monitoring techniques are encouraged.
Volcanic Islands are environments created by the growth of volcanoes in the sea, modified by geologic, environmental, biological and human activity. They are highly varied in geology, terrain, environment and social makeup. They are fragile environments in that they respond rapidly to global or local changes in a way that links geology, social activity and environment. Dealing with a complex object such as volcanic island requires a multidisciplinary approach on their on-land and submarine processes that crosses scientific, social and economic boundaries. From a geological and geophysical perspective there are numerous aspects that need to be addressed to acquire a comprehensive picture of how volcanic islands are born, grow up, evolve and die. These include their geodynamic setting, magmatism, volcanism, hydrothermalism, tectonics, and erosion and material transport, as well as their associated hazards and risks, environmental change record, or energy and economic resources. With the aim at integrating all this multidisciplinary research into a single forum of discussion, we offer this scientific session on Volcanic Islands, in which any geological and geophysical research on such complex environments will be more than welcome.
We invite multidisciplinary contributions - both observational (seismology, geodetics, geobarometry etc.) and modelling (computational, analogue etc.) - on magma transport in the crust through dykes and sills. Understanding dykes and sills is vital as they serve both as the conduits that feed eruptions (and must be monitored to evaluate volcanic hazards), and as the bodies that build the crust. Although considerable uncertainties in our understanding of magma plumbing systems remain, recent events in Iceland (2014 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun rifting event) have demonstrated how progress can be made by combining diverse observations from traditionally distinct disciplines.
Magma ascent, degassing and eruptive dynamics: linking experiments, models and observations
Interaction between the different phases (exsolved and dissolved volatiles, liquid melt, crystals and pyroclasts) that separate during magma evolution, ascent and storage as a result of interlinked fluid, thermodynamic and chemical processes have a dramatic influence on eruption dynamics, resulting in a plethora of explosive eruptions types.
On one side, constraining volatile budget in magmas and quantifying degassing processes is a fundamental task to better understand the role of volatile elements on eruption dynamics. On the other side, the complex shallow plumbing system dynamics produces seismic and acoustic events, ground deformation and changes in the hydrothermal system often preceding or follow the explosive activity and direct field observations can constrain individual eruptive processes.
For this reason, the session aims at gathering field observation and experimental and modeling studies on eruptive processes to unlock the complex dynamics of volcanic activity. We hereby invite contributions focusing on (but not restricted to) volatiles in magmas, crystallization dynamics, effusive/explosive transition, rheology of gas-liquid-solid mixtures, fragmentation processes.
Further we like to stimulate discussion on how multidisciplinary approaches can be used to advance the interpretation of geochemical and petrological observations on magmatic products and more specifically on the quantification of disequilibria processes during volcanic eruptions.
Rates, timescales and mechanisms of magmatic and volcanic processes: from mantle source to emplacement or eruption.
Magmatic and volcanic systems involve a range of dynamic processes that govern magma generation, ascent, emplacement, and eruption. The timescales of these processes are of paramount importance to understanding the evolution of magmatic reservoirs and mush zones during crystallization, assimilation, mixing, and volatile exsolution. Depending on the ascent timescale, these processes may operate far from compositional and textural equilibrium, induced by rapidly changing environmental parameters (e.g., P, T, fO2).
Rates and mechanisms of crustal emplacement or eruption, are also crucial in characterizing volcanic hazards. We welcome analytical, numerical, experimental, geophysical, and field-based studies addressing rates and timescales of volcanic and plutonic processes. These may include radiogenic isotope dating, mineral geospeedometry, in situ X-ray microtomography experiments, crystal size distribution analysis, and fluid dynamics. Also, we welcome interdisciplinary studies probing the mechanisms and timescales of volcanic phenomena. We finally encourage studies highlighting the role of time in characterizing volcanic hazards and how improved knowledge adds societal support for fast response to rapidly evolving geological processes.
Fluid-solid interactions in volcanic processes over different time-scales: an investigation through geophysical and volcanological data
In active volcanic systems the seismic source mechanisms are often driven by the interactions between the circulating fluids and the surrounding solid structures. Understanding the dynamics of the processes involved in these interactions is necessary to characterize the overall behavior of a volcano and the eventual transition mechanisms among stationarity, unrest phase and eruption. The starting point in this context is to have high-quality data (seismological, geochemical, geodetic, etc.) on several parameters, acquired both over several years of monitoring activity and focused field experiments, providing the opportunities to interrogate relevant physicochemical processes at diverse spatial and temporal scale. .
This session is addressed to those contributions that shed light on solid-fluid coupling processes in active volcanic systems over different time scales, with implications for early warning and hazards. In this context, studies that concern changes in the status of volcanic activity, which are relevant for the characterization of a volcano dynamical behavior or the identification of possible eruption precursors, throughout field experiments or analytical studies, are also welcome. In particular, contributions that adopt innovative techniques or multi-disciplinary approaches involving seismological data are strongly encouraged.
Sediment transport processes on volcanoes – Field, Imaging and Experimental approaches
Volcanic edifices consist of diverse suites of pyroclastic successions, originated from primary (e.g. tephra fall, lava flow) and reworking processes (e.g. alluvial activity). The volcanoclastic sediments have witnessed the magma fragmentation and subsequent transportation mechanism as flow, turbulent current or tephra fall. Such pyroclastic deposits therefore hold key evidence to understand volcano-stratigraphy, eruption re-occurrence rates, and dominant transportation modes. This session aims to discuss sedimentary and volcanological aspects of volcanoclastic deposits. We invite presentations covering (1) field-based description and interpretation of volcanoclastic sediments, (2) reconstruction of eruptive and sediment transport processes, (3) experimental and numerical simulation of volcano-related sediment transport, and (4) development of new methodologies to understand the formation of volcanoclastic sediments. These topics are critical to understand volcanic phenomena and to improve upon existing volcanic monitoring efforts, and to forecast volcanic hazards in the future.
Glaciers and volcanoes interact in a number of ways, including instances where volcanic/geothermal activity alters glacier dynamics or mass balance, via subglacial eruptions or the deposition of supraglacial tephra. Glaciers can also impact volcanism, for example by directly influencing mechanisms of individual eruptions resulting in the construction of distinct edifices. Glaciers may also influence patterns of eruptive activity when mass balance changes adjust the load on volcanic systems. However, because of the remoteness of many glacio-volcanic environments, these interactions remain poorly understood.
In these complex settings, hazards associated with glacier-volcano interaction can vary from lava flows to volcanic ash, lahars, pyroclastic flows or glacial outburst floods. These can happen consecutively or simultaneously and affect not only the earth, but also glaciers, rivers and the atmosphere. As accumulating, melting, ripping or drifting glaciers generate signals as well as degassing, inflating/ deflating or erupting volcanoes, the challenge is to study, understand and ultimately discriminate these potentially coexisting signals. We wish to fully include geophysical observations of current and recent events with geological observations and interpretations of deposits of past events.
We invite contributions that deal with the mitigation of the hazards associated with ice-covered volcanoes, that improve the understanding of signals generated by ice-covered volcanoes, or studies focused on volcanic impacts on glaciers and vice versa. Research on recent activity is especially welcomed. This includes geological observations e.g. of deposits in the field or remote-sensing data, together with experimental and modelling approaches. We also invite contributions on past activity and glaciovolcanic deposits. We aim to bring together scientists from volcanology, glaciology, seismology, geodesy, hydrology, geomorphology and atmospheric science in order to enable a broad discussion and interaction.
New frontiers of multiscale monitoring, analysis and modeling of environmental systems
Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented in collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales. In particular, a special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring high natural risk areas, such as: volcanic, seismic, slope instability and other environmental context.
We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, geotechnical and soil science. In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geodynamics processes are also welcome.
Finally, a special reference is devoted to the integration through the use of GeoWeb platforms and the management of visualization and analysis of multiparametric databases acquired by different sources
Submarine Volcanic Activity and Associated Hazards: Recent and ancient perspectives
More than 75% of the volcanic activity on Earth occurs underwater. Recent unrest observed at many submarine volcanoes raises serious concerns regarding the level of risk posed to local communities. Many parameters of submarine to emergent volcanic activity are under active investigation, including how explosive activity varies with water depth, magma properties and magma composition. This session brings together experts from diverse disciplines to explore hazards posed to island and coastal communities as well as mechanisms of submarine to emergent volcanic activity.
The session will include presentations that integrate innovative and emerging technologies to enable focused and multi-disciplinary studies of recent and ancient eruptions and their products, as well as breakthrough developments in understanding the impact of disastrous submarine volcanic hazards on present and past societies.
We call for abstracts in the following areas:
- Identification of submarine volcanic hazards such as explosive eruptions, volcanic earthquakes, submarine landslides, hydrothermal emissions and volcanogenic tsunamis.
- Studies of the mechanics of submarine and emergent volcanic eruptions and formation of oceanic islands.
- Investigations of optimal monitoring technologies and state of the art methods that provide new insights into explorations of submarine volcanoes, which host hydrothermal systems, mineral deposits and biomediated processes.
- Recommendations for volcanic crisis management, public awareness and preparedness through an improved understanding of the hazards and impacts of submarine volcanoes.
The aims of the session are (1) to discuss methodological and instrumental advances in geophysical imaging of volcanoes and (2) to explore new knowledge provided by these studies on the internal structure and physical processes of volcanic systems. We invite contributors from all geophysical areas, such as seismology, electromagnetics/geoelectrics, gravimetry/magnetics, muon tomography, remote sensing, and other geophysical observations applied to volcanic systems ranging from near-surface hydrothermal activity to magmatic processes at depth.
This year's session is focused on the contribution of geophysical imaging to better understand volcanological processes. We particularly welcome studies where complementary imaging techniques, as well as multi-disciplinary datasets, are integrated to investigate subsurface hydrothermal and magmatic processes.
GMPV6 – Volcanic impacts, risk mitigation and resources
Global and continental scale risk assessment for natural hazards: methods and practice (including Plinius Medal Lecture by Philip J. Ward)
The purpose of this session is to: (1) showcase the current state-of-the-art in global and continental scale natural hazard risk science, assessment, and application; (2) foster broader exchange of knowledge, datasets, methods, models, and good practice between scientists and practitioners working on different natural hazards and across disciplines globally; and (3) collaboratively identify future research avenues.
Reducing natural hazard risk is high on the global political agenda. For example, it is at the heart of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (and its predecessor the Hyogo Framework for Action) and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts. In response, the last 5 years has seen an explosion in the number of scientific datasets, methods, and models for assessing risk at the global and continental scale. More and more, these datasets, methods and models are being applied together with stakeholders in the decision decision-making process.
We invite contributions related to all aspects of natural hazard risk assessment at the continental to global scale, including contributions focusing on single hazards, multiple hazards, or a combination or cascade of hazards. We also encourage contributions examining the use of scientific methods in practice, and the appropriate use of continental to global risk assessment data in efforts to reduce risks. Furthermore, we encourage contributions focusing on globally applicable methods, such as novel methods for using globally available datasets and models to force more local models or inform more local risk assessment.
Methods and Tools for Natural Risk Management and Communications – Innovative ways of delivering information to end users and sharing data among the scientific community
In recent years an increasing number of research projects focused on natural hazards (NH) and climate change impacts, providing a variety of information to end user or to scientists working on related topics.
The session aims at promoting new and innovative studies, experiences and models to improve risk management and communication about natural hazards to different end users.
End users such as decision and policy makers or the general public, need information to be easy and quickly interpretable, properly contextualized, and therefore specifically tailored to their needs. On the other hand, scientists coming from different disciplines related to natural hazards and climate change (e.g., economists, sociologists), need more complete dataset to be integrated in their analysis. By facilitating data access and evaluation, as well as promoting open access to create a level playing field for non-funded scientists, data can be more readily used for scientific discovery and societal benefits. However, the new scientific advancements are not only represented by big/comprehensive dataset, geo-information and earth-observation architectures and services or new IT communication technologies (location-based tools, games, virtual and augmented reality technologies, and so on), but also by methods in order to communicate risk uncertainty as well as associated spatio-temporal dynamic and involve stakeholders in risk management processes.
However, data and approaches are often fragmented across literature and among geospatial/natural hazard communities, with an evident lack of coherence. Furthermore, there is not a unique approach of communicating information to the different audiences. Rather, several interdisciplinary techniques and efforts can be applied in order to simplify access, evaluation, and exploration to data.
This session encourages critical reflection on natural risk mitigation and communication practices and provides an opportunity for geoscience communicators to share best methods and tools in this field. Contributions – especially from Early Career Scientists – are solicited that address these issues, and which have a clear objective and research methodology. Case studies, and other experiences are also welcome as long as they are rigorously presented and evaluated.
New and innovative abstract contributions are particularly welcomed and their authors will be invited to submit the full paper on a special issue on an related-topics Journal.
In cooperation with NhET (Natural hazard Early career scientists Team).
Geoscience problems related to massive release of radioactive materials by nuclear accidents and other human activities
The session gathers geoscientific aspects such as dynamics, reactions, and environmental/health consequences of radioactive materials that are massively released accidentally (e.g., Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power plant accidents, wide fires, etc.) and by other human activities (e.g., nuclear tests).
The radioactive materials are known as polluting materials that are hazardous for human society, but are also ideal markers in understanding dynamics and chemical/biological/electrical reactions chains in the environment. Thus, the radioactive contamination problem is multi-disciplinary. In fact this topic involves regional and global transport and local reactions of radioactive materials through atmosphere, soil and water system, ocean, and organic and ecosystem, and its relation with human and non-human biota. The topic also involves hazard prediction and nowcast technology.
By combining >30 year (halftime of Cesium 137) monitoring data after the Chernobyl Accident in 1986, >5 year dense measurement data by the most advanced instrumentation after the Fukushima Accident in 2011, and other events, we can improve our knowledgebase on the environmental behavior of radioactive materials and its environmental/biological impact. This should lead to improved monitoring systems in the future including emergency response systems, acute sampling/measurement methodology, and remediation schemes for any future nuclear accidents.
The following specific topics have traditionally been discussed:
(a) Atmospheric Science (emissions, transport, deposition, pollution);
(b) Hydrology (transport in surface and ground water system, soil-water interactions);
(c) Oceanology (transport, bio-system interaction);
(d) Soil System (transport, chemical interaction, transfer to organic system);
(f) Natural Hazards (warning systems, health risk assessments, geophysical variability);
(g) Measurement Techniques (instrumentation, multipoint data measurements);
(h) Ecosystems (migration/decay of radionuclides).
The session consists of updated observations, new theoretical developments including simulations, and improved methods or tools which could improve observation and prediction capabilities during eventual future nuclear emergencies. New evaluations of existing tools, past nuclear contamination events and other data sets also welcome.
The release of radioactive materials by human activity (such as nuclear accidents) are both severe hazard problem as well as ideal markers in understanding geoscience at all level of the Earth because it cycles through atmosphere, soil, plant, water system, ocean, and lives. Therefore, we must gather knowledge from all geoscience field for comprehensive understanding.
New scientific approaches and data to unravel the interplay between natural hazards and vulnerable societies
Climate change, globalization, urbanization, and increased interconnectedness between
physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction
(DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of the world, which call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integrate the study of the natural processes triggering hazards, with the study of socioeconomic, political and technical factors that shape exposure and vulnerability.
This session aims to gather contributions on research, empirical studies, and observations that are useful for understanding and unravel the nexus between physical, human, and technological systems in DRR. We have identified a few examples of empirical puzzles where knowledge that is more fundamental is needed, thus contributions on the following topics are particularly welcome (but not limited to):
- Failure is a potential source of lesson-drawing, but history also offers success stories where disasters were avoided that deserve more rigorous assessment – What can we learn from comparative studies?
- Why do some societies that experience frequent natural hazards increase their resilience, while others become more vulnerable?
- Why do lowering hazard levels sometimes paradoxically lead to increased risks in some places?
- Why – despite major progress in understanding drivers of risk and developing enhanced methodologies and tools for assessing it – do we still see an increase in impacts associated with natural hazards?
Conventional and unconventional geothermal resources: Advances in integrated approaches for exploration and monitoring
With an increasing demand for low-carbon energy solutions, industrial development of geothermal resources is accelerating. Current advancements target conventional hydrothermal systems, as well as the more unconventional systems (e.g., Enhanced Geothermal Systems, super-hot, pressurized and co-produced, super-critical systems). Geothermal energy can be extracted from various, often complex geological settings, both on- and offshore, such as shallow wells in magmatic systems and deep wells focusing on sedimentary basins.
Optimum efficiency requires advanced understanding of the properties of the entire geothermal system, including thermo-/petro-physical conditions, fluid composition; structural and hydrological features; and engineering challenges (e.g., those produced by hydraulic stimulation / induced seismicity or related to multiphase fluids and scaling processes). This needs to be combined with knowledge of heat sources and recharge areas, and an integral understanding on how the different elements connect within one system. In geothermal exploration and production the integration of analogue field studies with real-life production data, from industrial as well as research sites, and the combination with numerical models (both as joint and constrained inversion), are a hot topic worldwide.
With this session we aim to gather field, laboratory and numerical experts who focus their research on geothermal sites, to stimulate discussion in this multi-disciplinary environment. We seek for contributions from all disciplines, ranging from field data (e.g., production and well data) to laboratory experiments and numerical models
Mass Extinctions, Volcanism and Global Climate Changes
The session investigate how massive volcanism and meteorite impacts may have caused mass extinctions and global environmental crises. We hope to bring together researchers across the geological, geophysical, and biological disciplines to present new and exciting researches. The session will focus on the six major Phanerozoic mass extinctions (end Ordovician, end Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, end-Cretaceous), but contributions from theoretical studies or from other environmental crises (e.g. PETM) are also welcome.
GMPV7 – Advances in Multidisciplinary Science and Regional Studies
Environmental Seismology: Deciphering Earth’s surface processes with seismic methods
Seismic techniques are becoming widely used to detect and quantitatively characterise a wide variety of natural processes occurring at the Earth’s surface. These processes include mass movements such as landslides, rock falls, debris flows and lahars; glacial phenomena such as icequakes, glacier calving/serac falls, glacier melt and supra- to sub-glacial hydrology; snow avalanches; water storage and water dynamics phenomena such as water table changes, river flow turbulence and fluvial sediment transport. Where other methods often provide limited spatial and temporal coverage, seismic observations allow recovering sequences of events with high temporal resolution and over large areas. These observational capabilities allow establishing connections with meteorological drivers, and give unprecedented insights on the underlying physics of the various Earth’s surface processes as well as on their interactions (chains of events). These capabilities are also of first interest for real time hazards monitoring and early warning purposes. In particular, seismic monitoring techniques can provide relevant information on the dynamics of flows and unstable slopes, and thus allow for the identification of precursory patterns of hazardous events and timely warning.
This session aims at bringing together scientists who use seismic methods to study Earth surface dynamics. We invite contributions from the field of geomorphology, cryospheric sciences, seismology, natural hazards, volcanology, soil system sciences and hydrology. Theoretical, field based and experimental approaches are highly welcome.
High Resolution Topography in the Geosciences: Methods and Applications (including Arne Richter Award for Outstanding ECS Lecture by Giulia Sofia) (co-sponsored by JpGU)
Topographic data are fundamental to landscape characterization across the geosciences, for monitoring change and supporting process modelling. Over the last decade, the dominance of laser-based instruments for high resolution data collection has been challenged by advances in digital photogrammetry and computer vision, particularly in ‘structure from motion’ (SfM) algorithms, which offer a new paradigm to geoscientists.
High resolution topographic (HiRT) data are now obtained over spatial scales from millimetres to kilometres, and over durations of single events to lasting time series (e.g. from sub-second to decadal-duration time-lapse), allowing evaluation of dependencies between event magnitudes and frequencies. Such 4D-reconstruction capabilities enable new insight in diverse fields such as soil erosion, micro-topography reconstruction, volcanology, glaciology, landslide monitoring, and coastal and fluvial geomorphology. Furthermore, broad data integration from multiple sensors offers increasingly exciting opportunities.
This session will evaluate the advances in techniques to model topography and to study patterns of topographic change at multiple temporal and spatial scales. We invite contributions covering all aspects of HiRT reconstruction in the geosciences, and particularly those which transfer traditional expertise or demonstrate a significant advance enabled by novel datasets. We encourage contributions describing workflows that optimize data acquisition and post-processing to guarantee acceptable accuracies and to automate data application (e.g. geomorphic feature detection and tracking), and field-based experimental studies using novel multi-instrument and multi-scale methodologies. A major goal is to provide a cross-disciplinary exchange of experiences with modern technologies and data processing tools, to highlight their potentials, limitations and challenges in different environments.
Solicited speaker: Kuo-Jen Chang (National Taipei University of Technology) - UAS LiDAR data processing, quality assessment and geosciences prospects
From slow-spreading to rapid mass-movements in alpine and volcano-tectonic settings. Advances on monitoring, modelling and risk management
Weathering, tectonics, gravitational and volcanic processes can transform the regular sediment delivery from unstable slopes in catastrophic landslides. Mass spreading and mass wasting processes can potentially evolve in rapid landslides are among the most dangerous natural hazards that threaten people and infrastructures, directly or through secondary events like tsunamis.
Documentation and monitoring of these phenomena requires the adoption of a variety of methods. The difficulties in detecting their initiation and propagation have progressively prompted research into a wide variety of monitoring technologies. Nowadays, the combination of distributed sensor networks and remote sensing techniques represents a unique opportunity to gather direct observations. A growing number of scientists with diverse backgrounds are dealing with the monitoring of processes ranging from volcano flak deformations to large debris flows and lahars. However, there is a need of improving quality and quantity of both documentation procedures and instrumental observations that would provide knowledge for more accurate hazard assessment, land-use planning and design of mitigation measures, including early warning systems. Successful strategies for hazard assessment and risk reduction would imply integrated methodology for instability detection, modeling and forecasting. Nevertheless, only few studies exist to date in which numerical modelling integrate geological, geophysical, geodetic studies with the aim of understanding and managing of terrestrial and subaqueous volcano slope instability.
Scientists working in the fields of hazard mapping, modelling, monitoring and early warning are invited to present their recent advancements in research and feedback from practitioners and decision makers. We encourage multidisciplinary contributions that integrate field-based on-shore and submarine studies (geological, geochemical), geomorphological mapping and account collection, with advanced techniques, as remote sensing data analysis, geophysical investigations, ground-based monitoring systems, and numerical and analogical modelling of volcano spreading, slope stability and debris flows.
Seismic sources, signals and structural imaging on volcanoes: observations and modelling
Volcanic seismicity is fundamental for monitoring and investigating volcanic systems, their structure and processes that occur therein. Volcanoes are very complex objects, where both the pronounced heterogeneity and topography can modify the recorded signals to a great extent. In source inversion work, one of the challenges is to capture the effect of small scale heterogeneities in order to remove complex path effects from seismic data. This requires high resolution imagery, which is a significant challenge in heterogeneous volcanoes. If not removed, the path effect signature may significantly alter our interpretation of the seismic source location and mechanism. In addition, the link between the variety of physical processes beneath volcanoes and their seismic response (or lack of) is often not well known, leading to large uncertainties in the interpretation of volcano dynamics based on the seismic observations. Taking into account all these complexities, many standard techniques for seismic analysis may fail to produce breakthrough results.
In order to address the outlined challenges, this session aims to bring together seismologists, volcano and geothermal seismologists, wave propagation and source modellers, working on different aspects of volcano seismology including: (i) seismicity catalogues, statistics & spatio-temporal evolution of seismicity, (ii) seismic wave propagation & scattering, (iii) new developments in volcano imagery, (iii) seismic source inversions, and (iv) seismic time-lapse monitoring. Contribution on controlled geothermal systems in volcanic environments are also welcome.
By considering interrelationships in these complementary seismological areas, we aim to build up a coherent picture of the latest advances and outstanding challenges in volcano seismology.
Long-term rheology , heat budget and dynamic permeability of deforming and reacting rocks: from laboratory to geological scales
The goal of this session is to reconcile short-time/small-scale and long-time/large-scale observations, including geodynamic processes such as subduction, collision, rifting or mantle lithosphere interactions. Despite the remarkable advances in experimental rock mechanics, the implications of rock-mechanics data for large temporal and spatial scale tectonic processes are still not straightforward, since the latter are strongly controlled by local lithological stratification of the lithosphere, its thermal structure, fluid content, tectonic heritage, metamorphic reactions and deformation rates.
Mineral reactions have mechanical effects that may result in the development of pressure variations and thus are critical for interpreting microstructural and mineral composition observations. Such effects may fundamentally influence element transport properties and rheological behavior.
Here, we encourage presentations focused on the interplay between metamorphic processes and deformation on all scales, on the rheological behavior of crustal and mantle rocks and time scales of metamorphic reactions in order to discuss
(1) how and when up to GPa-level differential stress and pressure variations can be built and maintained at geological timescales and modelling of such systems,
(2) deviations from lithostatic pressure during metamorphism: fact or fiction?,
(3) the impact of deviations from lithostatic pressure on geodynamic reconstructions.
(4) the effect of porous fluid and partial melting on the long-term strength.
We therefore invite the researchers from different domains (rock mechanics, petrographic observations, geodynamic and thermo-mechanical modelling) to share their views on the way forward for improving our knowledge of the long-term rheology and chemo-thermo-mechanical behavior of the lithosphere and mantle.
Volcanic versus non-volcanic rifts and passive margins, from rift to ridge
New observations and modeling allow us to investigate the underlying processes responsible for volcanic and non-volcanic rift and passive margin formation. Key questions to be resolved include 1) what controls the amount and distribution of magmatism during volcanic to non-volcanic rift and passive margin formation. 2) How does magmatism impact the tectonic evolution of these systems and what are the structural and rheological controls of magmatism and feedbacks on tectonic deformation. 3) How are structural style of passive margin formation and magmatism linked? 4) What are the consequences of magmatic versus a-magmatic systems for the associated sedimentary basins? 5) What is the depositional environment for formation of seaward dipping reflector sequences and which processes control anomalous vertical motions during basin evolution? We encourage abstracts that offer new insights into processes underlying volcanic and non volcanic rift-passive margin formation from rift to ridge, using constraints from observations and modeling.
A multidisciplinary approach to understand the Geology of the Azores
The Azores archipelago is located in the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and Nubian tectonic plates. The origin of the magmatism in the archipelago remains controversial even though it has generally been associated with a mantle plume interacting with the local structural regime. Due to this peculiar geodynamic setting, earthquakes, subaerial and submarine volcanic eruptions may occur in the archipelago. The identification of possible signs of unrest of the volcanoes is challenging and much of the recent volcanic activity is characterized by the occurrence of seismic swarms, ground deformation episodes and the presence of secondary manifestations of volcanism. The archipelago is located in the vicinity of the central Northern Atlantic Ocean, what makes the islands vulnerable to storms, floods and landslides. The islands are thus ideally suited to apply different multidisciplinary methodologies for the study of geological hazards.
This session aims to focus on the Azores submarine plateau and islands as a natural laboratory for the study of different geological processes. Here, we aim at contributions from the different fields of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry dealing with the geodynamic context of the Azores, studying the evolution and geological diversity of the Azores and evaluate hazards that can affect the islands.
Application of stable isotopes in Biogeosciences (co-organized by the European Association of Geochemistry (EAG))
This session is open to all contributions in biogeochemistry and ecology where stable isotope techniques are used as analytical tools, with a focus on stable isotopes of light elements (C, H, O, N, S, ...). We welcome studies from both terrestrial and aquatic (including marine) environments as well as methodological and experimental, theoretical and modeling studies that introduce new approaches or techniques (including natural abundance work, labeling studies, multi-isotope approaches, clumped and metal isotopes).
InSight - Initial results after four months on Mars
The InSight mission to Mars landed in Elysium Planitia on November 26. InSight's scientific objective is the study of the Martian interior using two seismometers, a heat flow probe and geodetical measurements. Auxiliary instruments will collect meteorological and magnetic data for at least one Martian year.
This session provides initial results from Mars, status reports of instrument deployment and relevant pre-landing science.
Geodiversity and Geoheritage (co-sponsored by JpGU)
Geodiversity is an interest for all geosciences, where the natural environment for our science is recorded and assessed. Geoheritage is the appreciation, valuation, and sustainable exploitation of part of this geodiversity for the good of the environment, for society and for science. Geodiversity and geoheritage provide essential links to other disciplines in the natural and social sciences, and they give geosciences a voice to the greater public and to local to global governance.
The EGU geodiversity and geoheritage session has been a large and vibrant meeting spot for a large diverse assemblage of geoscientists and stakeholders for over 5 years, growing with the increasing appreciation of the central role these topics have.
This EGU 2019 session aims to highlight the hottest issues and challenges pending or emerging, as well as inviting a broad range of topics, to engage in a far reaching discussion. As in previous years, we will hold a Splinter Meeting to further discuss hot topics, and will animate the poster session with a special picnic session.
Five main themes to tackle have been identified for 2019:
1) Society, climate change and geodiversity: the problems related to economic and environmental dynamics affecting geodiversity under changing climate and global development conditions. This topic has implications for and links to the IUGS RFG (Resourcing Future Generations) initiative and is a central theme for UNESCO Global Geoparks and World Heritage, and concerns also the management of all types of natural risk.
2) Geo- to ecosystem services and geoheritage: this follows from the first theme in exploring the possibility of developing a holistic and integrated approach to geodiversity, by considering geosystem services, in a perspective of sustainable management of geoheritage to the benefit of the whole environment.
3) Geodiversity, geosites and geoheritage assessments at multiple spatial scales: integrating data from global to local: the present lack of integration between global, regional and local geological and geomorphological data can limit the validity of geodiversity assessment and prevent its applicability for enhancement and protection of geoheritage. This subject relates to practical issues on different spatial scales for geodiversity immediately applicable to the protection of geodiversity, geoheritage and has links with the problems raised in the first two themes.
4) Virtual and Augmented Reality and Geoheritage: the strong innovation potential for this research field due to enhanced application of geoinformation technologies (GIS and Semantic Web). This use of global platforms, such as Google Earth, to outcrops scale augmented reality is a powerful research and educational tool that is developing fast. This theme will draw together demonstrations of the ongoing development of such techniques and their practical implementation into geodiversity and geoheritage sites.
5) Towards a fruitful integration/collaboration of international designations; this is a topic that we invite discussion about, and which is being hotly discussed between the major geoscience unions, associations, programmes and global instances like the UNESCO’s International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme and Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the IUGS International Geoheritage Commission and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, especially through the Geoheritage Specialist Group/WCPA. It will form a subject of the Splinter Meeting, where these major unions will be open to discuss the theme.
Geodiversity and Geoheritage attract a broad range of people from all sides of geosciences and therefore we invite all this diversity to participate in the session.
The session is co-sponsored by the Working Group on Geomorphosites and the Working Group on Landform Assessment for Geodiversity of the International Association of Geomorphologists; ProGEO, the European Association for the Conservation of the Geological Heritage; the IUGS International Commission on Geoheritage; the Geoheritage Specialist Group of the World Commission on Protected Areas of the International Union of Conservation of Nature, the International Lithosphere Program, and the IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Geoheritage and Protected Volcanic Landscape.
The session is closely linked to the those of Geoheritage Stones, and to Volcano Resources.
Scientific networks and COST Actions in geosciences: breakthrough ideas, research activities and results
The nature of science has changed: it has become more interconnected, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and data intensive. Accordingly, the main aim of this session is to create a common space for interdisciplinary scientific discussion, where EGU-GA delegates involved in geoscientific networks can share ideas and present the research activities carried out in their networks. The session represents an invaluable opportunity for different networks and their members to identify possible synergies and establish new collaborations, find novel links between disciplines, and design innovative research approaches.
Part of the session will be focused on COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Actions*. The first edition of the session (successfully held in 2018) was actually entirely dedicated to the COST networking programme and hosted scientific contributions stemming from 25 Actions, covering different areas of the geosciences (sky, earth and subsurface monitoring, terrestrial life and ecosystems, earth's changing climate and natural hazards, sustainable management of resources and urban development, environmental contaminants, and big data management). Inspiring and fruitful discussions took place; the session was very well attended. We are looking forward to continuing the dialogue this year and to receiving new contributions from COST Action Members.
Another part of the session will be dedicated to the activities of other national and international scientific networks, associations, as well teams of scientists who are carrying out collaborative research projects.
Finally, the session is of course open to everyone! Accordingly, abstracts authored by scientists not involved in wide scientific networks are most welcome, too! In fact, in 2018 we received a good number of such abstracts, submitted by individual scientists or small research teams who wished to disseminate the results of their studies in front of the multidisciplinary audience that characterizes this session, as an alternative to making a presentation in a thematic session. This may be a productive way to broaden the perspective and find new partners for future interdisciplinary research ventures. We hope to receive this kind of abstracts this year, as well.
-- Notes --
* COST (www.cost.eu) is a EU-funded programme that enables researchers to set up their interdisciplinary research networks (the “Actions”), in Europe and beyond. COST provides funds for organising conferences, workshops, meetings, training schools, short scientific exchanges and other networking activities in a wide range of scientific topics. Academia, industry, public- and private-sector laboratories work together in Actions, sharing knowledge, leveraging diversity, and pulling resources. Every Action has a main objective, defined goals and clear deliverables. This session was started as a follow up initiative of COST Action TU1208 “Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar” (2013-2017, www.GPRadar.eu).
Research, especially for early career scientists, starts with the spark of an idea and is then often challenged by empirical or methodological road bumps and seemingly dead ends. A diverse range of challenges face those in earth science research, particularly for early career scientists (ECS). Challenges include (1) access difficulties, whether for field sites, equipment or data, (2) problems of scaling and extrapolation and (3) a lack of methodological understanding or knowledge. In this short course, we will raise engaging discussions, which aim to solve challenges, suggest new research approaches and methods, and encourage networks and possibilities for in-depth discussions amongst early career scientists at international conferences.
This short course will start with 2 minute ‘pop-up’ presentations outlining the questions or challenges submitted by attendees. These pop-ups are followed by chaired group discussions in which short course participants engage to crowd solve the presented challenges. To wrap up the session, solutions and suggestions from each topical group are presented to the whole session in a final discussion. A summary on last years’ crowd solving efforts can be found in the EGU GM blog post https://blogs.egu.eu/divisions/gm/2018/04/25/diving-under-the-scientific-iceberg/.
This short course lives by your input: i) by stating a research idea or challenge you would like to share, and ii) by participating in the discussion during the short course. To organize and prepare the discussions, please send a short statement of your idea or challenge related to geomorphic research, and your motivation for solving it (3-4 sentences) to email@example.com, by March 1, 2019. The contributions within the short course are free of charge. If you want to discuss a specific problem, but rather stay anonymous, please let us know. We are all early career scientists and expect a non-hierarchic, respectful and constructive environment for the discussions, which will hopefully go some way to identifying and engaging with problems which face ECS geomorphologists.
Session organizers: Anne Voigtländer, Johannes Buckel, Eleanore Heasley, Felix Nieberding, Liseth Perez, Anna Schoch, Harry Sanders, Richard Mason,...
We encourage meeting up before the short course during the Networking Time ~18h - so grab another drink and join us near room -2.62!
Anne Voigtländer |
Johannes Buckel,Eleanore Heasley,Felix Nieberding,Liseth Perez
Wed, 10 Apr, 19:00–20:30
Image analysis intro
Image analysis has become a standard tool for shape and fabric analysis of a wide range of rock types (sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic) and for microstructure analysis of natural and experimental samples at all scales. From quantified shape fabrics, rock properties may be inferred and related to the processes that created them.
In the first half of the short course, some basic techniques are outlined, in the second half, there will be demonstrations of selected applications.
The following topics will be covered:
1) image acquisition and pre-processing
2) segmentation: from picture to bitmap
3) shape analysis of individual grains or particles
4) fabric and strain analysis: looking at volumes and surfaces
5) analysis of spatial distribution: from clustered to random to ordered
Demonstrations will be made using ImageJ and Image SXM. Note, however, that familiarity with either of these programs is not required. - This is a short course, not a workshop.
Please send email if you want to participate (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Grain size or grain size distributions (GSDs) play a major role in many fields of geoscience research. Paleopiezometry is based on the relation between grains size and flow stress. Environments of depositions have typical GSDs. Time temperature and grain size have characteristic relations during static grain growth. Fracture processes are associated with the fractal dimension of the GSD they produce, etc.. In all these cases, meaningful interpretations rest on the correct acquisition and quantification of grain size data.
The aim of this short course is to discuss with participants the following questions
1) when do we need grain size analysis ? what is it good for ? what are the limitations ?
2) how do we identify grains? what are the criteria for segmentation?
3) how do we define reliable measures for grain size ?
4) what do we mean by 'mean grain size' ?
5) how much data do we need ?
6) and what about errors ?
Handouts will be available in electronic form.
Please send email if you want to participate (email@example.com)
‘Date to rate’ and ‘age to stage’: rates and timescales of geologic processes
Radioactive decay systems have been used to date rocks and minerals for over 100 years, but advances in the last 15-20 years have provided unprecedented improvements in our ability to constrain the rates and timescales of processes such as deformation, metamorphism and magmatism. The ultimate aim is to be able to answer questions such as "for how long was this shear zone active?", "what was the rate of deformation?", "how quickly did this metamorphic terrane heat up or cool down?", "was heating/cooling continuous or pulsed?", or "how long did it take this pluton to form?". This session aims to showcase the latest developments in chemical and textural techniques that allow ‘date’ to be linked to ‘process’ across all aspects of the evolution of the Earth’s lithosphere.
Geodynamics of continent collisions: subduction, collision and exhumation processes (including TS Division Outstanding ECS Lecture by Daniel Pastor-Galán)
This session focuses on continental collision, with an aim to understand the geodynamic processes of the subduction of rocks, continent collision and exhumation of the metamorphic core of the orogen including the subduction channel. Numerous studies of colliding continental plates show the complex interaction and feedback of processes related to the thermo-mechanical history recorded in pressure-temperature-deformation-time paths of the subducted and exhumed rocks. With modern analytical techniques, important parameters such as differential stress, strain rates, exhumation rates, kinematics, rheology, temperature and pressure can be revealed from selected rock samples from ancient and modern collision orogens such as the Alpine-Zagros-Himalayan chain, Caledonides, Variscides, or Grenville. In this session, we anticipate contributions from a broad spectrum of geoscientists, which focus on geodynamics of continent collision of ancient and recent collisional orogens.
The impact of mantle serpentinization on the evolution of rifted margins, oceanic ridges & subduction zones: new insights from geophysical & petrological observations, & numerical/analogue modelling (incl. Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture by Serge Lallemand)
Serpentinization is a mantle hydration reaction of major interest because of its implication in the evolution of rifted margins, mid-ocean ridges, and subduction zones. Serpentinization leads to weak hydrous minerals crystallization that yields to a reduction in the friction coefficient and an increase in the volume of mantle rock.
In rifted margins and mid-ocean ridges, weak serpentinized peridotite and serpentinization-driven fluid overpressure are known to have a critical role in the kinematics of low-angle detachment faulting that exposes mantle lithology to the seafloor. At mid-ocean ridges, these low-angle structures control the formation of oceanic core complexes, while at rifted margins control the exhumation of large portions of sub-continental mantle. Serpentinization is also an exothermic reaction that can produce significant heat and derive serpentinite hosted hydrothermal systems, and thus impact the submarine ecosystems.
In subduction zones, crustal-scale normal faulting associated with the bending of the incoming oceanic plate at the outer rise enables water percolation to the oceanic mantle, triggering serpentinization. Multi-stage fluid release from the subducting slab caused by the breakdown of hydrated mantle minerals triggers the production of flush melting and consequently the arc volcanism. The heterogeneous water release controls also the depth of earthquake generation and therefore the size of the seismogenic zone.
Overall, understanding mantle serpentinization is critical to understand the dynamics of plate tectonics. To this end, this session aims at bringing together researchers of divergent and convergent settings to enhance our understanding of the kinematics of mantle serpentinization and its geodynamic implications. We encourage all related contributions, from geophysical and/or petrological studies to numerical/analogue modelling that provide temporal and spatial constraints of the process of serpentinization, as well as insights into its role during the evolution of rifted margins, oceanic ridges, and subduction zones. We strongly encourage the contribution of young researchers.
Earthquakes: from slow to fast, from the field to the laboratory and models.
The advent of novel technologies have boosted our capability of acquiring new evidences that faults behavior is various and extremely sensitive to a large number of parameters. These evidences are supported in natural earthquakes by the occurence of a large pletora of events spanning from slow to fast earthquakes, precursory slips, non volcanic tremors and low frequency earthquakes. The aim of this session is to convey interdisciplinary studies on fault behaviour and processes controlling the propagation of slip instabilities in rocks, granular materials and/or laboratory analogs; we invite contributions at the frontiers between Rock Mechanics, Models, Seismology, Tectonics and Mineralogy dealing with either slow, fast or transient evolution of earthquakes and earthquake sequences in shallow and deep environments; we welcome studies performed at the laboratory and field scale, providing insights on earthquake evolution and/or constraining observed seismological statistical laws like Omori’s and Gutenberg-Richter’s; we welcome innovative techniques that help the observations and take advantage of high-speed imaging and continuous acoustic emission streaming data.
Cross-disciplinary investigations of extensional systems
What controls lithosphere evolution during extension? The aim of this session is to investigate diverging systems over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and at all stages in the life cycle of divergent plate boundaries including continental rifting, mantle exhumation and seafloor spreading.
A special emphasis will be given to
(1) studies that couple lithospheric deformation models to plate kinematics, and that integrate possibly the role of serpentinisation and/or magmatism in the models.
(2) works that analyse subsidence and thermal effect of rifting and break-up.
(3) paleogeographic reconstructions revealing the influence of sedimentation and lithosphere structure evolution on biogeochemical cycles and oceanographic circulation.
(4) contributions that elucidate extensional modes through the interplay between tectonic structures, magmatism and the stratigraphic record using field, petrological and seismic data.
PGM – Programme group meetings (by invitation only)
Sub-programme groups meeting GMPV (by invitation only)
Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–15:45
Union sessions of interest
Mountain Building, Volcanism, Climate and Biodiversity in the Andes: 250 years after Alexander von Humboldt
This year marks the 250th anniversary of the birth of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), the intrepid explorer of the Andes and other regions in the world, and the most famous scientist of his time. Alexander von Humboldt is perhaps best known for his radical new vision of nature as a complex and interconnected global force, thereby becoming the founder of the field of biogeography and laying the ground for modern Earth-System Science approaches. It seems fitting to pay tribute to Alexander von Humboldt’s legacy by reviewing the state of the art in studies of the coupled lithosphere – atmosphere – hydrosphere – biosphere system with a focus on the Andean mountain belt. The Andes have become one of the main natural laboratories in the world to explore these questions and many recent studies have addressed its tectonic and geodynamic evolution, but also the two-way couplings between surface uplift, climatic evolution and biodiversity in the Andes and its foreland. This Union Session will bring together world-leading specialists on these questions with the aim to shed light on both suspected and unexpected couplings in the system.
Past and future tipping points and large climate transitions in Earth history
Over the whole Earth history, the climate has encountered tipping points, shifting from one regulated system to the other. This tilting motion affects both climate and the carbon cycle and has played a major role in the evolution of the Earth climate, at all timescales. Earth History has been ponctuated by large climate changes and carbon cycle reorganizations, from large climate variations occurring in deep times (snowball events, terrestrialisation, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic warm episodes, quaternary glacial cycles…) to past and on-going abrupt events. Many potential triggers of those climate and carbon cycle shifts have been proposed and tested through modeling studies, and against field data, such as those directly or indirectly linked with tectonics (plate motion, orogenesis, opening/closing of seaways, weathering…) and orbital forcing. Given that the Earth climate is currently experiencing an unprecedented transition under anthropogenic pressure, understanding the mechanisms behind the scene is crucial.
Our aim is to point out the most recent results concerning how a complex system as the climate of the Earth has undergone many tipping points and what is the specificity of the future climate changes. Therefore, within this session, we would like to encourage talks discussing advances in our record and modeling of the forces triggering and amplifying the changes of Earth climate and carbon cycle across spatial and temporal scales.
Promoting and supporting equality of opportunities in geosciences
In today’s changing world we need to tap the potential of every talented mind to develop solutions for a sustainable future. The existence of under-representation of different groups (cultural, national and gender) remains a reality across the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields) around the world, including the geosciences. This Union Symposium will focus on remaining obstacles that contribute to these imbalances, with the goal of identifying best practices and innovative ideas to overcome obstacles.
EGU is welcoming six high-level speakers from the funding agencies and research centres on both sides of the Atlantic related to geosciences to present efforts and discuss initiatives to tackle both implicit and explicit biases. Speakers are:
Jill Karsten, AGU Diversity and Inclusion Task Force (confirmed)
Erika Marín-Spiotta, University of Wisconsin - Madison (confirmed)
Daniel Conley, Lund University (confirmed)
Giulio di Toro, University of Padua (confirmed)
Liviu Matenco, Utrecht University (confirmed)
Barbara Romanowicz, European Research Council (confirmed)
From fundamental Atmospheric Composition Research to Societal Services/30 years of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Programme
Atmospheric composition matters to climate, weather forecasting, human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, agricultural productivity, aeronautical operations, renewable energy production, and more. Hence research in atmospheric composition is becoming increasingly cross-cutting and linked to many disciplines including climate, biogeosciences, hydrology, natural hazards, computer and data sciences, socio-economic studies and many others. There is a growing need for atmospheric composition information and an improved understanding of the processes that drive changes in the composition and resulting impacts. While atmospheric composition research is advancing rapidly, there is a need to pay more attention to the translation of this research to support societal needs. Although translational research is a major focus of the health sciences and meteorology, it is in a relatively early stage in atmospheric composition. In this Union Symposium, we plan to highlight the need for, and to illustrate exciting advances in the translation of atmospheric composition research to support services. We will build upon work within the World Meteorological Organization and other communities related to the closer linkages of weather, atmospheric composition, and climate research and related services. We will also articulate the needs for advances in observing systems, models and a better understanding of fundamental processes. This session will also serve as a celebration of the 30 year anniversary of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch programme and an opportunity for the broader community to envision partnerships needed to facilitate the effective translation of atmospheric composition research.
The safe operating space for the planet and how to ensure it is not passed
In October 2018, the IPCC published its special report on impacts of global warming of 1.5 deg C. Another recent, highly publicised study suggests that the planet could pass an irreversible threshold into a so called “Hothouse Earth” state for a temperature increase of as low as 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, while other studies and commentaries have emphasised the urgency on climate action, arguing that 2020 must be a turning point for global fossil fuel emissions, to increase the chance of maintaining a safe operating space for the humans on the planet. In 2018, the IPCC celebrated its 30th anniversary. The importance of taking action on human-induced climate change has been emphasised with governments around the world since the 1990s yet CO2 concentrations continue to rise and international initiatives have, to date, had limited and insufficient impact to avert some of the most serious consequences of climate change.
How close are we to one or more critical thresholds (cliff edge)? Is there time to avert passing one or more of these thresholds? What can the geoscience community do to reduce the risks? How important is bottom up versus top down action to ensuring the least worst outcome? These are some of the questions we will debate with world experts in their field and authors of the thought papers on these topics.
In October 2018, the IPCC published its special report on impacts of global warming of 1.5 deg C. Another recent, highly publicised study suggests that the planet could pass an irreversible threshold into a so called “Hothouse Earth” state for a temperature increase of as low as 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures.
In 2018, the IPCC celebrated its 30th anniversary. The importance of taking action on human-induced climate change has been emphasised with governments around the world since the 1990s yet CO2 concentrations continue to rise and international initiatives have, to date, had limited and insufficient impact to avert some of the most serious consequences of climate change that may pose an existential threat to modern civilisation.
How close are we to one or more critical thresholds? Is there time to avert passing one or more of them? What can the geoscience community do to reduce the risks? How important is bottom up versus top down action to ensuring the least worst outcome? These are some of the questions we will debate with world experts in their field and authors of the thought papers on these topics.
The Great Debate panellists are:
Prof. Myles Allen is Professor of Geosystem Science in the Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford. His research focuses on how human and natural influences on climate contribute to observed climate change and risks of extreme weather and in quantifying their implications for long-range climate forecasts. He was a Coordinating Lead Author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on 1.5 degrees, having served on the IPCC’s 3rd, 4th and 5th Assessments, including the Synthesis Report Core Writing Team in 2014.
Prof. Sabine Fuss, Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), Berlin. Sabine is an economist, currently leading a working group at the MCC. She holds a professorship on Sustainable Resource Management and Global Change at Humboldt University of Berlin. Her research interests are in sustainable development, land use change and climate change mitigation. She has been an IPCC Lead Author for the Special Report on 1.5°C global warming, serves on the steering committee of the Global Carbon Project and is a guest scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
Erica Hope leads the cross-sectoral ‘2050 Task Force’ and governance programme of the European Climate Foundation (ECF) in Brussels, which seeks to build knowledge, political strategies and coalitions to drive the transition to a zero emissions society by mid-century. Erica has previously worked for the energy efficiency and UK programmes of the ECF, and before that led the policy and advocacy activities of NGO network Climate Action Network Europe on energy efficiency. From 2005-2009 she was researcher to Green MEP Caroline Lucas, and has also worked at the Institute for Public Policy Research in London.
Prof. Linda Steg is professor of environmental psychology at the University of Groningen. She studies factors influencing sustainable behaviour, the effects and acceptability of strategies aimed at promoting sustainable behaviour, and public perceptions of technology and system changes. She is member of Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences (KNAW), and lead author of the IPCC special report on 1.5°C and AR6. She works on various interdisciplinary and international research programmes, and collaborates with practitioners working in industry, governments and NGOs.
Jonathan Bamber |
Alberto Montanari,Didier Roche
Thu, 11 Apr, 10:45–12:30
Science in policymaking: Who is responsible?
The geosciences are currently used by policymakers in a wide variety of areas to help guide the decision-making process and ensure that the best possible outcome is achieved. While the importance of scientific advice and the use of evidence in the policymaking process is generally acknowledged by both policymakers and scientists, how scientific advice is integrated and who is responsible is still unclear.
EU Policymakers frequently highlight institutionalised processes for integrating scientific advice into policy such as European Commission's Group of Chief Scientific Advisors (SAM) and the EU Commission’s Register of Expert Groups. But how efficient and accessible are these mechanisms really?
Some emphasise the need for scientists to have their own policy networks in place so that they can share their research outcomes with policymakers who can then use it directly or pass it on to those responsible for relevant legislation. But from funding applications to teaching and even outreach activities – scientists are often already overloaded with additional tasks on top of their own research. Can they really be held responsible for keeping up with the latest policy news and maintaining a constantly changing network of policymakers as well?
This debate will feature a mixed panel of policymakers and geoscientists who have previously given scientific advice. Some key questions that the panel will debate include:
• How can the accessibility of current EU science-advisory mechanisms be improved?
• Are scientists doing enough to share their research?
• And who is responsible for ensuring that quality scientific evidence is used in policymaking?
Speakers will be encouraged to explain any science advisory mechanism that they highlight (e.g. SAM) to ensure that the debate is understood by all those in attendance.
While the panel and subsequent debate will have an EU focus, it is likely that many of the issues discussed will be applicable to countries around the world.
David Mair: Head of Unit, Knowledge for Policy: Concepts & Methods, Joint Research Centre
Paul Watkinson: Chair of SBSTA (Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice)
Kasey White: Director for Geoscience Policy, Geological Society of America
Günter Blöschl: Head of Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Engineering Hydrology, Vienna University of Technology
Detlef van Vuuren: Professor in Integrated Assessment of Global Environmental Change at the Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University
Chloe Hill |
Sarah Connors,Hazel Gibson
Mon, 08 Apr, 10:45–12:30
How can Early Career Scientists prioritise their mental wellbeing?
The ever more challenging work environments and increasing pressures on Early Career Scientists e.g. publish or perish, securing grant proposals, developing transferable skills and many more – and all while having a lack of job security. This puts a big strain on Early Career Scientists and this can lead to neglected mental well-being which in turn increases the risk of developing anxiety, depression or other mental health issues. The graduate survey from 2017 (https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v550/n7677/full/nj7677-549a.html) shows that 12% of respondents had sought help or advice for anxiety or depression during their PhD.
In this debate we want to discuss: Is there a problem? How ECS can take control of their mental wellbeing and prioritise this in the current research environment? And what support would ECS like to see from organisations like EGU or their employers?
Rewards and recognition in science: what value should we place on contributions that cannot be easily measured
"What counts may not be countable and what is countable may not count". Assessments of scientists and their institutions tend to focus on easy-to-measure metrics related to research outputs such as publications, citations, and grants. However, society is increasingly dependent on Earth science research and data for immediate decisions and long-term planning. There is a growing need for scientists to communicate, engage, and work directly with the public and policy makers, and practice open scholarship, especially regarding data and software. Improving the reward and recognition structure to encourage broader participation of scientists in these activities must involve societies, institutions, and funders. EGU, AGU, and JPGU have all taken steps to improve this recognition, from developing new awards to starting journals around the topic of engaging the public to implementing FAIR data practices in the Earth, environmental, and space sciences, but far more is needed for a broad cultural change. How can we fairly value and credit harder-to-measure, these less tangible contributions, compared to the favoured metrics? And how can we shift the emphasis away from the "audit culture" towards measuring performance and excellence? This session will present a distinguished panel of stakeholders discussing how to implement and institutionalize these changes.
Robin Bell - AGU President
Helen M. Glaves - President of the EGU ESSI Division
Liz Allen – Director of Strategic Initiatives at F1000
Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Policy Institute, King's College London
Stephen Curry – Professor and Assistant Provost, Imperial College London
Chair, Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
Demetris Koutsoyiannis – Professor and former Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of
Athens, Past Editor in Chief of the Hydrological Sciences Journal of IAHS
Alberto Montanari |
Jonathan Bamber,Robin Bell,Hiroshi Kitazato,Lily Pereg (deceased)
Wed, 10 Apr, 10:45–12:30
Plan-S: Should scientific publishers be forced to go Open Access?
Plan S, devised by a coalition of research funders with support from the European Commission and European Research Council, demands that by January 1, 2020 research supported by participating funders must be published in Open Access journals. Representatives from subscription-based and Open Access publishers, architects of Plan S, and researchers affected by it will debate questions surrounding the implementation of the plan and its consequences.
The panelists are David Sweeney, Heike Langenberg, Marc Schiltz and Brooks Hanson. They will present the case for and against mandatory OA followed by an open debate with questions and comments from the audience.
David Sweeney is Executive Chair of Research England, the biggest research funder in the UK. He has been invited to visit many countries to advise on research assessment and funding, particularly with respect to research impact. He is also co-chair of the Implementation Task Force for Plan S, the international initiative on full and immediate open access to research publications.
Heike Langenberg is the Chief Editor of Nature Geoscience. She started her editorial career in 1999 as an Associate, then Senior Editor at Nature handling manuscripts in the broad area of climate sciences. In 2007 she moved to Nature Geoscience to launch the journal in January 2008. A graduate in mathematics of the Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany, she ventured into oceanography for her PhD at the University of Hamburg. Her postdoctoral research at various research institutes in Hamburg was focused on numerical simulations of the ocean and atmosphere at a regional scale.
Marc Schiltz is president of Science Europe, the European association of all major national public research funding and research performing organisations. In this role, he has contributed to setting the European agenda to foster Open Science and is one of the architects of Plan S. He is also leading the Luxembourg National Research Fund. He is a relentless advocate of science and research, serving on a number of external boards and committees, both at the national and international level. Having received a PhD in Crystallography from the University of Paris-Sud and an executive MBA from INSEAD, Marc has been active in research and higher education for more than 25 years and held research and faculty positions in several European countries.
Brooks Hanson is the Executive Vice President for Science for the American Geophysical Union (AGU), responsible for AGU’s publications, meetings, ethics and data programs, and Thriving Earth Exchange. He previously acted as Sr. Vice President for Publications at AGU, where he was responsible for AGU's portfolio of books and 21 journals and served as Deputy Editor for Physical Sciences at Science. Brooks received a Ph.D. in Geology from UCLA and held a post-doctoral appointment at the Department of Mineral Sciences at the Smithsonian Institution.
Katja Fennel |
Tue, 09 Apr, 16:15–18:00
Science, Politics and European (dis)integration: A conversation of Geoscientists with Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti
Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45-14:00 / Room E1
The dialogue between scientists, institutions, policymakers and the general public is widely recognised as an essential step towards a fair and sustainable society. Nowadays, more than ever in human history, international cooperation is an essential requirement for protecting the planet, advancing science and ensuring an equitable development of the global economy.
Despite its importance, the above dialogue can be a challenge for scientists, who often cannot find a productive connection with governments and politicians. Scientific associations are a key link between researchers and policy makers, as they have the potential to establish a durable and profitable connection with institutions.
The EGU elected the dialogue with society as one of its priority missions. At its General Assembly, the EGU is launching an innovative symposium format, Science and Society (SCS), to host scientific forums specifically dedicated to connecting with high-level institutions and engaging the public and policymakers.
The conversation with Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will focus on science and politics with a global perspective, and the impact of populism on European integrity and therefore scientific research. The discussion will elaborate on optimal strategies to deliver topical and clear scientific messages to key institutions.
Ilaria Capua is a virologist best known for her research on influenza viruses and her efforts promoting open access to genetic information on emerging viruses. In 2006, Science reported on Capua’s effort towards open access science, stating that she had “renewed the debate about how to balance global health against scientists’ needs to publish and countries’ demands for secrecy". She has been a member of the Italian parliament from 2013 to 2016 and a fake news victim. She is currently a full professor at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, US, and director of the UF One Health Center of Excellence.
Mario Monti served as a European Commissioner from 1995 to 2004, with responsibility for the internal market, services, customs, taxation and competition. He was Prime Minister of Italy from 2011 to 2013, leading a government of national unity to cope with the Italian debt crisis. Monti has also been Rector and is currently President of Bocconi University in Milan. His publications deal mainly with monetary and financial economics, public finance, European integration, competition policy. He is currently lifetime member of the Italian Senate.
During the conversation, Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will present their vision with two 15-minute talks that will be followed by 20 minutes dedicated to questions from the audience and answers.
Plastics in the Hydrosphere: An urgent problem requiring global action
Plastic pollution is recognized as one of the most serious and urgent problems facing our planet. Rates of manufacture, use and ultimately disposal of plastics continue to soar, posing an enormous threat to the planet’s oceans and rivers and the flora and fauna they support. There is an urgent need for global action, backed by sound scientific understanding, to tackle this problem.
This Union Symposium will address the problems posed to our planet by plastic pollution, and examine options for dealing with the threat.
The Games Night is a space to gather, socialise, and play some games. The catch is that all the games are based on Geoscience! Bring along your own games or try one of the others in the session and meet the people who created them. This will also be your chance to try games featured in the Games for Geoscience session.
Confirmed games include -
Breath of the Wild, HEAT, Flash Flood! Vol. 2, Resilience, Druids & Defences, Wanted: Head of the Centre for Flood Forecasts (IMPREX serious game), Rivers Top Trumps.
Join us to help put some of the world's most vulnerable places on the map. A mapathon is a mapping marathon, where we get together to contribute to OpenStreetMap - the world's free map.
No experience is necessary - just bring your laptop and we will provide the training. Learn more about crowdsourcing, open data and humanitarian response - we will also provide some tips for how to host a mapathon at your home institution.
Faith Taylor |
Hessel Winsemius,Joanne Wood,chen zhong
Thu, 11 Apr, 19:00–20:30
A Plastic Ocean (film)
Plastic Oceans UK have been experts on plastic pollution for nearly a decade - solving the plastic crisis through their science, sustainability and education programmes. This all began with the award-winning documentary A Plastic Ocean, now available for streaming on Netflix.
Through changing attitudes, behaviours and practices on the use and value of plastics, we can stop plastic pollution reaching the ocean within a generation.
Come along to the screening of A Plastic Ocean to understand the impacts of plastic pollution around the world, what action we can take to stop plastics entering our natural world and pose your questions to the film's producer, Jo Ruxton, at the end of film.
Plastic Oceans UK have been experts on plastic pollution for nearly a decade - solving the plastic crisis through their science, sustainability and education programmes. This all began with the award-winning documentary A Plastic Ocean, now available for streaming on Netflix.
Through changing attitudes, behaviours and practices on the use and value of plastics, we can stop plastic pollution reaching the ocean within a generation.
Come along to the screening of A Plastic Ocean to understand the impacts of plastic pollution around the world, what action we can take to stop plastics entering our natural world and pose your questions to the film's producer, Jo Ruxton, at the end of film.