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Session programme

HS

HS – Hydrological Sciences

Programme group chairs: Bettina Schaefli, Elena Toth, Stefano Ferraris, Andreas Langousis, Chiara Corbari, Monica Riva, Maria-Helena Ramos, Andrea Castelletti, Josie Geris, Maurizio Mazzoleni, Stefan Haun, Femke Davids

MAL1/AS/CL/HS/OS
Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture by Michael L. Bender
Conveners: Jonathan Bamber, Alberto Montanari
Abstract
| Fri, 12 Apr, 12:45–13:45
 
Room E1
MAL14/HS
Henry Darcy Medal Lecture by Petra Döll
Conveners: Elena Toth, Maria-Helena Ramos
Abstract
| Thu, 11 Apr, 19:00–20:00
 
Room B
MAL17/HS
John Dalton Medal Lecture by Günter Blöschl
Conveners: Elena Toth, Maria-Helena Ramos
Abstract
| Tue, 09 Apr, 19:00–20:00
 
Room B
MAL37/HS ECS
HS Division Outstanding ECS Lecture by Serena Ceola
Conveners: Elena Toth, Maria-Helena Ramos
Abstract
| Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–14:30
 
Room B
DM13/HS ECS
Division meeting for Hydrological Sciences (HS)
Conveners: Elena Toth, Maria-Helena Ramos
Tue, 09 Apr, 12:45–13:45
 
Room B
SAL2

On the linkage between humans, precipitation patterns, and floods

The growing frequency of extreme hydrologic events over multi-decadal timescales is becoming increasingly apparent at the global scale. In addition, the synchronous increase of population in flood prone areas intensifies further the impacts associated with these extreme flood events with significant societal, environmental and ecological consequences. A correct management of the impacts of extreme flood and storm events requires a greater understanding of the processes that drive them. A great challenge in such understanding is to discern whether shifts in processes, such as shifts in streamflows, also bears the signature of human activity, and if such signature is coincident (or not) with major shifts in rainfall patterns. This talk will provide an overview about this complex set of interactions, and will showcase some study cases where human drivers, rainfall patterns and floods have been analysed.

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Co-organized as GM/HS
Conveners: Peter van der Beek, Daniel Parsons
Programme
| Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45–13:45
 
Room G2

HS1 – General Hydrology

HS1.1 – Innovative sensors and monitoring in hydrology

HS1.1.2

Effective management of water in the environment is a growing global imperative.
Expanding human populations, land use change and an apparent increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, bring an added urgency to the need for effective measurement of discharge in the world’s rivers.
To effectively manage water resource availability and flood risk, while maintaining a water environment beneficial to ecology, requires accurate, reliable and timely river flow measurements. Increasingly, these measurements must also be delivered against a backdrop of diminishing resources, both human and financial.
The need therefore is for safe, resilient and cost-effective methods for the accurate and timely quantification of the discharge rate of the world’s rivers. These methods must provide consistency of results over time, through resilience to the impacts of major floods and other physical change factors, while retaining the sensitivity to allow accurate assessment of even the lowest of flows. To ensure the continued validity of long term records, new methods must be demonstrated to introduce no systematic bias to results.
This session focuses on innovative methods for measuring river discharge, and welcomes contributions with an emphasis on measuring the extremes, and dealing with difficult sites and conditions. Contributions are also invited which describe methods for effectively quantifying uncertainties associated with river discharge determinations.

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Convener: Nick Everard | Co-conveners: Alexandre Hauet, Jérôme Le Coz
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Room 2.44
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS1.1.3 ECS

The advancement of hydrological research relies on innovative methods to determine states and fluxes at high a spatiotemporal resolution. The emergence of novel measurement techniques has been and will continue to be an important driver for the ability to analyze hydrological processes and to evaluate process based models. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques allow continuous contactless and integrative measurements of hydrological state variables and fluxes from the field to basin scale (e.g. cosmic-ray neutron probes, GNSS reflectometry, ground-based microwave radiometry, gamma-ray monitoring, terrestrial gravimetry, “MacGyver” field solutions).
In this session, we encourage submissions dealing with such new types of sensing methods, ranging from instrumental aspects, improved algorithms of signal conversion, data analysis to applications of the new methods for investigating hydrological processes, and the integration of noninvasive monitored data into models from the field to the catchment scale.
In addition, we invite presentation on new data storage or transmission solutions sending data from the field (e.g. LoRa, WIFI, GSM) or started initiatives (e.g., Open-Sensing.org) that facilitate the creation and sharing of novel sensors, data acquisition and transmission systems.

This session is co-organized by the MOXXI: Observations in the 21st century working group of the IAHS.

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Co-organized as SSS12.9
Convener: Heye Bogena | Co-conveners: Rolf Hut, Andreas Güntner, Martin Schrön, Theresa Blume, John Selker, Flavia Tauro, Andy Wickert
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Room 2.44
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
GI2.4 | PICO

Instrumentation and measurement technologies are currently playing a key role in the monitoring, assessment and protection of environmental resources. Climate study related experiments and observational stations are getting bigger and the number of sensors and instruments involved is growing very fast. This session deals with measurement techniques and sensing methods for the observation of environmental systems, focusing on climate and water. We welcome contributions about advancements on field measurement approaches, development of new sensing techniques, low cost sensor systems and whole environmental sensor networks, including remote observation techniques.
Studies about signal and data processing techniques targeted to event detection and the integration between sensor networks and large data systems are also very encouraged. This session is open for all works about an existing system, planning a completely new network, upgrading an existing system, improving streaming data management, and archiving data.

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Co-organized as AS5.2/CL5.17/ESSI2.5/HS1.1.5
Convener: Misha Krassovski | Co-conveners: Sebastien Biraud, Anna Di Mauro, Andrea Scozzari, Francesco Soldovieri
PICOs
| Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
PICO spot 4
CR2.3 | PICO

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Invited Speaker is Christian Hauck (University of Fribourg) with the title:
'Geophysical monitoring techniques to observe Alpine permafrost degradation – a 20-years perspective'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Geophysical measurements offer important baseline datasets as well as validation for modelling and remote sensing products for cryospheric sciences. Applications include the dynamics of ice-sheets, alpine glaciers and sea ice, changes in snow cover properties of seasonal and permanent snow, snow/ice-atmosphere-ocean interactions, permafrost degradation, geomorphic processes and changes in subsurface materials.

In this session we welcome contributions related to a wide spectrum of geophysical- and in-situ methods, including advances in diverse techniques such as radioglaciology, active and passive seismology, acoustic sounding, GPS/GNSS reflectometry or time delay techniques, cosmic ray neutron sensing, drone applications, geoelectrics and NMR. Contributions may concern field applications as well as new approaches in geophysical/in-situ survey techniques or theoretical advances in the field of data analysis, processing or inversion. Case studies from all parts of the cryosphere such as snow, alpine glaciers, ice sheets, glacial and periglacial environments and sea ice are highly welcome. The focus of the session is to compare experiences in the application, processing, analysis and interpretation of different geophysical and in-situ techniques in these highly complex environments.

This session is offered as a PICO: an engaging presentation format that has been successfully tested for this session during the last three years at EGU. All selected contributions will present their research orally, and then further present their research using interactive screens. This results in rich scientific feedback and is an effective tool for communicating science with high visibility.

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Co-organized as HS1.1.6/SM1.9
Convener: Nanna Bjørnholt Karlsson | Co-conveners: Franziska Koch, Reinhard Drews, Kristina Keating, Emma C. Smith
PICOs
| Fri, 12 Apr, 08:30–12:30
 
PICO spot 4

HS1.2 – Cross-cutting hydrological sessions

HS1.2.1

Liaising with stakeholders and policy-makers is becoming increasingly important for scientists to turn research into impactful action. In hydrological sciences, this is needed when implementing innovative solutions in areas such as river basin management, water allocation, impact-based hydrological forecasting, flood protection, drought risk management, climate change mitigation, ecohydrology and sustainable environmental solutions, among others.

The science-policy interface is not just as a way to increase the impact of our science, but it is also a scientific subject in itself. It presents several challenges to both scientists and policy-makers. They include understanding the different steps in the policy cycle: from setting the agenda to formulating, adopting, implementing, monitoring and evaluating polices. It is also crucial to know which facts and evidences are most needed at each step, so scientists can provide the best information at the right time and in the best way. Equally, appropriate science communication, where information is neither too complex nor infantilized, is key to open pathways to a more active and meaningful engagement.

The session will provide the opportunity for discussing with policy makers and addressing the necessary skills to facilitate the uptake of science in policy formulation and implementation: for instance, how science influences policy and policies impact science? How scientists can provide easily digestible pieces of evidence to policy-makers? What are the key gaps in joining science to feasible policy solutions in the water sector? How can we use knowledge to improve policy, and vice-versa?

We invite contributions that reflect on the needs of scientists and policy makers at different levels, from local, regional to EU and international levels. Hydrologists have long contributed to produce policy briefs and provide government advice on water-related issues. This session focuses on sharing these experiences (successes or failures), case studies, narratives and best practices at different phases of the policy-making process. It is also a platform for sharing tips and strategies to communicate scientific results and turn science into action.

Invited talk:
- "Flood management in a changing world: interactions between science and policy making", by Prof. Dr. Günter Bloeschl (Centre for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology)

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Co-organized as EOS8.2
Convener: Maria-Helena Ramos | Co-conveners: Wouter Buytaert, Jutta Thielen-del Pozo, Elena Toth
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Room C
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS1.2.2 | PICO

This session welcomes abstracts that consider how to observe, model and analyse interactions of people and water, and the effects of social and environmental changes on hydrological systems. It is organised as part of the IAHS Panta Rhei hydrological decade 2013-2022; and focuses on gains in our understanding of dynamic human-water systems.
Examples of relevant areas include:

- Observations of human impacts on, and responses to, hydrological change.
- Interactions of communities with local water resources.
- Hydrological models that include anthropogenic effects.
- Creation of databases describing hydrology in human-impacted systems.
- Data analysis and comparisons of human-water systems around the globe and especially in developing and emerging countries.
- Human interactions with hydrological extremes, i.e. floods and droughts, and water scarcity.
- The role of gender, age, and cultural background in the impacts of hydrological extremes (floods and droughts), risk perception, and during/after crises and emergencies.

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Convener: Giuliano Di Baldassarre | Co-conveners: Enrica Caporali, Heidi Kreibich, Tobias Krueger
PICOs
| Tue, 09 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
PICO spot 5b
HS1.2.3

When hydrology became recognized and established as a science is debatable. Sure is that there exists a long tradition of theories on the natural occurrence, distribution, and circulation of water on, in, and over the surface of the Earth (Horton, 1931). As a hydrological community we are keen to further our science, which is evident from the growing number of sub-disciplines. It is therefore of utmost importance to understand what the roots of our science are, i.e. there is a need to develop a culture of historical hydrological literacy. While further developing its terminology, concepts and methods, teaching and research can benefit from considering the relevant collective scientific knowledge base. Moreover, a historical perspective in our science avoids a ‘contemporary bias’ of ideas and theories. Science is performed and influenced by humans, hence it is never free of value, personal interest or societal pressures. The historical context in which scientists work can therefore help to understand the development of the science, its current state and future directions.
With this session we aim to stimulate the discussion on how we, as a community, develop a historical literacy and integrate this in teaching and research to enhance our science. We solicit contributions that discuss how hydrological concepts have gradually evolved over time; how forgotten methods might have contemporary value; the value of historical datasets of experimental catchments and their management; remarkable contributions of scientists, institutes and organisations.

Keith Beven, Lancaster University, will provide a solicited presentation on: 'A history of dealing with preferential flow in hydrology (or not)'

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Convener: Okke Batelaan | Co-conveners: Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Laurent Pfister, Roberto Ranzi
Orals
| Fri, 12 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Room C
Posters
| Attendance Fri, 12 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS1.2.7 | PICO

Hydrology relies strongly on heterogeneous data sets and a multitude of computational models. However, several challenges remain in order to obtain all information from the data and model results and, at the same time, carry out scientific work that is reproducible and repeatable.

Data collection is generally the first step in the scientific process, but collecting spatially and temporally dense data sets can be challenging, especially in extreme environments, such as dry, humid or cold areas. Therefore, environmental data sets are often sparse and do not allow us to fully understand the hydrological and associated environmental processes dominant in these areas. Therefore, innovative ideas are needed to build methods able to extract information from the available data and make use of the many signatures in the observations that are still to be explored.

On the other hand, an increasing amount of heterogenous data becomes available from diverse sources such as remote sensing, social media or citizen science. Platforms and tools are needed to interpret such data, identify and understand patterns, trends, and uncertainty and to draw conclusions and implications from data-driven research. New methods for data visualization can be a pivotal for our ability to make new sense of heterogeneous data and to communicate complex datasets and findings in an appropriate way to other researchers and the public.

Eventually, the full scientific process should be open, reproducible and repeatable. Many data sets contain a wide range of derived variables that cannot be easily re-computed from the raw data, either because the raw data is not available or because the computational steps are not adequately described. As a result, very few published results in hydrology are reproducible for the general reader. However, more and more software tools and platforms are becoming available to support open science, partly as a result of collaborations between software experts and hydrologists.

This session invites contributions on topics ranging from data collection and visualization to sharing model code and reproducible workflows, e.g.:

- Platforms and tools for improved data visualization, open science, scientific collaboration and/or communication with a larger audience
- Use of innovative data and data collection techniques, with a focus on data sparse environments
- Case studies illustrating challenges and solutions related to open science
- Innovative types of data and their visualizations

This session is organized in cooperation with the Young Hydrologic Society (youngHS.com).

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Co-organized as EOS8.1/GM2.16
Convener: Remko C. Nijzink | Co-conveners: Jonathan Dick, Sebastian Gnann, Stan Schymanski, Lina Stein, Fi-John Chang
PICOs
| Fri, 12 Apr, 08:30–12:30
 
PICO spot 5b
HS1.2.9

Data assimilation is becoming more important as a method to make predictions of Earth system states. Increasingly, coupled models for different compartments of the Earth system are used. This allows for making advantage of varieties of observations, in particular remotely sensed data, in different compartments. This session focuses on weakly and strongly coupled assimilation of in situ and remotely sensed measurement data across compartments of the Earth system. Examples are data assimilation for the atmosphere-ocean system, data assimilation for the atmosphere-land system and data assimilation for the land surface-subsurface system. Optimally exploiting observations in a compartment of the terrestrial system to update also states in other compartments of the terrestrial system still has strong methodological challenges. It is not yet clear that fully coupled approaches, where data are directly used to update states in other compartments, outperform weakly coupled approaches, where states in other compartments are only updated indirectly, through the action of the model equations. Coupled data assimilation allows to determine the value of different measurement types, and the additional value of measurements to update states across compartments. Another aspect of scientific interest for weakly or fully coupled data assimilation is the software engineering related to coupling a data assimilation framework to a physical model, in order to build a computationally efficient and flexible framework.

We welcome contributions on the development and applications of coupled data assimilation systems involving models for different compartments of the Earth system like atmosphere and/or ocean and/or sea ice and/or vegetation and/or soil and/or groundwater and/or surface water bodies. Contributions could for example focus on data value with implications for monitoring network design, parameter or bias estimation or software engineering aspects. In addition, case studies which include a precise evaluation of the data assimilation performance are of high interest for the session.

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Co-organized as AS4.26/BG1.28/NP5.6/OS4.24/SSS11.9
Convener: Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen | Co-conveners: Gabriëlle De Lannoy, Lars Nerger, Insa Neuweiler, Clemens Simmer, Rafael Pimentel, Chiara Corbari, Eric Wood (deceased)(deceased)
Orals
| Fri, 12 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Room 2.15
Posters
| Attendance Fri, 12 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS1.2.10

Hydrology is a rich multidisciplinary field encompassing a complex process network involving interactions of diverse nature and scales. Still, it abides to core dynamical principles regulating individual and cooperative processes and interactions, ultimately relating to the overall Earth System dynamics. This session focuses on advances in theoretical and applied studies in hydrologic dynamics, regimes, transitions and extremes along with their physical understanding, predictability and uncertainty. Moreover, it welcomes research on dynamical co-evolution, feedbacks and synergies among hydrologic and other earth system processes at multiple spatiotemporal scales. The session further encourages discussion on physical and analytical approaches to hydrologic dynamics ranging from traditional stochastic, information-theoretical and dynamical analysis to general frameworks addressing non-ergodic and thermodynamically unstable processes and interactions.
Contributions are welcome from a diverse community in hydrology and the broader physical geosciences, working with diverse approaches ranging from dynamical modelling to data mining and analysis with physical understanding in mind.

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Co-organized as NP2.6
Convener: Rui A. P. Perdigão | Co-conveners: Julia Hall, Shaun Harrigan, Maria Kireeva
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Hall A
HS1.2.11

NOTE: We are delighted to have Prof. Emanuele Borgonovo, from Department of Decision Sciences, Bocconi University as our invited speaker.

Session Description:
Proper characterization of uncertainty remains a major challenge, and is inherent to many aspects of modelling such as structural development, hypothesis testing and parameter estimation, and the adequate characterization of forcing data and initial and boundary conditions. To address this challenge, methods for a) uncertainty analysis (UA) that seek to quantify uncertainty (and how it propagates through a system/model), and b) the closely-related methods for sensitivity analysis (SA) that evaluate the role and significance of uncertain factors (in the functioning of systems/models), have proved to be very helpful.
This session invites contributions that discuss advances, both in theory and/or application, in methods for SA/UA applicable to all Earth and Environmental Systems Models (EESMs). This includes all areas of hydrology, such as classical hydrology, subsurface hydrology and soil science. Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

1) Novel methods for effective characterization of sensitivity and uncertainty
2) Single- versus Multi-criteria SA/UA
3) Novel methods for spatial and temporal evaluation/analysis of models
4) The role of data information and error on SA/UA (e.g., input/output error, model structure error, etc.)
5) Novel approaches and benchmarking efforts for parameter estimation and data inversion
6) Improving the computational efficiency of SA/UA (efficient sampling, surrogate modelling, parallel computing, model pre-emption, etc.)

Contributions addressing any or all aspects of sensitivity/uncertainty, including those related to structural development, hypothesis testing, parameter estimation, forcing data, and initial and boundary conditions are invited.

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Convener: Amin Haghnegahdar | Co-conveners: Wolfgang Nowak, Cristina Prieto, Thomas Wöhling, Hoshin Gupta
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room C
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Hall A
SCS1 Media|ECS

Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45-14:00 / Room E1

Public information:
The dialogue between scientists, institutions, policymakers and the general public is widely recognised as an essential step towards a fair and sustainable society. Nowadays, more than ever in human history, international cooperation is an essential requirement for protecting the planet, advancing science and ensuring an equitable development of the global economy.
Despite its importance, the above dialogue can be a challenge for scientists, who often cannot find a productive connection with governments and politicians. Scientific associations are a key link between researchers and policy makers, as they have the potential to establish a durable and profitable connection with institutions.
The EGU elected the dialogue with society as one of its priority missions. At its General Assembly, the EGU is launching an innovative symposium format, Science and Society (SCS), to host scientific forums specifically dedicated to connecting with high-level institutions and engaging the public and policymakers.
The conversation with Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will focus on science and politics with a global perspective, and the impact of populism on European integrity and therefore scientific research. The discussion will elaborate on optimal strategies to deliver topical and clear scientific messages to key institutions.
Ilaria Capua is a virologist best known for her research on influenza viruses and her efforts promoting open access to genetic information on emerging viruses. In 2006, Science reported on Capua’s effort towards open access science, stating that she had “renewed the debate about how to balance global health against scientists’ needs to publish and countries’ demands for secrecy". She has been a member of the Italian parliament from 2013 to 2016 and a fake news victim. She is currently a full professor at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, US, and director of the UF One Health Center of Excellence.
Mario Monti served as a European Commissioner from 1995 to 2004, with responsibility for the internal market, services, customs, taxation and competition. He was Prime Minister of Italy from 2011 to 2013, leading a government of national unity to cope with the Italian debt crisis. Monti has also been Rector and is currently President of Bocconi University in Milan. His publications deal mainly with monetary and financial economics, public finance, European integration, competition policy. He is currently lifetime member of the Italian Senate.
During the conversation, Ilaria Capua and Mario Monti will present their vision with two 15-minute talks that will be followed by 20 minutes dedicated to questions from the audience and answers.

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Co-organized as EOS/ESSI/G6.6/GD/HS1.2.12
Conveners: Alberto Montanari, Jonathan Bamber
Wed, 10 Apr, 12:45–14:00
 
Room E1
SCS2 Media|ECS

Plastic pollution is recognized as one of the most serious and urgent problems facing our planet. Rates of manufacture, use and ultimately disposal of plastics continue to soar, posing an enormous threat to the planet’s oceans and rivers and the flora and fauna they support. There is an urgent need for global action, backed by sound scientific understanding, to tackle this problem.

This Union Symposium will address the problems posed to our planet by plastic pollution, and examine options for dealing with the threat.

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Co-organized as HS1.2.13/OS4.36
Convener: Jessica Hickie | Co-conveners: Bruce Newport, Christopher Hackney, David Todd, Tim van Emmerik
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–17:45
 
Room E1

HS2 – Catchment hydrology

HS2.1 – Catchment hydrology in diverse climates and environments

HS2.1.2

By accumulating precipitation at high elevations, snow and ice completely change the hydrologic response of a watershed. Water stored in the snow pack and in glaciers thus represents an important component of the hydrological budget in many regions of the world and a sustainment to life during dry seasons. Predicted impacts of climate change in headwater catchments (including a shift from snow to rain, earlier snowmelt, and a decrease in peak snow accumulation) will affect both water resources distribution and water uses at multiple scales, with potential implications for energy and food production.
Our knowledge about snow/ice accumulation and melt patterns is highly uncertain, because of both limited availability and inherently large spatial variability of hydrological and weather data in remote areas at high elevations. This translates into limited process understanding, especially in a warming climate. The objective of this session is to integrate specialists focusing on snow accumulation and melt within the context of catchment hydrology and snow as a source for glacier ice and melt, hence streamflow. The aim is to integrate and share knowledge and experiences about experimental research, remote sensing and modelling.

Specifically, contributions addressing the following topics are welcome:
- results of experimental research on snowmelt runoff processes and their potential implementation in hydrological models;
- development of novel strategies for snowmelt runoff modelling in various (or changing) climatic and land-cover conditions
- evaluation of observed in-situ or remote-sensing snow products (e.g. snow cover, albedo, snow depth, snow water equivalent) and their application for snowmelt runoff calibration, data assimilation or operational streamflow forecasting
- observational and modelling studies that shed new light on hydrological processes in glacier-covered catchments, e.g., impacts of glacier retreat on water resources and water storage dynamic or the application of techniques for tracing water flow paths.
Studies on cryosphere-influenced mountain hydrology, such as landforms at high elevation and their relationship with streamflow, water balance of snow/ice-dominated, high mountain regions, etc.
This session is linked closely to the session CR3.04/AS4.6/CL2.15/HS2.1.3 . While the focus of our session is on the monitoring and modelling of snow for hydrologic applications, session CR3.04/AS4.6/CL2.15/HS2.1.3 addresses monitoring and modelling of snow processes across scales.

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Co-organized as CR3.11
Convener: Guillaume Thirel | Co-conveners: Francesco Avanzi, Doris Duethmann, Abror Gafurov, Juraj Parajka
Orals
| Tue, 09 Apr, 08:30–10:15, 10:45–12:30
 
Room 2.95
Posters
| Attendance Tue, 09 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
CR3.04 | PICO

Snow cover characteristics (e.g. spatial distribution, surface and internal physical properties) are continuously evolving over a wide range of scales due to meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, wind and radiation.
Most processes occurring in the snow cover depend on the vertical and horizontal distribution of its physical properties, which are primarily controlled by the microstructure of snow (e.g. density, specific surface area). In turn, snow metamorphism changes the microstructure, leading to feedback loops that affect the snow cover on coarser scales. This can have far-reaching implications for a wide range of applications, including snow hydrology, weather forecasting, climate modelling, and avalanche hazard forecasting or remote sensing of snow. The characterization of snow thus demands synergetic investigations of the hierarchy of processes across the scales ranging from explicit microstructure-based studies to sub-grid parameterizations for unresolved processes in large-scale phenomena (e.g. albedo, drifting snow).

This session is therefore devoted to modelling and measuring snow processes across scales. The aim is to gather researchers from various disciplines to share their expertise on snow processes in seasonal and perennial snowpacks. We invite contributions ranging from “small” scales, as encountered in microstructure studies, over “intermediate” scales typically relevant for 1D snowpack models, up to “coarse” scales, that typically emerge for spatially distributed modelling over mountainous or polar snow- and ice-covered terrain. Specifically, we welcome contributions reporting results from field, laboratory and numerical studies of the physical and chemical evolution of snowpacks, statistical or dynamic downscaling methods of atmospheric driving data, assimilation of in-situ and remotely sensed observations, representation of sub-grid processes in coarse-scale models, and evaluation of model performance and associated uncertainties.

This session is linked closely to the session HS2.1.2/CR3.11. While the focus of our session is on monitoring and modelling snow processes across scales, session HS2.1.2/CR3.11 addresses monitoring and modelling of snow for hydrologic applications.

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Co-organized as AS4.6/CL2.15/HS2.1.3
Convener: Nora Helbig | Co-conveners: Neige Calonne, Richard L.H. Essery, Henning Löwe, Vincent Vionnet
PICOs
| Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–18:00
 
PICO spot 4
HS2.1.6

Water is a strategic issue in the Mediterranean region, mainly because of the rarefaction of the available resources, in quantity and/or quality. The Mediterranean climate and the surface hydrology are characterized by a strong variability in time and space and the importance of extreme events, droughts and floods. This irregularity is also met at a lower level in aquifers dynamics. During the last century, modifications of all kinds and intensities have affected surface conditions and water uses. The Mediterranean hydrology is then continuously evolving.
This session intends to identify and analyse the changes in the Mediterranean hydrology, in terms of processes, fluxes, location. It will gather specialists in observation and modeling of the various water fluxes and redistribution processes within the catchments.
Contributions addressing the following topics are welcome:
• Spectacular case studies of rapid changes in water resources;
• Using various sources of information for comparing past and present conditions;
• Differentiating climatic and anthropogenic drivers (including GCM reanalysis);
• Modelling hydrological changes (in surface and/or ground water);
• Impacts of extreme events on water systems.

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Convener: Mehrez Zribi | Co-conveners: Lionel Jarlan, Said Khabba, María José Polo
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room B
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS2.1.9

The tropics are characterized by greater energy inputs, higher rainfall variability compared to temperate and boreal environments and higher rates of environmental change. This results in extreme spatial and temporal uncertainties, including unpredictable patterns in soil moisture replenishment and groundwater recharge. Most tropical regions are hot spots for climate change and play important role in regional and global water, carbon and nutrient cycles. These ecosystems are susceptible to perturbations that include, but are not limited to, frequent and severe droughts and periods of extreme intense rainfall events. This environmental variability together with local hydro(geo)logical, geomorphological, and ecosystem factors are directly influencing the water quality and quantity, generating the increase in soil salinity as well as overgrazing and a general over-exploitation by humans, especially in years where resource availabilities are low.
Although modelling and novel observational techniques have been applied to develop cutting-edge research, their application remains cost prohibitive in the tropics. A robust data collection in the tropics is not feasible due mostly to economic and political shortcomings and, therefore, hydro(geo)logical and soil-plant-atmosphere processes across different scales in the tropics remain still poorly understood.

We invite field experimentalists and modellers who work in both wet and dry tropics to present their research on:
• Innovative observational techniques using sensors, hydrochemical and stable isotope tracers, plot and monitoring networks, citizen science, radars, and unmanned aerial vehicles;
• Modelling studies that use novel theories and data developed and applied to tropical catchments and ecosystems for a better understanding of the water fluxes from the plot to regional scales.

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Convener: Alicia Correa | Co-conveners: Christian Birkel, Jose Agustin Brena Naranjo, Magna Moura, Rodolfo Nóbrega, Grzegorz Skrzypek
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 08:30–12:30
 
Room 2.15
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A

HS2.2 – From observations to concepts to models (in catchment hyrology)

HS2.2.1

Stable and radioactive isotopes as well as other natural and artificial tracers are useful tools to fingerprint the source of water and solutes in catchments, to trace their flow pathways or to quantify exchanges of water, solutes and particulates between hydrological compartments. Papers are invited that demonstrate the application and recent developments of isotope and other tracer techniques in field studies or modelling in the areas of surface / groundwater interactions, unsaturated and saturated zone, rainfall-runoff processes, nutrient or contaminant export, ecohydrology or other catchment processes.

Invited Speakers: James Kirchner, ETHZ, CH

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Convener: Christine Stumpp | Co-conveners: Markus Weiler, Michael Rinderer
Orals
| Tue, 09 Apr, 08:30–10:15, 10:45–12:30
 
Room B
Posters
| Attendance Tue, 09 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS2.2.3 | PICO

Hydrological connectivity describes the degree of connection between and across landscape elements through water flow, and determines the ease with which water and solutes may move across the landscape or through a river system. Connectivity occurs across a wide range of spatial scales, from macropores to landscapes, and has been recognized as a first-order control on runoff generation, travel times, and solute transport. The concept of hydrological connectivity has the potential to enhance our understanding of hydrological processes, to link processes across scales and between field and modelling studies, and to provide a unifying framework to organize hydrologic behavior.

This session consists of two blocks: 1) a block that focuses on subsurface hydrological connectivity, linking hillslopes to the stream network and 2) a block that focuses on ephemeral and intermittent streams, including how surface connectivity in intermittent stream networks is established. We hope that together, these studies will enhance our understanding and stimulate discussions on how the concept of hydrological connectivity can be used to link surface and subsurface flows at the catchment scale.

We encourage contributions on all aspects of hydrological connectivity at the catchment scale or ephemeral and intermittent streams, including field studies and modeling studies on how, when and where connectivity is established, how stream networks expand and contract, and how this can be described or modeled, as well as the effects of connectivity or stream network expansion on stream water quantity and quality and stream biodiversity.

This will be a PICO session, which combines the advantages of oral and poster presentations. In addition to the initial 2-minute presentation to introduce the work and raise interest, authors have the opportunity to interact with the audience through the use of the PICO screens, which allows one to show videos, animations and pictures.

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Convener: Ilja van Meerveld | Co-conveners: E. Sauquet, Luisa Hopp, Daniele Penna, Francesc Gallart
PICOs
| Tue, 09 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
PICO spot 5b
HS2.2.4

Invited speakers:

Luca Brocca from National Research Council, Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, Perugia, Italy, with the title "The missing information for hydrological modelling in agricultural areas: irrigation"

Martyn Clark from University of Saskatchewan, with the title "Modeling spatial patterns in hydrology: Neglected challenges."

Session Description: Hydrological models are formulations of hypotheses about natural systems' behavior. These formulations are constructed and refined to maximize the model fidelity, i.e., the agreement of the model with the reality. Models’ formulations (e.g., parameterizations) and set ups are based on both observations and qualitative expert knowledge encoded by means of mathematical or statistical tools. The interaction between data availability, expert knowledge and set of decisions that result in a working model is an important topic of discussion in scientific hydrological modeling. In this session, we welcome contributions which elaborate on the interaction between observations, expert knowledge and models with the aim of improving process understanding and the realism of our environmental models.

Potential contributions may include (but not limited to): (1) improving model structural adequacy given data and expert knowledge, (2) introducing new formulations for model components (constitutive functions) capturing the internal and external model fluxes or their overall behavior, (3) upscaling and applying the experimentalists' knowledge at catchment, basin or global scale, (4) investigating the added value of new sources of data, i.e., remotely sensed products, and new model set up or formulation to accommodate them, (5) novel methods that use the new sources of data to constrain or evaluate models, (6) better representation of often neglected processes in hydrological models such as human impacts, river regulations, irrigation, as well as vegetation dynamics, (7) better monitoring and seamless modeling of spatial patterns in hydrological and land surface models using hyper-resolution distributed earth observations, (8) identification and quantification of driving forces that generate spatial patters in these models, (9) and development of novel regionalization/regularization approaches and performance metrics for matching simulated hydrological states and fluxes with spatio-temporal data sources.

This session is organized as part of the grass-root modelling initiative on "Improving the Theoretical Underpinnings of Hydrologic Models" launched in 2016.

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Convener: Shervan Gharari | Co-conveners: Björn Guse, Sina Khatami, Charles Luce, Luis Samaniego, Simon Stisen
Orals
| Fri, 12 Apr, 10:45–12:30, 14:00–15:45, 16:15–18:00
 
Room C
Posters
| Attendance Fri, 12 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Hall A
NH3.8

This session aims to discuss hydrology related to landslide occurrence both on local and regional scale. It focuses on the detailed analysis and modelling of hydrological processes on hillslope and catchment scale in order to improve our understanding and prediction of the spatio-temporal patterns of landslide triggering and slope deformation mechanisms.

Water circulation within a catchment and the resultant transient changes in both shallow and deep hydrological systems is the most common controlling and triggering factor of slope movements. However, incorporation of hydrological process knowledge in slope failure analysis, such as water-rock interaction, water storage, dynamic preferential flows or the influence of frost conditions to name a few, still lags behind. Also, the inclusion of regional hydrological information in rainfall thresholds analysis is underdeveloped. The research frontiers are connected with the complexity of real landslides such as the difficulty to monitor groundwater levels or soil moisture contents in unstable terrain and over large areas, the difficulty to understand the water pathways within heterogeneous regolith soils and fractured bedrock, which are the characteristic substratum where landslides occur, and the complexity of dynamically quantifying and predicting the hydrological exchange between a potentially unstable slope and its surroundings.

We invite research ranging from unsaturated zone, hillslope processes and regional hydrology which are applied to landslide research in a broad sense: ranging from soil slips to large scale deep-seated slope deformation. The session will give time to both laboratory and field monitoring studies, preferably quantitative, and based on novel measurement and modelling techniques. We invite pioneering research that includes hydrological information in local and regional hazard assessment. Moreover, we welcome studies that incorporate hydrological process knowledge in the geotechnical analysis and modelling setting the next step to improve landslide hazard analysis.

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Co-organized as HS2.2.6
Convener: Thom Bogaard | Co-conveners: Paolo Frattini, Roberto Greco, Dominika Krzeminska, Jean-Philippe Malet
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room L1
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall X3

HS2.3 – Water quality at the catchment scale

HS2.3.1

A large number of micropollutants and their transformation products (veterinary and human pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and biocides, chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, emerging contaminants such as PFASs) pose a risk for soil, groundwater and surface water. The large diversity of compounds and of their sources makes the quantification of their occurrence in the terrestrial and aquatic environment across space and time a challenging task. Effective strategies to protect water resources from micropollutants are still lacking because the basic processes that contribute to their persistence and mobility in the aquatic environments are poorly understood. Innovative experimental studies in conjunction with modeling are urgently needed to fill these knowledge gaps to asses risks and develop remediation schemes.
This session invites contributions that improve our quantitative understanding of the sources and pathways, mass fluxes, the fate and transport of micropollutants in the soil-groundwater-river continuum. Topics cover:
- Novel sampling and monitoring concepts and devices
- New analytical methods for micropollutants such as non-target screening
- Experimental studies and modelling approaches to quantify diffuse and point source inputs
- Novel monitoring approaches such as non-target screening as tools for improving processes understanding and source identification such as industries
- Comparative fate studies on parent compounds and transformation products
- Diffuse sources and (re-)emerging chemicals
- Biogeochemical interactions and impact on micropollutant behaviour

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Convener: Matthias Gassmann | Co-conveners: Fritjof Fagerlund, Sylvain Payraudeau, Stefan Reichenberger, Tissa Illangasekare
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–11:45
 
Room 2.95
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS2.3.2

Land use and climate change as well as legal requirements (e.g. the EU Water Framework Directive) pose new challenges for the assessment and sustainable management of surface water quality at the catchment scale. Sources and pathways of nutrients and pollutants have to be characterized to understand and manage the impacts of their enrichment in river systems. Additionally, water quality assessment needs to cover the chemical and ecological status to link the hydrological view to aquatic ecology.
Models can help to optimize monitoring schemes. However, insufficient temporal and/or spatial resolutions, a short duration of observations or not harmonized analytical methods restrict the data base for model application. Moreover, model-based water quality calculations are affected by errors in input data, model errors, inappropriate model complexity and insufficient process knowledge or implementation. Therefore there is a strong need for advances in water quality models and to quantify and reduce uncertainties in water quality predictions. Additionally, models should be capable of representing changing land use and climate conditions, which is a prerequisite to meet the increasing needs for decision making.

This session aims to bring scientist together who work on experimental as well as on modelling studies to improve the prediction and management of water quality constituents (with the focus on nutrients, organic matter, algae or sediments) at the catchment scale. Contributions are welcome that cover the following issues:

- Experimental and modelling studies on the identification of sources, hot spots and pathways of nutrients and pollutants at the catchment scale
- New approaches to develop efficient water quality monitoring schemes
- Innovative monitoring strategies that support both process investigation and model performance
- Advanced modelling tools integrating catchment as well as in-stream processes
- Observational and modelling studies at catchment scale that relate and quantify water quality changes to changes in land use and climate
- Measurements and modelling of abiotic and biotic interaction and feedback involved in the transport and fate of nutrients and pollutants at the catchment scale
- Catchment management: pollution reduction measures, stakeholder involvement, scenario analysis for catchment management

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Convener: Paul Wagner | Co-conveners: Andrew Wade, Ype van der Velde, Nicola Fohrer
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 14:00–18:00
 
Room 2.95
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Hall A
HS2.3.3

Agriculture intensification causes worldwide increase of rivers, lakes and groundwater aquifers pollution. Pollutants may originate from various sources related to different types of agriculture activities including cultivation, aquaculture, livestock and dairy farms and related food-processing industries, and partitioning their respective contribution to water bodies remains challenging. Degradation of water quality is associated with both macronutrients and micro-pollutants originating from the inefficient use of chemical and organic fertilizers, and transport and persistence of pesticides and antibiotics. Therefore, identification of spatial and seasonal variations of pollutant sources and loads at the catchment scale is critical for better understanding human and environmental impacts of agro-contaminants, and eventually improving land management practices to protect water quality.

This session is focused on the use of hydro(geo)chemical and stable isotope tracers in quantifying agro-contaminant sources and transport but other related studies are also welcome. We especially encourage submissions in the following topics:
• Application of multi-isotope tracer techniques to constrain sources
• Catchment-scale pollution budget and predictive modelling
• Nonpoint agriculture source pollution partitioning at different catchment scales
• Identifying sources of macronutrients and micropollutants: macronutrients, herbicides, fungicides and insecticides, antibiotics, rare earth elements
• Distinguishing agro-contaminants from other pollution sources at the catchment scale
• Agriculture land use and agro-contaminants diversification

Public information:
Poster attendance time: Tuesday, 9 April 2019, 14:00–15:45 | Hall A
!Join us! Active poster sessions: a poster walk-through is organized at 14:15, poster authors will have 1–2 minutes to present their poster.

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Convener: G. Imfeld | Co-conveners: Joseph Adu-Gyamfi, Lee Heng, Yong Li, Grzegorz Skrzypek
Orals
| Tue, 09 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room 2.15
Posters
| Attendance Tue, 09 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS2.3.4

Historical and contemporary mining activities generate significant volumes of contaminated waste that can have wide-ranging implications, including potential lethal and sub-lethal effects on aquatic biota, adverse effects on surface waters used for drinking water and irrigation, and overall degradation of water bodies used for recreation and other purposes. Contaminants are dispersed in river catchments by a variety of physical, chemical and biological pathways and processes. This session is devoted to research that aims to characterize and quantify: (1) source areas which contribute contaminant mass, (2) transport processes which move contaminants from source areas to and through affected water bodies such as streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, and groundwater, (3) biogeochemical processes which attenuate and/or transform contaminants, and (4) the interaction of contaminants with biota and ecosystems. Submissions from a variety of subfields are welcome, including research into mine water treatment and mine waste remediation practices. We also welcome submissions that focus on a variety of contaminant types including, but not limited to, metals, metalloids, rare earth elements and sulfate.

The following invited speakers have been confirmed: Professor Karen Hudson-Edwards (Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter, UK) and Dr Rory Cowie (Mountain Studies Institute, Colorado, USA).

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Convener: Patrick Byrne | Co-conveners: Giovanni De Giudici, Will Mayes, Patrizia Onnis, Robert Runkel
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Room 2.25
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS2.3.5 | PICO

Bayesian approaches have become increasingly popular in water quality modelling, thanks to their ability to handle uncertainty comprehensively (data, model structure and parameter uncertainty) and as flexible statistical and data mining tools. Furthermore, graphical Bayesian Belief Networks can be powerful decision support tools that make it relatively easy for stakeholders to engage in the model building process. The aim of this session is to review the state-of-the-art in this field and compare software and procedural choices in order to consolidate and set new directions for the emerging community of Bayesian water quality modellers.

In particular, we seek contributions from water quality research that use Bayesian approaches to, for example but not exclusively:
• quantify the uncertainty of model predictions
• quantify especially model structural error through, for example, Bayesian Model Averaging or structural error terms
• address the problem of scaling (e.g. disparity of scales between processes, observations, model resolution and predictions) through hierarchical models
• model water quality in data sparse environments
• compare models with different levels of complexity and process representation
• use statistical emulators to allow probabilistic predictions of complex modelled systems
• integrate prior knowledge, especially problematizing the choice of Bayesian priors
• produce user-friendly decision support tools using graphical Bayesian Belief Networks
• involve stakeholders in model development and maximise the use of expert knowledge
• use machine-learning and data mining approaches to learn from large, possibly high-resolution data sets.

Keynote speaker:
Prof Peter Reichert: “The need for Bayesian approaches in water research and management.”
Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology; Department of Systems Analysis, Integrated Assessment and Modelling

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Convener: Miriam Glendell | Co-conveners: Tobias Krueger, James E. Sample
PICOs
| Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
PICO spot 4
HS2.3.6

Surface water quality deterioration is typically assessed and managed at the catchment scale. Management decisions rely on process knowledge and understanding of cause-effect relationships to be effective. However, the dynamics of solute and particulate concentrations integrate a multitude of hydrological and biogeochemical processes interacting at different temporal and spatial scales, which are difficult to assess using local field experiments. Hence, time series of water quality observed at the outlet of catchments can be highly beneficial to understand these processes. Long-term, high-frequency as well as multiple-site datasets can be used to inform experimental and modelling studies and formulate hypotheses on dominant ecohydrological and geochemical processes moving “from pattern to process”. Recent advances in this field have used concentration-discharge relationships to infer the interplay between hydrological and biogeochemical controls, both in the terrestrial part of catchments and in the river network. Long-term time series of nutrient input-output relationships help understand nutrients legacy effects and catchments response times. High-frequency observations allow understanding the fine structure of concentration dynamics, including flowpath contributions during runoff events and ecological controls on diel cycles. When multiple catchments are monitored, it is possible to relate metrics from concentration time series to catchment descriptors.
This session aims to bring together studies using data-driven analysis of river concentration time series to infer solute and particulate export mechanisms. We strongly encourage studies that use findings from data-driven analysis to build conceptual and process-based models. Presentations of the following topics are invited:
- Interpretation of C-Q relationships
- Long-term changes of nutrient inputs, outputs and apparent nutrient travel times
- Co-variance of solute and particulate concentrations and their ecohydrological controls
- Instream processes and river network effects on solute concentrations
- Utilizing time series of compound-specific isotopic fingerprints
- Time series analysis of emerging contaminants such as pesticides or micropollutants

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Convener: Andreas Musolff | Co-conveners: Benjamin Abbott, Rémi Dupas, Stefanie Lutz, Camille Minaudo
Orals
| Fri, 12 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Room 2.95
Posters
| Attendance Fri, 12 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Hall A
CR7.2 Media

Snow and ice can capture and store contaminants both local and global in origin. The decrease in glacier cover, snow cover and sea ice in response to climate affects cycling of airborne impurities in polar and alpine environments, accelerating and enhancing their release. In this context snow and ice act as a secondary source for numerous organic and inorganic atmospheric contaminants that were deposited on their surface during recent decades, including persistent organic pollutants, radioactive species, microplastics, pesticides, and heavy metals. The release of contaminants from snow and ice to glacier forefields, rivers and seas might pose a hazard to these ecosystems and to human health, particularly under accelerated melt conditions.

Identification and assessment of this hazard relies, for each contaminant class, on the understanding of processes that control their accumulation, release and downstream transport. The physical and chemical forms in which contaminants are removed from the atmosphere and hydrosphere may further affect their interactions with mineral substances and biota. Existing studies suggest that the contaminant release process is not linear, and that interactions between meltwater, supraglacial debris and glacial microbiology may be crucial in the accumulation and transport of contaminants in glacier catchments. For example, evidence is mounting that cryoconite can efficiently accumulate radionuclides from anthropogenic sources to potentially hazardous levels in glaciers around the world. At the same time, the high biological activity present in cryoconite could enhance the degradation of organic pollutants, with important implications for remediation. A portion of contaminants released from glaciers may also be stored in their proglacial zones as shown by the very high concentrations of radionuclides found by several recent studies. The effects of contaminant transport on the pro-glacial environment and downstream communities remain uncertain, but improved understanding of the impacts of contaminants in land ice, sea ice, and snow is clearly warranted.

The session aims to contribute to the development of this emerging and interdisciplinary field, welcoming presentations from across cryospheric, hydrological, and biogeochemical sciences, and other research areas.

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Co-organized as BG1.49/HS2.3.7
Convener: Caroline Clason | Co-conveners: Ewa Poniecka, Przemyslaw Wachniew
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Hall X4

HS2.4 – Hydrologic variability and change at multiple scales

HS2.4.1

Hydrological extremes (droughts and floods), have major impacts on society and ecosystems and are expected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Although both at the extreme end of the hydrological spectrum, floods and droughts are governed by different processes, which means that they operate on different spatial and temporal scales and that different analysis methods and indices are needed to characterise them. But there are also many similarities and links between the two extremes that are increasingly being studied.

This general session on hydrological extremes aims to bring together the two communities in order to learn from the similarities and differences between flood and drought research. We aim to increase the understanding of the governing processes of both hydrological extremes, find robust ways of modelling and analysing floods and droughts, assess the influence of global change (including climate change, land use change, and other anthropogenic influences) on floods and droughts, and study the socio-economic and environmental impacts of hydrological extremes. We welcome submissions of insightful studies of floods or droughts, and especially encourage abstracts that cover both extremes.

This session is jointly organised by the Panta Rhei Working Groups “Understanding Flood Changes”, “Changes in Flood Risk”, and “Drought in the Anthropocene” and will further stimulate scientific discussion on change detection and attribution of hydrological extremes and the feedbacks between hydrological extremes and society. The session is linked to the European Low Flow and Drought Group of UNESCO´s IHP-VIII FRIEND-Water Program, which aims to promote international drought research. Excellent submissions of early-career researchers that are deemed important contributions to the session topics will be classified as solicited talks, as a "label of excellence".

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Convener: Anne Van Loon | Co-conveners: Gregor Laaha, Louise Slater, Jan Szolgay, Lena M. Tallaksen
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 08:30–12:30, 14:00–15:45
 
Room B
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS2.4.2

The space-time dynamics of floods are controlled by atmospheric, catchment, river system and anthropogenic processes and their interactions. The natural oscillatory behaviour of floods (between flood-rich and flood-poor periods) superimpose with anthropogenic climate change and human interventions in river morphology and land uses. In addition, flood risk is further shaped by continuous changes in exposure and vulnerability. Despite more frequent exploratory analyses of the changes in spatio-temporal dynamics of flood hazard and risk, it remains unclear how and why these changes are occurring. The scope of this session is to report when, where, how (detection) and why (attribution) changes in the space-time dynamics of floods occur. Of particular interest is what drivers are responsible for observed changes. Presentations on the impact of climate variability and change, land use changes and morphologic changes in streams, as well as on the role of pre-flood catchment conditions in shaping flood hazard and risk are welcome. Furthermore, contributions on the impact of socio-economic and structural factors on past and future risk changes are invited. This session is jointly organised by the Panta Rhei Working Groups “Understanding Flood Changes” and “Changes in Flood Risk”. The session will further stimulate scientific discussion on flood change detection and attribution. Specifically, the following topics are of interest for this session:

- Decadal oscillations in rainfall and floods

- Process-informed extreme value statistics

- Interactions between spatial rainfall and catchment conditions shaping flood patterns

- Detection and attribution of flood hazard changes: atmospheric drivers, land use controls and river training, among others

- Changes in flood risk: urbanisation of flood prone areas, implementation of risk mitigation measures, changes of economic, societal and technological drivers, flood vulnerability, among others.

- Future flood risk changes and adaptation and mitigation strategies

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Convener: William Farmer | Co-conveners: Heidi Kreibich, Luis Mediero, Alberto Viglione, Sergiy Vorogushyn
Orals
| Thu, 11 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room 2.31
Posters
| Attendance Thu, 11 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS2.4.4

Catchments are systems that often consist of an organized architecture of typical patterns of topography, soils, vegetation and flow networks. These patterns are largely the geomorphic, and biologic response to temporally and spatially variable environmental conditions or human interference. This organization of catchment components controls the storage and release of water and nutrients. Consequently, understanding catchment organization is critical for:

- Creating catchment models that balance necessary complexity with possible simplicity,
- Understanding the degree of similarity between catchments, with the prospect of developing hydrological theories that are transferable in space and/or time,
- Increasing our understanding of catchment processes and behavior across various spatial and temporal scales, and
- Predicting the future evolution of catchment properties and hydrologic response in a non-stationary environment.

In this session we bring together catchment hydrologists and stream-/ecohydrologists who study these topics at different scales. We present experimental and modeling studies that analyze the role of catchment storage, catchment mixing and hyporheic exchange fluxes and determine how they control hydrologic and hydrochemical catchment response in time and space.

Solicited Speakers: Federica Remondi, ETH Zürich
Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

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Convener: Martijn Westhoff | Co-conveners: Ingo Heidbüchel, Wouter Berghuijs, Tobias Schuetz, Ida Westerberg
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Room 2.25
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall A
HS2.4.5

Estimates of water availability and flooding risks remain one of the central scientific and societal challenges of the 21st century. The complexity of this challenge arises particularly from transient boundary conditions: Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations lead to global warming and an intensification of the water cycle and finally to shifts in the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation and terrestrial water availability. Likewise, large-scale land use changes impact and alter regional atmospheric circulation, thereby local precipitation characteristics and again terrestrial water availability. Also the feedbacks between the interlinked terrestrial and atmospheric processes on different spatial and temporal scales are still poorly understood.
This session therefore invites contributions addressing past, present and prospective changes in regional hydrological behaviour due to either (or joint) climate- and/or land use changes. We especially welcome contributions on the development of novel methods and methodologies to quantify hydrological change. Further aspects of this topic comprise particularly:

- Robustness of hydrological impact assessments based on scenarios using downscaled climate model – hydrology model modelling chains.

- Quantification of regional land use change predictions and impact of past, present and future land use changes on water and energy fluxes in meso- to large-scale catchments.

- Joint or coupled modelling of water and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface/subsurface and analyses of feedback mechanisms.

- Climate change/land use change signal separation techniques and quantification of future land use change vs. climate change induced hydrological change.

- Adequate handling of climate change and land use change data and their uncertainty for the forcing of hydrological models.

- Case studies of regional hydrological behaviour in climate sensitive and flood or drought prone regions worldwide.

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Convener: Stefan Hagemann | Co-conveners: Axel Bronstert, Harald Kunstmann, Rajib Maity
Orals
| Tue, 09 Apr, 14:00–18:00
 
Room B
Posters
| Attendance Tue, 09 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Hall A
HS2.4.6

In the current context of global change, assessing the impact of climate variability and changes on hydrological systems and water resources is increasingly crucial for society to better-adapt to future shifts in water resources as well as extreme conditions (floods and droughts). However, hitherto, important sources of uncertainties have been neglected in forecasting climate impacts on hydrological systems, especially uncertainties associated with internal/natural climate variability, whose contribution to near-future changes could be as important as forced anthropogenic climate changes at the regional scales. Internal climate modes of variability (e.g. ENSO, NAO, AMO) and their impact on the continent are not properly reproduced in the current global climate models, leading to large underestimations of decadal climate and hydroclimatic variability at the global scale. At the same time, hydrological response strongly depends on catchment properties, whose interactions with climate variability are little understood at the decadal timescales. These factors altogether reduce significantly our ability to understand long-term hydrological variability and to improve projection and reconstruction of future and past hydrological changes on which improvement of adaption scenarios depends.
We welcome abstracts capturing recent insights for understanding past or future impacts of large-scale climate variability on hydrological systems and water resources as well as newly developed projection and reconstruction scenarios. Results from model intercomparison studies are encouraged.

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Convener: Bastien Dieppois | Co-conveners: David Hannah, Nicolas Massei, Jean-Philippe Vidal
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Room 2.25
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Hall A

HS2.5 – Global and (sub)continental hydrology

HS2.5.1

Global, continental and other large scale hydrological research is very important in many different contexts. Examples include increasing understanding of the climate system and water cycle, assessment of water resources in a changing environment, hydrological forecasting and water resource management.

We invite contributions from across the atmospheric, meteorological and hydrological communities. In particular, we welcome papers that address advances in:

(i) understanding and predicting the current and future state of our global and large scale water resources;

(ii) use of global earth observations and in-situ datasets for large scale hydrology and data assimilation techniques for large scale hydrological models;

(iii) understanding and modelling of extremes: droughts, floods;

(iv) representing/evaluating different components of the terrestrial water cycle fluxes and storage (e.g. soil moisture, snow, groundwater, lakes, floodplains, evaporation, river discharge) and their impact on current/future water resources and atmospheric modelling.

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Convener: Inge de Graaf | Co-conveners: David Hannah, Shannon Sterling, Ruud van der Ent, Reed Maxwell
Orals
| Thu, 11 Apr, 14:00–18:00
 
Room B
Posters
| Attendance Thu, 11 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
Hall A
HS2.5.2 | PICO

Large samples of catchments can provide insights into hydrological processes that cannot be obtained from small samples. This session aims to showcase recent data- and model-based efforts on large-sample hydrology, which advance the characterisation, understanding and modelling of hydrological diversity. We welcome abstracts from a wide range of fields, including catchment hydrology, land-surface modelling, eco-hydrology, groundwater hydrology and hydrometeorology, which seek to explore:

1. Landscape characterisation - hydrological processes are shaped by the interplay of landscape attributes such as topography, climate, vegetation, soil, geology: how to better understand this interplay using available data sets?
2. Generalisation from the catchment to continental scale: how can we use large samples of catchments to refine process understanding and modelling at the regional to global scale?
3. Hydrological similarity and catchment classification, including across borders
4. Quantification and synthesis of data quality and uncertainty, including across borders
5. Identification and characterisation of dominant hydrological processes with limited data: how far can we get using hydrological signatures?
6. Human intervention and land cover changes: how to characterise and account for these processes in large-sample studies?
7. Revisiting hypotheses testing: testing the generality of existing hypotheses (particularly those originally formulated on small samples of catchments) using large samples

We encourage abstracts addressing any of these challenges, in particular those aiming at reducing geographical gaps (i.e., contributing to a more balanced spatial distribution of large-sample data sets) and making use of global data sources (e.g., remote-sensed data or re-analyses) to facilitate comparison between catchments from different parts of the globe. Our invited speaker for 2019 is Vazken Andreassian.

In addition to this session, we will organise a splinter meeting to discuss and coordinate the production of large-sample data sets. Following a similar meeting at EGU 2018, it will be entitled “Large sample hydrology: facilitating the production and exchange of data sets worldwide”, its location and date will be indicated in the final programme.

The session and the splinter meeting will be organised in the framework of the Panta Rhei Working Group on large-sample hydrology.

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Convener: Gemma Coxon | Co-conveners: Nans Addor, Camila Alvarez-Garreton, Keirnan Fowler, Pablo Mendoza
PICOs
| Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
PICO spot 5b
HS2.5.3 | PICO

Since early work on the assessment of global, continental and regional-scale water balance components, many studies use different approaches including global models, remote sensing, observation data or combination of these. They attempted to estimate the amount of water that evapotranspires, runs-off into the Ocean or is retained in water storages on the terrestrial part of the Earth. However, previous estimates in literature e.g. on global scale river discharge differ largely due to the methodology and datasets used for calculation such that a robust assessment of the global and continental water balance components is challenging both in a historical period and future projections. This session is seeking for contributions that are focusing on the
i) assessment of global, continental and regional scale water balance components, such as precipitation, river discharge to the oceans (and/or inland sinks), evapo(transpi)ration, groundwater recharge, water use, change in water storage from the land and / or Ocean part of the Earth,
ii) presenting innovative approaches of such assessments,
iii) presenting the uncertainty of estimated water balance components.
We encourage submissions using different methodological approaches, such as (but not limited to) observation data driven analyses, global scale hydrological and land surface models (GHMs, LSMs), integrated atmosphere, Ocean-Land modeling (Earth System Models), remote-sensing approaches, isotope analyses, thermodynamic borders and meteorological/climate approaches such as energy balance driven water balance. Contributions could focus on any of the water balance components or in an integrative manner, for either Land, Ocean or both. Assessments of uncertainty of water balance components are highly welcome.

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Convener: Hannes Müller Schmied | Co-conveners: Stephanie Eisner, Rohini Kumar, Ted Veldkamp, Yoshihide Wada, Gerrit H. de Rooij
PICOs
| Wed, 10 Apr, 10:45–12:30
 
PICO spot 5b
G3.5 Media

Geodesy is becoming increasingly important for observing the hydrological cycle and its effects on solid Earth shape. Signals in geodetic data have revealed water's influence on other geophysical processes including earthquakes, volcanos, land subsidence, mountain uplift, and other aspects of long- and short-term vertical land motion. GPS and InSAR measurements, for example, respectively provide high temporal and spatial resolution to study natural hydrologically-related deformation and monitor anthropogenic groundwater extraction and recharge, and GRACE is helping to track changes in the global terrestrial water storage. Signals of loading from changes in surface and groundwater storage are seen from basin to continental scale. Additionally, novel use of GPS reflectometry is operational for monitoring soil moisture and snow depth at continuous GPS stations in the western USA and Canada. We encourage contributions describing new observations and models of hydrological signals in geodetic time series and/or imaging. These include but are not limited to studies exploring deformation induced by loading, aquifer extraction/recharge, poroelastic deformation and stress changes, techniques for removing hydrological signals from geodetic datasets, monitoring water resources, or teleconnections between hydrologic and other geophysical phenomena.

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Co-organized as HS2.5.5/NH1.13/SM5.7
Convener: William Hammond | Co-conveners: Kristel Chanard, Francesca Silverii, Nicola DAgostino
Orals
| Wed, 10 Apr, 08:30–10:15
 
Room D1
Posters
| Attendance Thu, 11 Apr, 14:00–15:45
 
Hall X3
G3.3

A wide range of processes in the earth system directly affect geodetic observations. This session invites a wide array of contributions which showcase the use of geodesy for Earth science and climate applications, providing crucial insights into the state and change of the earth system and/or understanding its processes.

Data driven quantification of water mass fluxes through boundaries of Earth’s different regions and spheres provides important insights to other geoscience communities and informs model validation and improvement. Changes in regional sea level and ocean circulation are observed by altimetry and gravimetry. Natural and anthropogenic alterations of the terrestrial water cycle lead to changes in river runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and water storage which may cause surface deformation sensed by GNSS stations and InSAR measurements as well as mass/gravity changes observed by satellite/ground gravimetry. Mass changes in the ice sheets and glaciers are detectable by both geometrical and gravimetric techniques. And other novel applications of geodetic techniques are emerging in many fields.

In addition, individual sensor recordings are often affected by high-frequency variability caused by, e.g., tides in the solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere and their corresponding crustal deformations affecting station positions; non-tidal temperature and moisture variability in the troposphere modifying microwave signal dispersion; rapid changes in the terrestrially stored water caused by hydrometeorologic extreme events; as well as swift variations in relative sea-level that are driven by mass and energy exchange of the global oceans with other components of the Earth system, which all might lead to temporal aliasing in observational records. 

This session invites a wide array of contributions which showcase the use of geodesy for Earth science and climate applications. This session aims to cover innovative ways to use GRACE, GRACE-FO and other low Earth orbiters, GNSS techniques, InSAR, radar altimetry, and their combination with in-situ observations. We welcome approaches which tackle the problem of separating signals of different geophysical origin, by taking advantage of model output and/or advanced processing and estimation techniques. Since the use of geodetic techniques is not always straightforward, we encourage authors to think of creative ways to make their findings, data and software more readily accessible to other communities in hydrology, ocean, cryospheric, atmospheric and climate sciences. With author consent, highlights from the oral and poster session will be tweeted with a dedicated hashtag during the conference in order to increase the impact of the session.

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Co-organized as AS5.12/CL5.19/CR2.7/ESSI1.3/HS2.5.6/OS1.12
Convener: Roelof Rietbroek | Co-conveners: Bert Wouters, Wei Feng, Vincent Humphrey, Anna Klos, Carmen Blackwood, Henryk Dobslaw, Krzysztof Sośnica
Orals
| Tue, 09 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Room D2
Posters
| Attendance Wed, 10 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall X3

HS3 – Hydroinformatics

HS3.1

Hydroinformatics has emerged over the last decade to become a recognised and established field of independent research within the hydrological sciences. Hydroinformatics is concerned with the development and hydrological application of mathematical modelling, information technology, high-performance computing, systems science and computational intelligence tools. It provides the computer-based decision-support systems that are now entering more and more into the offices of consulting engineers, water authorities and government agencies. Tools for capturing data, on both a mega-scale and a milli-scale, are immense and still emerging. As a result we have to face the challenges of Big Data: large data sets, both in size and complexity. Methods and technologies for data handling, visualization and knowledge acquisition are more and more often referred to as Data Science.

The aim of this session is to provide an active forum in which to demonstrate and discuss the integration and appropriate application of emergent computational technologies in a hydrological modelling context. Topics of interest are expected to cover a broad spectrum of theoretical and practical activities that would be of interest to hydro-scientists and water-engineers. The main topics will address the following classes of methods and technologies:

* Predictive and analytical models based on the methods of statistics, computational intelligence and data science: neural networks, fuzzy systems, support vector machines, genetic programming, cellular automata, chaos theory, etc.
* Methods for the analysis of complex data sets, including remote sensing data: principal and independent component analysis, feature extraction, time series analysis, data-infilling, information theory, etc.
* Specific concepts and methods of Big Data and Data Science such as data thinning, data fusion, information integration
* Optimisation methods associated with heuristic search procedures: various types of genetic and evolutionary algorithms, randomised and adaptive search, ant colony, particle swarm optimisation, etc.
* Applications of systems analysis and optimisation in water resources
* Hybrid modelling involving different types of models both process-based and data-driven, combination of models (multi-models), etc.
* Data assimilation and model reduction in integrated modelling
* Novel methods of analysing model uncertainty and sensitivity
* Appropriate software architectures for linking different types of models and data sources
* Opportunities and challenges in using high-performance computing for terrestrial systems modelling.

Applications could belong to any area of hydrology or water resources: rainfall-runoff modelling, flow forecasting, sedimentation modelling, analysis of meteorological and hydrologic data sets, linkages between numerical weather prediction and hydrologic models, model calibration, model uncertainty, optimisation of water resources, etc.

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Convener: Dimitri Solomatine | Co-conveners: Ghada El Serafy, Amin Elshorbagy, Dawei Han, Adrian Pedrozo-Acuña, Wolfgang Kurtz, Jessica Keune
Orals
| Mon, 08 Apr, 08:30–12:30, 14:00–15:45
 
Room C
Posters
| Attendance Mon, 08 Apr, 16:15–18:00
 
Hall A
HS3.2

Many environmental and hydrological problems are spatial or temporal, or both in nature. Spatio-temporal analysis allows identifying and explaining large-scale anomalies which are useful for understanding hydrological characteristics and subsequently predicting hydrological events. Temporal information is sometimes limited; spatial information, on the other hand has increased in recent years due technological advances including the availability of remote sensing data. This development has motivated new research efforts to include data in model representation and analysis.

Geostatistics is the discipline that investigates the statistics of spatially extended variables. Spatio-temporal analysis is at the forefront of geostatistical research these days, and its impact is expected to increase in the future. This trend will be driven by increasing needs to advance risk assessment and management strategies for extreme events such as floods and droughts, and to support both short and long-term water management planning. Current trends and variability of hydrological extremes call for novel approaches of spatio-temporal and/or geostatistical analysis to assess, predict, and manage water related and/or interlinked hazards including the assessment of uncertainties.

The aim of this session is to provide a platform and an opportunity to demonstrate and discuss innovative applications and methodologies of spatio-temporal and/or geostatistical analysis in a hydrological context. The session is targeted at both hydrologists and statisticians interested in the spatial and temporal analysis of hydrological events, extremes, and related hazards, and it aims to provide a forum for researchers from a variety of fields to effectively communicate their research.

Given the broad scope of this session, the topics of interest include the following non-exclusive list of subjects:

1. Spatio-temporal methods for the analysis of hydrological, environmental and climate anomalies and/or related hazards.
2. New and innovative geostatistical applications in spatial modeling, spatio-temporal modeling, spatial reasoning and data mining.
3. Spatio-temporal and/or geostatistical methods with reduced computational complexity suitable for large-size hydrological problems.
4. Spatio-temporal dynamics of natural events (e.g. morphological changes, spatial displacement phenomena, other).
5. Generalization and optimization of spatial models including monitoring networks optimization.
6. Applications of copulas on the identification of spatio-temporal relationships.
7. Spatial switching and/or ensemble of models.
8. Spatial analysis and predictions using Gaussian and non-Gaussian models.
9. Spatial and spatio-temporal covariance application revealing links between hydrological variables and extremes.
10. Prediction on regions of unobserved or limited data where gridded and point simulated data from physical-based models is available.
11. Generalized extreme value distributions used to model extremes for spatial event analysis.
12. (Geostatistical) characterization of uncertainties.
13. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis.

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Convener: Emmanouil Varouchakis | Co-conveners: Gerald A Corzo P